Carnosine's role in muscle contraction (Homo sapiens)

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1, 21(Working) Muscle CellCarnosineCarnosinasecarnosine synthetasebeta-alaninecarnosinase2, 87Carcinine5, 6histamineHistidineCarnosineOphidineAnserineAcetylAnserine3Acetylcarnosine3HomocarnosineHomoanserinegamma-aminobutyric acid4


Carnosine is known to be an antioxidant, a metal chelator, a Ca(2+) and enzyme regulator. It also functions as an inhibitor of protein glycosylation and protein-protein cross-linking.

Carnosine has also been linked to overcoming muscle fatigue, and can only be transported into a working muscle cell. This pathway shows the main metabolites of carnosine and their relationship

with each other.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



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  1. Boldyrev AA, Severin SE; ''The histidine-containing dipeptides, carnosine and anserine: distribution, properties and biological significance.''; Adv Enzyme Regul, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Begum G, Cunliffe A, Leveritt M; ''Physiological role of carnosine in contracting muscle.''; Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. J.J. O'Dowd, D.J. Robins, D.J. Miller; ''Detection, characterization and quantification of carnosine and other histidyl derivatives in cardiac and skeletal muscle''; Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 967, pp. 241-249, 1988
  4. Dobrynina OV, Gorbunova AV; ''[Intensity of biosynthesis of anserine and carnosine by intact and denervated muscles in chickens].''; Biokhimiia, 1968 PubMed Europe PMC
  5. JF Lenney; ''Carnosinase and homocarnosinosis''; J. Oslo City Hospitals, 35, pp. 27-40, 1985
  6. Ferraris RP, Diamond J, Kwan WW; ''Dietary regulation of intestinal transport of the dipeptide carnosine.''; Am J Physiol, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Nagai K, Suda T; ''Realization of spontaneous healing function by carnosine.''; Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Pegova A, Abe H, Boldyrev A; ''Hydrolysis of carnosine and related compounds by mammalian carnosinases.''; Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC


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103721view15:59, 29 March 2019DeSlModified title
103134view19:36, 14 February 2019KhanspersModified description
102351view18:27, 20 December 2018EgonwFixed the data source.
102347view15:49, 20 December 2018DeSlAdded last ID for carnosine
102346view15:48, 20 December 2018DeSlOntology Term : 'muscle cell' added !
102345view15:47, 20 December 2018DeSlOntology Term : 'histidine degradation pathway' added !
102344view15:46, 20 December 2018DeSlModified description
102343view15:41, 20 December 2018DeSlAdded more lit. refs and transport of carnosine
102342view15:11, 20 December 2018DeSlAnnotated nodes, added reference for specific compounds location etc.
102341view14:55, 20 December 2018DeSlNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AcetylAnserineMetaboliteFound in Myocardial tissue
AcetylcarnosineMetaboliteQ4673297 (Wikidata) Found in Myocardial tissue
AnserineMetaboliteQ415335 (Wikidata)
CarcinineMetaboliteQ27892933 (PubChem-compound)
CarnosinaseProtein"present in many tissues (kidney, liver, plasma) with the exceptions of skeletal musculature"
CarnosineMetaboliteQ413822 (Wikidata)
HistidineMetaboliteQ485277 (Wikidata)
HomoanserineMetabolite20849429 (PubChem-compound)
HomocarnosineMetaboliteQ27158831 (Wikidata)
OphidineMetabolite90658938 (PubChem-compound) aka beta-alanyl-3-N-methylhistidine
beta-alanineMetaboliteQ310919 (Wikidata)
  • "Indispensable component of coenzyme A"
  • "Product of pyrimidine base degradation"
  • "Factor which stimulates collagen synthesis in tissues"
carnosinaseProtein3.4.13.3 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
  • Specific enzyme for carnosine breakdown (not specified in literature for which reaction).
  • "This enzyme is present in considerable quantity in many tissues (with the exception

    of skeletal musculature) and is especially abundant in the kidney, liver

    and blood plasma "
carnosine synthetaseProtein6.3.2.11 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
gamma-aminobutyric acidMetaboliteQ210021 (Wikidata)
histamineMetaboliteQ61233 (Wikidata)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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