Neurotoxicity of clostridium toxins (Homo sapiens)

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3, 12, 23, 24, 29...30303026, 30, 37, 42, 5518, 1929, 33, 415, 17, 3129, 33, 4130, 38, 49, 5530, 42, 551, 21, 30, 5515, 30, 38, 48, 5530, 42, 5529, 332, 10301, 21, 28, 3024, 39, 43296, 8, 31297, 30, 45, 553526, 30, 37, 42, 5518, 22, 463030, 49, 51, 5529, 33, 4115, 30, 48, 5512304, 24, 3911, 3229, 33, 41, 5235, 3616, 24, 397, 34, 50292730cytosolcytosolclathrin-coated endocytic vesiclesynaptic vesicle lumenendocytic vesiclesynaptic vesicle lumenNTNHABoNT/F:SV2:GT1bNTNHA Zn2+ BoNT/A LC disulfide bonded STX1(?-288)BoNT/E:SV2:GT1bBoNT/B HC disulfide bonded SV2B SV2C BoNT/E:NTNHAVAMP1STX1B(1-?) BoNT/C:GT1bBoNT/A LC:Zn2+Zn2+ BoNT/B HC disulfide bonded NTNHA SV2B SV2A BoNT/E HCSTX1A SNAP25(1-198)STX1B(?-288) STX1BoNT/C HCH+GT1b Zn2+ BoNT/G HC disulfide bonded Zn2+ BoNT/A LC disulfide bonded BoNT/D LC disulfide bonded GD3TeNT HC disulfide bonded BoNT/D LC disulfide bonded SV2B SYT1 SYT1NTNHATeNT LC disulfide bonded H+SV2B STX1A(?-288) VAMP2(77-116)Zn2+ GM1aGM1aGD2 SYT1,2SV2A,B,CBoNT/D LC BoNT/D HC disulfide bonded SV2A,B,CZn2+ BoNT/F:SV2:GT1bBoNT/D:SV2:GD2H+BoNT/E HC disulfide bonded BoNT/A HCBoNT/C LC disulfide bonded SYT2 GM1a BoNT/E LC disulfide bonded SV2C BoNT/G LC disulfide bonded Zn2+ GT1bSNAP25BoNT/F HC disulfide bonded SYT1 BoNT/E HC disulfide bonded GT1bGT1b Zn2+ BoNT/B HCSV2B BoNT/F HC disulfide bonded SV2A SV2A,B,CZn2+ VAMP1(1-61)Zn2+ VAMP2(77-116)BoNT/D HC:LC dimerha17 BoNT/F LC disulfide bonded Zn2+ TeNT LC:Zn2+SV2A BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bGT1bZn2+ TeNT:gangliosidesZn2+ BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bTeNT:gangliosidesBoNT/E LC disulfide bonded BoNT/A HC:LC dimerBoNT/C HC disulfide bonded Zn2+ BoNT/G:SYT1:GT1bVAMP1(62-118)GT1b STX1B GT1b SV2C BoNT/D HC disulfide bonded GT1b GD3 BoNT/G LC VAMP2(2-81)BoNT/D LC:Zn2+SYT1,2Zn2+ SV2A,B,CSTX1(1-?)SNAP25SV2A BoNT/G:SYT1:GT1bZn2+ GT1b BoNT/B:NTNHA:HAZn2+ GM1a Zn2+ SV2C BoNT/D HC disulfide bonded GT1bGT1b BoNT/F LC disulfide bonded GT1b GT1b SNAP25(198-206)SV2C BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bTeNT HC disulfide bonded BoNT/E HC disulfide bonded SV2A GT1bGT1bGT1b SYT2 Zn2+ Zn2+ VAMP2(59-116)BoNT/B LC GM1a SNAP25(1-197)Zn2+ SYT1 H+BoNT/C HC:LC dimerTeNT:gangliosidesZn2+ ha70 BoNT/C LC disulfide bonded TeNT HC disulfide bonded H+BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bSV2A,BBoNT/A HC disulfide bonded SV2B SV2C BoNT/F HC:LC dimerha17BoNT/F LC VAMP2(2-76)SV2B SNAP25(199-206)SV2B BoNT/F LC:Zn2+TeNT LC SV2B BoNT/C LC SYT2 STX1A(1-?) SV2B SV2C BoNT/F HCBoNT/G LC disulfide bonded VAMP1(1-83)SV2A SV2A,BSNAP25(199-206)SV2B SV2A Zn2+ VAMP1VAMP1(84-118)BoNT/A HC disulfide bonded BoNT/B HC disulfide bonded Zn2+ BoNT/A LC H+VAMP2(60-116)SV2C BoNT/A:NTNHA:HASV2A VAMP2(2-76)GD2SNAP25SV2B SV2A BoNT/B HC:LC dimerBoNT/C LC disulfide bonded Zn2+ BoNT/G HC disulfide bonded TeNT LC disulfide bonded GD2 BoNT/D:SV2:GD2BoNT/B LC:Zn2+Zn2+ TeNT LC disulfide bonded SYT1 BoNT/E LC SYT2 BoNT/G HCBoNT/A HC disulfide bonded SV2A Zn2+ ha33 ha33 Zn2+ BoNT/D HCBoNT/G LC disulfide bonded SV2C BoNT/B LC disulfide bonded SV2A GD2TeNT LC disulfide bonded BoNT/E HC:LC dimerBoNT/G LC:Zn2+Zn2+ VAMP2(82-116)BoNT/F LC disulfide bonded BoNT/E:SV2:GT1bZn2+ GT1bTeNT HC:LC dimerSV2A VAMP1(1-60)ha70GT1bZn2+ GD3 SV2A Zn2+ SYT1 SYT1SV2A,B,CGD3 VAMP1(61-118)SV2A BoNT/A LC disulfide bonded VAMP2(2-58)TeNT HC disulfide bonded SYT1 BoNT/C HC disulfide bonded H+NTNHA BoNT/A HC disulfide bonded BoNT/E LC disulfide bonded BoNT/F HC disulfide bonded BoNT/E HC disulfide bonded VAMP2(2-59)GT1b SNAP25(1-198)BoNT/C:GT1bZn2+ Zn2+ BoNT/C HC disulfide bonded TeNT HCSV2B ha33GT1b GT1bBoNT/B LC disulfide bonded ha17 SV2C GT1bSV2A BoNT/B LC disulfide bonded SV2B GD3BoNT/A LC disulfide bonded BoNT/G HC:LC dimerVAMP2SV2B GT1bSV2C BoNT/E LC disulfide bonded VAMP2Zn2+ SV2A BoNT/E LC:Zn2+Zn2+ BoNT/B HC disulfide bonded ha70 SV2A,B,CBoNT/C LC:Zn2+VAMP2H+VAMP2SV2B BoNT/G HC disulfide bonded BoNT/D LC disulfide bonded BoNT/B LC disulfide bonded SV2C 1, 2114, 47925, 501, 2114, 47401, 2149, 51404349, 5120, 5022407, 45421313274519, 42913814, 471337422538920131320, 36, 5014, 476, 3142404017, 312794038, 481313940382, 104220820132089940, 4614, 474040913131640377, 4514, 471, 21403837, 42511, 32204429201320, 36, 5014, 4737, 42387, 4597, 452014, 471314, 472038, 4820, 35, 36, 50913


Clostridial neurotoxins, when taken up by human neurons, block synaptic transmission by cleaving proteins required for the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. They are remarkably efficient so that very small doses cause paralysis of an affected person (Lalli et al. 2003; Turton et al. 2002). All characterized clostridial neurotoxins are synthesized as products of chromosomal, plasmid or prophage-borne bacterial genes. The nascent toxin may be cleaved into light (LC) and heavy (HC) chain moieties that remain attached by noncovalent interactions and a disulfide bond (Turton et al. 2002).

Strains of Clostridium botulinum produce seven serologically distinct toxins, BoNT/A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. An eighth toxin, BoNT/H has recently been identified (Barash & Arnon 2014) but its molecular properties have not yet been described. Human poisoning most commonly result from ingestion of toxin contaminated food. More rarely, it is due to wound infection or clostridial colonization of the gut of an infant whose own gut flora have not yet developed or of an older individual whose flora have been suppressed. While all seven characterized toxins can cleave human target proteins, three, BoNT/A, B, and E, are most commonly associated with human disease (Hatheway 1995; Sakaguchi 1982). BoNT/F is also able to cause human botulism.<p>Once ingested, the botulinum toxin must be taken up from the gut lumen into the circulation, a process mediated by four accessory proteins. These proteins form a complex that mediates transcytosis of the toxin molecule across the gut epithelium, allowing its entry into the circulation. The accessory proteins produced by different C. botulinum strains differ in their affinities for polarized epithelia of different species (e.g., human versus canine), and may thus be a key factor in human susceptibility to the toxins of strains A, B, and E and resistance to the others (Simpson 2004).<p>Clostridium tetani produces TeNT toxin. Human poisoning is the result of toxin secretion by bacteria growing in an infected wound and the toxin is released directly into the circulation.<p>Circulating clostridial toxins are taken up by neurons at neuromuscular junctions. They bind to specific gangliosides (BoNT/C, TeNT) or to both gangliosides and synaptic vesicle proteins (BoNT/A, B, D G) exposed on the neuronal plasma membrane during vesicle exocytosis (Montal 2010). All seven characterized forms of BoNT are thought to be taken up into synaptic vesicles as these re-form at the neuromuscular junction. These vesicles remain close to the site of uptake and are rapidly re-loaded with neurotransmitter and acidified (Sudhoff 2004). TeNT, in contrast, is taken up into clathrin coated vesicles that reach the neuron cell body by retrograde transport and then possibly other neurons before undergoing acidification. Vesicle acidification causes a conformational change in the toxin, allowing its HC part to function as a channel through which its LC part is extruded into the neuronal cytosol. The HC - LC disulfide bond is cleaved and the cytosolic LC functions as a zinc metalloprotease to cleave specific bonds in proteins on the cytosolic faces of synaptic vesicles and plasma membranes that normally mediate exocytosis (Lalli et al. 2003; Montal 2010). View original pathway at:Reactome.</div>


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Reactome Author: Krupa, S, Gopinathrao, G

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113137view11:20, 2 November 2020ReactomeTeamReactome version 74
112368view15:30, 9 October 2020ReactomeTeamReactome version 73
101270view11:16, 1 November 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 66
100808view20:44, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 65
100349view19:21, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 64
99894view16:04, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 63
99451view14:38, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62 (2nd attempt)
99115view12:40, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62
93784view13:36, 16 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
93317view11:20, 9 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
87757view09:56, 25 July 2016RyanmillerOntology Term : 'disease pathway' added !
87755view09:56, 25 July 2016RyanmillerOntology Term : 'infectious disease pathway' added !
87752view09:53, 25 July 2016RyanmillerOntology Term : 'bacterial infectious disease' added !
86402view09:17, 11 July 2016ReactomeTeamreactome version 56
83321view10:46, 18 November 2015ReactomeTeamVersion54
81748view09:47, 26 August 2015ReactomeTeamVersion53
76848view08:07, 17 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
76552view11:53, 16 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
75885view09:54, 11 June 2014ReactomeTeamRe-fixing comment source
75585view10:42, 10 June 2014ReactomeTeamReactome 48 Update
74940view13:46, 8 May 2014AnweshaFixing comment source for displaying WikiPathways description
74584view08:37, 30 April 2014ReactomeTeamNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
BoNT/A HC disulfide bonded ProteinP10845 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/A HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5228590 (Reactome)
BoNT/A HCProteinP10845 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/A LC ProteinP10845 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/A LC disulfide bonded ProteinP10845 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/A LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190017 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:NTNHA:HAComplexR-CBO-5228604 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5244411 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5244507 (Reactome)
BoNT/B HC disulfide bonded ProteinP10844 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/B HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5228599 (Reactome)
BoNT/B HCProteinP10844 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/B LC ProteinP10844 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/B LC disulfide bonded ProteinP10844 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/B LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190016 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:NTNHA:HAComplexR-CBO-5228681 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5244408 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5244502 (Reactome)
BoNT/C HC disulfide bonded ProteinP18640 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/C HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5246516 (Reactome)
BoNT/C HCProteinP18640 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/C LC ProteinP18640 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/C LC disulfide bonded ProteinP18640 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/C LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190018 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5246508 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5246513 (Reactome)
BoNT/D HC disulfide bonded ProteinP19321 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/D HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5250523 (Reactome)
BoNT/D HCProteinP19321 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/D LC ProteinP19321 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/D LC disulfide bonded ProteinP19321 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/D LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190038 (Reactome)
BoNT/D:SV2:GD2ComplexR-CBO-5250603 (Reactome)
BoNT/D:SV2:GD2ComplexR-CBO-5250612 (Reactome)
BoNT/E HC disulfide bonded ProteinQ00496 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/E HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5228686 (Reactome)
BoNT/E HCProteinQ00496 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/E LC ProteinQ00496 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/E LC disulfide bonded ProteinQ00496 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/E LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190047 (Reactome)
BoNT/E:NTNHAComplexR-CBO-5228688 (Reactome)
BoNT/E:SV2:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5244509 (Reactome)
BoNT/E:SV2:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5244512 (Reactome)
BoNT/F HC disulfide bonded ProteinP30996 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/F HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5250693 (Reactome)
BoNT/F HCProteinP30996 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/F LC ProteinP30996 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/F LC disulfide bonded ProteinP30996 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/F LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190042 (Reactome)
BoNT/F:SV2:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5250879 (Reactome)
BoNT/F:SV2:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5250883 (Reactome)
BoNT/G HC disulfide bonded ProteinQ60393 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/G HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5250691 (Reactome)
BoNT/G HCProteinQ60393 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/G LC ProteinQ60393 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/G LC disulfide bonded ProteinQ60393 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/G LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190032 (Reactome)
BoNT/G:SYT1:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5250975 (Reactome)
BoNT/G:SYT1:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5250976 (Reactome)
GD2 MetaboliteCHEBI:28648 (ChEBI)
GD2MetaboliteCHEBI:28648 (ChEBI)
GD3 MetaboliteCHEBI:28424 (ChEBI)
GD3MetaboliteCHEBI:28424 (ChEBI)
GM1a MetaboliteCHEBI:18216 (ChEBI)
GM1aMetaboliteCHEBI:18216 (ChEBI)
GT1b MetaboliteCHEBI:60913 (ChEBI)
GT1bMetaboliteCHEBI:60913 (ChEBI)
H+MetaboliteCHEBI:15378 (ChEBI)
NTNHA ProteinQ9LBS8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NTNHAProteinQ9LBS8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SNAP25(1-197)ProteinP60880 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SNAP25(1-198)ProteinP60880 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SNAP25(198-206)ProteinP60880 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SNAP25(199-206)ProteinP60880 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SNAP25ProteinP60880 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1(1-?)ComplexR-HSA-5250515 (Reactome)
STX1(?-288)ComplexR-HSA-5250513 (Reactome)
STX1A ProteinQ16623 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1A(1-?) ProteinQ16623 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1A(?-288) ProteinQ16623 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1B ProteinP61266 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1B(1-?) ProteinP61266 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1B(?-288) ProteinP61266 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1ComplexR-HSA-5250514 (Reactome)
SV2A ProteinQ7L0J3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SV2A,B,CComplexR-HSA-5324682 (Reactome)
SV2A,B,CComplexR-HSA-5324684 (Reactome)
SV2A,BComplexR-HSA-5324689 (Reactome)
SV2A,BComplexR-HSA-5324690 (Reactome)
SV2B ProteinQ7L1I2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SV2C ProteinQ496J9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SYT1 ProteinP21579 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SYT1,2ComplexR-HSA-5324683 (Reactome)
SYT1,2ComplexR-HSA-5324686 (Reactome)
SYT1ProteinP21579 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SYT2 ProteinQ8N9I0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TeNT HC disulfide bonded ProteinP04958 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TeNT HC:LC dimerComplexR-CTE-5228372 (Reactome)
TeNT HCProteinP04958 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TeNT LC ProteinP04958 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TeNT LC disulfide bonded ProteinP04958 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TeNT LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CTE-5228371 (Reactome)
TeNT:gangliosidesComplexR-CTE-5228368 (Reactome)
TeNT:gangliosidesComplexR-CTE-5228374 (Reactome)
TeNT:gangliosidesComplexR-CTE-5228403 (Reactome)
VAMP1(1-60)ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP1(1-61)ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP1(1-83)ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP1(61-118)ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP1(62-118)ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP1(84-118)ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP1ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(2-58)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(2-59)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(2-76)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(2-81)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(59-116)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(60-116)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(77-116)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(82-116)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Zn2+ MetaboliteCHEBI:29105 (ChEBI)
ha17 ProteinQ45878 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ha17ProteinQ45878 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ha33 ProteinQ57230 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ha33ProteinQ57230 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ha70 ProteinQ45877 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ha70ProteinQ45877 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)

Annotated Interactions

View all...
SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
BoNT/A HC:LC dimerArrowR-HSA-5228943 (Reactome)
BoNT/A HC:LC dimerR-HSA-5244415 (Reactome)
BoNT/A HCArrowR-HSA-5244428 (Reactome)
BoNT/A LC:Zn2+ArrowR-HSA-5244428 (Reactome)
BoNT/A LC:Zn2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-194818 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:NTNHA:HAR-HSA-5228943 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bArrowR-HSA-5244415 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bArrowR-HSA-5244424 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bR-HSA-5244424 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bR-HSA-5244428 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bmim-catalysisR-HSA-5244428 (Reactome)
BoNT/B HC:LC dimerArrowR-HSA-5228940 (Reactome)
BoNT/B HC:LC dimerR-HSA-5244397 (Reactome)
BoNT/B HCArrowR-HSA-5244404 (Reactome)
BoNT/B LC:Zn2+ArrowR-HSA-5244404 (Reactome)
BoNT/B LC:Zn2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-194796 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:NTNHA:HAR-HSA-5228940 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bArrowR-HSA-5244397 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bArrowR-HSA-5244402 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bR-HSA-5244402 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bR-HSA-5244404 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bmim-catalysisR-HSA-5244404 (Reactome)
BoNT/C HC:LC dimerR-HSA-5246506 (Reactome)
BoNT/C HCArrowR-HSA-5246514 (Reactome)
BoNT/C LC:Zn2+ArrowR-HSA-5246514 (Reactome)
BoNT/C LC:Zn2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-181567 (Reactome)
BoNT/C LC:Zn2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-194793 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bArrowR-HSA-5246506 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bArrowR-HSA-5246509 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bR-HSA-5246509 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bR-HSA-5246514 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bmim-catalysisR-HSA-5246514 (Reactome)
BoNT/D HC:LC dimerR-HSA-5250607 (Reactome)