Spinal Cord Injury (Bos taurus)

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2722LTBLTB4LGALS3AQP1CD47FECHP1C1QBTNFSF13CDC42MIFPTPRZ1TNFSF13BLTB4RNONGFRPDYNAIF1OBAPEX1CSPG4PLXNA21931304744183853244343423Motor NeuronOligodendrocyteAstroctyeSpinal Cord InjuryTimePro-InflammatoryFactorsZFP36FCGR2CPRB1PTPRAIL1BZFP36INOSTNF28NR4A1IL4BTG2BTG2FBRCDK2NOS1IL2TNFIL6TLR4FOSIL1BTGFB1TLR4TNFEGR1FOSMMP12IFNGGlial ScarAstrocyte GliosisSwelling/EdemaMBPAntigens ReleasedRTN4C5GRO1Neutrophil Chemoattractants37, 40CXCL8NeurtrophilsMonocytesAQP410TTLegendTT:Therapeutic Target (increase)TTTTTT:Therapeutic Target (decrease)T-CellsB-CellsB Cell Stimulating2Activated Microglia/Macrophages(Transient)RepairIL1BINOSTNFARG1TOXIC FERROUSIRONFocal Adensions45, 51EPHA4TTEFNB2TTTTTTTTCXCL10Neuro protectionAntibody ReleaseNeuronalInjuryResponseAstrocyteInjuryResponseG1-S Cell Cycle Re-entry (TT)50CCNG1MicrogliaMicrogliaActivationAxonal RetractionRecruitmentRecruitmentMMP9TT17Chondroitin Sulfate ProteoglycansNCAN14SLIT1Axon RetractionSLIT214SLIT3NTN1RGMATTTTTTTTTTMMP917MMP9MMP917TT17TTTTCCR2IL1R1TT37ECM BreakdownECM BreakdownIL1AGRO1Monocyte Chemoattractants37, 40GRO1CCL2OligodendrocyteInjury ResponsePLA2G6PLA2G5PLA2G2AmelittinInflammationDemyelinationANXA19TTTTTTTTRed Blood CellsMyelinEndothelial LeukocyteAdehsion Factors20ICAM1SELPTTTTPlasticityKLK823TTMicrogliaActivated Microglia/MacrophagesActivated Microglia/MacrophagesGFAPTT17IntermediateFillament26CDK4NK1RE2F5RB1PRKCAE2F1MAPK1CCND1MYCGADD45AMAPK3TTTTTTAstroctyeNeuron & OligodendrocyteApoptosis/NecrosisMicrogliaProliferationTP53CytotoxicCytotoxicCHST11VCANCOL4A1XYLT1COL2A1ACANBCANGlial Scar FromationSOX9Axonal GrowthInhibition26IgG, IgMTP5333TTTTTTGRIN1VIM25TT16T Cell StimulatingFK5062PPP3CA1TTFK5068FK5068GAP43TTFK506Axonal Regeneration8FKBP1AIL2C3 ToxinC1Q and Fc receptive cellsMAGRTN4RHOARHOCRHOBROCK2OMGRTN4RLILRB311MyelinInjury ResponseArachidonic acidPGH2PGHS-246TT39ROS1NOX4bta-mir-23bOlomoucine52CDK1GDNF29TTSEMA6A44TTAxonal GrowthInhibitionGJA148ATP-ReleaseTTBDNFTTImmediate Response Genes502-Methoxyestradiol30TTRAC1TTTTAstroctyeFOXO3TT13CDKN1B13TTN2 Glial Precursor12EGFRPD 168393TT634CASP3TTTT


This pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that involves the regulation of gene expression and signaling in motor neurons, oligodentrocytes, microglia, and astrocytes that trigger immediate immune responses lasting several weeks. Within 24 hours, chemoattractants and cytokines released from the site of injury activate neutrophils which further recruit B and T cells or recruit monocytes that ultimately result in infiltration and activation by microglia and macrophages. These immune responses result in inflammation, excitotoxicity, cell death, formation of glial scar, and suppression of axonal regeneration. An increase in the expression of cell cycle genes further results in proliferation of astrocytes and microglia that leads to apoptosis and necrosis of oligodentrocytes and neurons. An example therapy is the administration of the immunosuppressant FK506, also used in transplantation to offer neuroprotection.


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP2431(80343) with a 97.0% conversion rate.

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