Glycerophospholipid Biosynthetic Pathway (Homo sapiens)

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45, 53, 181, 226Shark liver oil1-Alkenyl-2-acyl-glycerophosphocholine1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine43, 73, 91, 111, 151...1-Alkyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate54, 158, 2091-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(Plasmanylcholine)25152, 61, 3001-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate(Plasmanic acid)1-alkenyl-2-acylglycero-phosphoethanolamineAcylglycerone-phosphate reductaseEC, 17, 59, 94, 141...32, 252Acyl-CoA:EC 2.3.1.-1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate phosphatase(Phosphatidate phosphatase)EC desaturase)EC, 139, 179, 216, 241...141, 163CDP-choline:1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine transferase(Diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase)EC group transferasaEC 2.6.-.-1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerolNADPH + H+153NADP(Coenzyme II)Acyl-CoACoA-SHPiCytidine diphosphate ethanolamine(CDP-ethanolamine)CMPO2 + NADH + H+2H2OCytochrome bCDP-cholineCMPCholineEthanolamine1-Alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate219Alkylglycerophosphate 2-O-acetyltransferaseEC, 138, 227, 236PiAcetyl-CoACoA-SHAlkylacetylglycerophosphataseEC, 27, 178, 219Diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase(Cholinephosphotransferase 1)EC, 90, 2461-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(Platelet Activating Factor, PAF)30, 39, 95, 103, 161...S-Adenosylmethionine(AdoMet)S-Adenosylhomocysteine(AdoHcy)N-MethyltransferaseEC 2.1.1.-Phospholipase CEC phosphateEthanolamine-phosphotransferaseEC, 74, 79, 128, 256...CDP-ethanolamineCDP-cholineCMP1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(Lyso PAF)Phospholipase A2EC, 272Acyl group34, 41, 42, 115, 184...1-Alkylglycerophosphocholine O-acetyltransferaseEC, 140, 157, 186, 201...Acetyl-CoACoA-SH1-Alkyl-sn-glycerol153Alkylglycerol kinaseEC chain fatty alcohol)CholineCDP-choline37, 117, 136, 145, 242...triacyl-sn-glycerol(Triacylglycerol; TAG)21, 51, 97, 101, 122...Adenosine triphosphate(ATP)sn-glycerol-3-phosphate(glycerol-3-P)20, 35, 87, 104, 1981,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate(Phosphatidic acid; PA)PPi88, 92, 247, 261NAD+(Coenzyme I)Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+)EC Metabolism38, 112, 114, 124, 183Fatty acyl-CoADihydroxyacetone phosphate36, 1021,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol(1,2-diacylglycerol; 1,2-DAG)Glycerol57, 98, 173, 218NADH + H+Fatty acid MetabolismPhosphocholine(Choline-P)37, 671,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(PC, Lecithin)4, 18, 37, 50, 174...CoA-SH2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate(Lysophosphatidic acid; LPA)Glycolysis13, 65, 81, 99, 130...Adenosine diphosphate(ADP)CTPPiATPADPGlycerol kinaseEC O-acyltransferaseEC 2-O-acyltransferaseEC coenzyme A(Acyl-CoA)69, 82, 123, 147, 192...Coenzyme A(CoA-SH)Phosphatidate phosphataseEC, 78, 121, 142, 169...Acyl coenzyme A(Acyl-CoA)Coenzyme A(CoA-SH)Phosphatidate cytidylyltransferaseEC triphosphate(CTP)148, 197, 233, 294PPiCholine kinaseEC, 96, 117, 143, 187...Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferaseEC cholinephosphotransferaseEC, 154, 199, 2201, 48, 63, 80, 132...Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferaseEC (S-adenosylhomocysteine)3, 44, 125, 239, 260...CMPAlkyldihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase(Alkyl-DHAP synthase)EC phosphate(Octanoyl DHAP)12, 55, 76, 86, 93...70, 193, 208, 2101-Acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate(Acyl-DHAP)190, 290Coenzyme A(CoA-SH)R'-COOHDihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferaseEC, 109, 113, 177, 189...1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-sn-glycerol)(PG)14, 105, 118, 267Cardiolipin(DPG, CL)7, 16, 22, 31, 56...PiInositolPhosphatidylinositol3,4,5-triphosphate[PIP3(3',4',5')]116, 149, 165, 237, 2701,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-myo-inositol)(PI)Cytidine monophosphate(CMP)15, 24, 258, 2661,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-sn-glycero-phosphate)(PGP)1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-cytidine-5'-diphosphate(CDP-DAG, CMP-PA)1D-myo-Inositol-1-P2, 77Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate[PIP2(4',5')]D-Glucose-6-P84, 108, 131, 149, 202...Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate(PIP)Glycerol-3-P9, 83, 202, 229, 255CMPATPADPATPADPATPADPCDP-diacylglycerol-glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferaseEC, 89, 133, 167, 240PhosphatidylglycerophosphataseEC, 200Cardiolipin synthaseEC 2.7.8.-215, 225CDP-DAGCMPCDP-diacylglyreol-inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferaseEC, 23, 110, 120, 1641-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinaseEC, 71, 171, 214, 228...1-phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinaseEC, 127, 194, 291Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinaseEC,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine(PS)33, 47, 64, 107, 135...Phosphorylethanolamine621,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine(PE)85, 107, 129, 146, 150...3 (S-adenosyl-methionine)EthanolamineSerineCytidine diphosphate ethanolamine(CDP-ethanolamine)6, 46, 49, 68, 259CMPATPADPCTPPPiEthanolamineDiacylglycerol O-acyltransferaseEC, 100, 175, 203, 253...Ethanolamine kinaseEC cytidylyltransferaseEC, 155, 238, 265EthanolaminephosphotransferaseEC phosphatidyltransferaseEC, 26, 74, 79, 206...33, 107GlycolysisBiosynthesis pathwaysDegradation pathwaysPathway origin


Glycerophospholipids or phosphoglycerides, in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids joined to glycerol; and sphingolipids, in which a single fatty acid is joined to a fatty amine, sphingosine, are glycerol-based phospholipids and the main component of biological membranes. The hydrophilic moieties in these amphipathic compounds may be as a simple as a single -OH at one end of the sterol ring system, or they may be more complex. Glycerophospholipds, as well as sphingolipids, contained polar or charged alcohols at their polar ends; some also contain phosphate groups.

In glycerophospholipids, two fatty acids are ester-linked to glycerol at C-1 and C-2, and a highly polar or charged (and therefore hydrophilic) head group is attached to C-3 through a phosphodiester bond. All glycerophospholipds are derivatives of phosphatidic acid and are named for their polar head groups (e.g., phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine). All have a negative charge on the phosphate group at pH 7.0. The head-goup alcohol may also contribute one or more charges at pH near 7.0. The fatty acids in glycerophospholipds can be any of a wide variety. They are different in different species, in different tissues of the same species, and in different types of glycerophospholipids in the same cell or tissue. In general, glycerophospholipids contain a saturated fatty acid at C-1 and an unsaturated fatty acid at C-2, and, in general terms, the fatty acyl groups are generally 16 or 18 carbons long.

Eukaryotic membranes contain significant amounts of two other types of glycerophospholipids: Plasmalogens and Alkylacylglycerophospholipids. Plasmalogens contain a hydrocarbon chain linked to glycerol C-1 via vinyl ether linkage whereas alkylacylglycerophospholipids the alkyl substituent at glycerol C-1 is attached via an ether linkage. About 20% of mammalian glycerophospholipids are plasmalogens, this percentage varies both from species to species and from tissue to tissue within a given organism. While plasmalogens comprise only about 0.8% of the phospholipids in human liver, they account for around 23% of those in human nervous tissue. The alkylacylglycerophospholipids are less abundant than the plasmalogens, e.g., about 59% of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids of human heart are plasmalogens, whereas only 3.6% are alkylacylglycerophospholipids. However, in bovine erythrocytes, 75% of the ethanolamine glycerophospholipids are of alkylacyl type.

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107760view16:15, 1 November 2019DeSlOntology Term : 'phosphatidylcholine metabolic pathway' added !
107759view16:14, 1 November 2019DeSlOntology Term : 'phosphoinositide metabolic pathway' added !
107758view16:12, 1 November 2019DeSlOntology Term : 'PW:0001156' removed !
107757view16:11, 1 November 2019DeSlUpdated all curved lines for side metabolites to MIMconversion pointing to/away from anchor.
107756view15:48, 1 November 2019DeSlUpdated IDs for EC (bottom right corner).
107755view09:55, 1 November 2019DeSlUpdated top half of PW, so side metabolites are connected to anchors.
107754view09:49, 1 November 2019DeSlAdded separate IDs for proteins under EC .
107753view09:31, 1 November 2019DeSlChanged 2- to "1-" in 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (Lysophosphatidic acid; LPA) (reaction otherwise doesn't occure in humans.
107133view14:21, 17 September 2019MaintBotChEBI identifier normalization
106718view13:15, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
106449view11:34, 29 August 2019DeSlUpdated LipidMaps ID for TAG.
105333view12:05, 31 July 2019EgonwThe class, not the reference lipid.
98235view12:32, 14 August 2018EgonwReplace a PubChem SID with a ChEBI ID.
98103view11:11, 20 July 2018DeSlOntology Term : 'glycerophospholipid metabolic pathway' added !
95594view14:18, 5 January 2018DeSlChanged part of the layout for readability of this pathway.
93096view15:17, 28 July 2017DeSlChanged all the PubChem Substance ID's (around 13) to more stereospecific IDs.
93077view08:52, 28 July 2017ElisaFixed unconnected lines and changed arrows in the legend from interactions to graphical elements
93029view16:02, 26 July 2017DeSlChanged hydrate ID from PubChem compounds to correct HMDB ID for D-glucose-6-P
92861view15:19, 10 July 2017EgonwFixed PubChem compound ID (was salt, now pure compound).
85647view17:10, 4 June 2016EgonwFixed the PubChem SID.
84117view10:00, 16 January 2016EgonwFixed a typo in the label.
83825view11:17, 14 December 2015EgonwRemoved data source info from identifiers.
76320view07:17, 2 July 2014Mkutmonadded chebi identifiers to metabolites annotated with GO terms
71989view11:13, 24 October 2013MkutmonChanged Unknown -> Metabolite for 3 (S-adenosyl-methionine) and 3 (S-adenosylhomocysteine)
71699view19:49, 17 October 2013MaintBotUpdated data sources
70448view22:31, 1 August 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70447view22:21, 1 August 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70404view16:13, 29 July 2013AmanzoWork in progress
70403view16:07, 29 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70390view16:04, 26 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70389view23:52, 25 July 2013AmanzoWork in progress
70388view23:42, 25 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70387view23:32, 25 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70384view17:34, 23 July 2013AmanzoWork in progress
70381view23:33, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70380view23:22, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70379view23:12, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70378view23:02, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70377view22:52, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70376view22:42, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70375view22:32, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70374view22:21, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70373view22:11, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70372view22:01, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70371view21:51, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70370view21:41, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70369view00:17, 21 July 2013AmanzoWork in progress
70368view00:14, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70367view00:04, 21 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress
70366view23:53, 20 July 2013AmanzoPeriodical save, work in progress

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
(Plasmanylethanolamine desaturase) EC (Enzyme Nomenclature) 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophoethanolamine desaturase
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-cytidine-5'-diphosphate (CDP-DAG, CMP-PA)MetaboliteLMGP13010000 (LIPID MAPS)
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (Phosphatidic acid; PA)MetaboliteLMGP10010000 (LIPID MAPS)
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-myo-inositol) (PI)MetaboliteLMGP06010000 (LIPID MAPS)
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-sn-glycero-phosphate) (PGP)
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-sn-glycerol) (PG)MetaboliteLMGP04010000 (LIPID MAPS)
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC, Lecithin)MetaboliteLMGP01010000 (LIPID MAPS)
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (PE)MetaboliteLMGP02010000 (LIPID MAPS)
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (PS)MetaboliteLMGP03010000 (LIPID MAPS)
1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (1,2-diacylglycerol; 1,2-DAG)MetaboliteLMGL02010000 (LIPID MAPS)
1-Acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate (Acyl-DHAP)MetaboliteHMDB11750 (HMDB)


Metabolite17810 (ChEBI) (Plasmenylcholine)
1-Alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:17555 (ChEBI)
1-Alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerolMetabolite16291 (ChEBI)
1-Alkyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphateMetabolite17106 (ChEBI)
1-Alkyl-sn-glycerolMetabolite15850 (ChEBI)
1-Alkyldihydroxyacetone phosphate (Octanoyl DHAP)Metabolite53481029 (PubChem-compound)
1-Alkylglycerophosphocholine O-acetyltransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)


Metabolite17476 (ChEBI) (Plasmenylethanolamine)
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (Platelet Activating Factor, PAF)MetaboliteCHEBI:36707 (ChEBI)


MetaboliteCHEBI:36712 (ChEBI) (Plasmanylethanolamine)
1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate phosphatase

(Phosphatidate phosphatase)

ProteinQ92539 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (Plasmanylcholine)MetaboliteCHEBI:36702 (ChEBI)
1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (Plasmanic acid)MetaboliteCHEBI:37296 (ChEBI)
1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerolMetabolite17756737 (PubChem-compound)
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (Lyso PAF)MetaboliteCHEBI:36702 (ChEBI)
1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
1-phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
1D-myo-Inositol-1-PMetabolite5288642 (PubChem-compound)
2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (Lysophosphatidic acid; LPA)MetaboliteLMGP10050000 (LIPID MAPS)
2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase EC (Enzyme Nomenclature)
3 (S-adenosyl-methionine)Metabolite34756 (PubChem-compound)
3 (S-adenosylhomocysteine)Metabolite439155 (PubChem-compound)
ADPMetabolite6022 (PubChem-compound)
ATPMetabolite5957 (PubChem-compound)
Acetyl-CoAMetabolite444493 (PubChem-compound)
Acyl coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA)Metabolite17984 (ChEBI)
Acyl groupMetabolite
Acyl-CoA: EC 2.3.1.-Protein2.3.1.- (Enzyme Nomenclature) 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase
Acyl-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:17984 (ChEBI)
Acylglycerone-phosphate reductase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL) (1-alkyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase)
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)Metabolite6022 (PubChem-compound)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)Metabolite5957 (PubChem-compound)
Alkylacetylglycerophosphatase EC (Enzyme Nomenclature)
Alkyldihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase

(Alkyl-DHAP synthase)

ProteinO00116 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Alkylglycerol kinase EC (Enzyme Nomenclature)
Alkylglycerophosphate 2-O-acetyltransferase EC (Enzyme Nomenclature)
CDP-DAGMetaboliteLMGP13010000 (LIPID MAPS)
CDP-cholineMetabolite49086 (ChEBI)
CDP-choline:1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine transferase

(Diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase)

ProteinQ9Y6K0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CDP-diacylglycerol-glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CDP-diacylglyreol-inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CDP-ethanolamineMetabolite123727 (PubChem-compound)


ProteinQ92539 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphoethanolamine transferase
CMPMetabolite6131 (PubChem-compound)
CTPMetabolite6176 (PubChem-compound)
Cardiolipin (DPG, CL)MetaboliteCHEBI:28494 (ChEBI)
Cardiolipin synthase EC 2.7.8.-ProteinQ9UJA2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Choline kinase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CholineMetabolite305 (PubChem-compound)
CoA-SHMetabolite6816 (PubChem-compound)
Coenzyme A (CoA-SH)Metabolite6816 (PubChem-compound)
Cytidine diphosphate ethanolamine (CDP-ethanolamine)Metabolite123727 (PubChem-compound)
Cytidine monophosphate (CMP)Metabolite6131 (PubChem-compound)
Cytidine triphosphate (CTP)Metabolite6176 (PubChem-compound)
Cytochrome bProteinIPR005797 (InterPro)
D-Glucose-6-PMetaboliteHMDB03498 (HMDB)
Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase

(Cholinephosphotransferase 1)

ProteinP17898 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Dihydroxyacetone phosphateMetabolite668 (PubChem-compound)
Ethanolamine kinase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Ethanolamine phosphateMetabolite1015 (PubChem-compound)


ProteinQ9Y6K0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
EthanolamineMetabolite700 (PubChem-compound)
Ethanolaminephosphotransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Fatty acid MetabolismPathway00071 (KEGG Pathway)
Fatty acyl-CoAMetaboliteLMFA07050000 (LIPID MAPS)
Glycerol kinase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Glycerol-3-PMetabolite7048686 (PubChem-compound)
Glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GlycerolMetabolite753 (PubChem-compound)
GlycolysisPathway00010 (KEGG Pathway)
InositolMetabolite892 (PubChem-compound)
L-serine-phosphatidylethanolamine phosphatidyltransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
N-Methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.-Protein2.1.1.- (Enzyme Nomenclature)
NAD+ (Coenzyme I)Metabolite5892 (PubChem-compound)
NADH + H+Metabolite439153 (PubChem-compound)
NADP (Coenzyme II)Metabolite5886 (PubChem-compound)
NADPH + H+Metabolite5884 (PubChem-compound)
Nitrogen group transferasa EC 2.6.-.-Protein2.6.-.- (Enzyme Nomenclature)
O2 + NADH + H+Metabolite
Phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Phosphatidate phosphatase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Phosphatidylglycerophosphatase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PIP2(4',5')]MetaboliteCHEBI:18348 (ChEBI)
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP)MetaboliteCHEBI:58178 (ChEBI)
Phosphatidylinositol3,4,5-triphosphate [PIP3(3',4',5')]MetaboliteLMGP09010001 (LIPID MAPS)
Phosphocholine (Choline-P)Metabolite1014 (PubChem-compound)
Phospholipase A2 EC (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Phospholipase C EC (Enzyme Nomenclature)
PhosphorylethanolamineMetabolite1015 (PubChem-compound)
Pyrimidine MetabolismPathway00240 (KEGG Pathway)
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy)Metabolite439155 (PubChem-compound)
S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)Metabolite34756 (PubChem-compound)
SerineMetabolite5951 (PubChem-compound)
Shark liver oil
sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (glycerol-3-P)Metabolite7048686 (PubChem-compound)
triacyl-sn-glycerol (Triacylglycerol; TAG)MetaboliteLMGL0301 (LIPID MAPS)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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