Malate-aspartate shuttle (Homo sapiens)

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1, 2MitochondrionGOT2GLASTAspartatea-KetoglutarateGlutamateSLC25A11MDH1Oxalacetate(S)-malateAspartateGlutamateGOT2MDH1a-KetoglutarateOxalacetate(S)-malate


No description


GenMAPP remarks 
"The malate-aspartate shuttle (sometimes also the malate shuttle) is a biochemical system for translocating electrons produced during glycolysis across the semipermeable inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. These electrons enter the electron transport chain of the mitochondria via reduction equivalents to generate ATP. The shuttle system is required because the mitochondrial inner membrane is impermeable to NADH, the primary reducing equivalent of the electron transport chain. To circumvent this, malate carries the reducing equivalents across the membrane."

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Ontology Terms



  1. Wang YP, Zhou W, Wang J, Huang X, Zuo Y, Wang TS, Gao X, Xu YY, Zou SW, Liu YB, Cheng JK, Lei QY; ''Arginine Methylation of MDH1 by CARM1 Inhibits Glutamine Metabolism and Suppresses Pancreatic Cancer.''; Mol Cell, 2016 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Lu M, Zhou L, Stanley WC, Cabrera ME, Saidel GM, Yu X; ''Role of the malate-aspartate shuttle on the metabolic response to myocardial ischemia.''; J Theor Biol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


106798view13:27, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
97922view08:47, 25 June 2018MadeomugaNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
(S)-malateMetaboliteHMDB00156 (HMDB)
GLASTGeneProductENSG00000079215 (Ensembl)
GOT2GeneProductENSG00000125166 (Ensembl)
MDH1GeneProductENSG00000014641 (Ensembl)
Oxalacetate MetaboliteHMDB00223 (HMDB)
SLC25A11GeneProductENSG00000108528 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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