Spinal Cord Injury (Mus musculus)

From WikiPathways

Revision as of 22:51, 28 December 2012 by Nsalomonis (Talk | contribs)
Jump to: navigation, search
367LTB4Tnfsf13bTnfsf13LtbCd47PdynNgfrNOPtprz1Ltb4r1Plxna2Cspg4339142920Motor NeuronOligodendrocyteAstroctyeSpinal Cord InjuryTimePro-InflammatoryFactorsZfp36Fcgr2bPrb1PtpraIl1bZfp36Nos2TnfNr4a1Il4Btg2Btg2FBRCdk2Nos1Il2TnfIl6Tlr4FosIl1bTgfb1Tlr4TnfEgr1FosMmp12IfngGlial ScarAstrocyte GliosisSwelling/EdemaMbpAntigens ReleasedRtn4C5Cxcl1Neutrophil Chemoattractants21, 22Cxcl1NeurtrophilsMonocytesAqp440TTLegendTT:Therapeutic Target (increase)TTTTTT:Therapeutic Target (decrease)T-CellsB-CellsB Cell Stimulating4Activated Microglia/Macrophages(Transient)RepairIl1bNos2TnfArg1TOXIC FERROUSIRONFocal Adensions8, 28Epha4TTEfnb2TTTTTTTTCxcl10Neuro protectionAntibody ReleaseNeuronalInjuryResponseAstrocyteInjuryResponseG1-S Cell Cycle Re-entry (TT)24Ccng1MicrogliaMicrogliaActivationAxonal RetractionRecruitmentRecruitmentMmp95TTChondroitin Sulfate ProteoglycansNcan2Slit1Axon RetractionSlit22Slit3Ntn1RgmaTTTTTTTTTTMmp9Mmp95Mmp955TTTTTTCcr2Il1r122TTECM BreakdownECM BreakdownIl1aCxcl1Monocyte ChemoattractantsCxcl221, 22Ccl2OligodendrocyteInjury ResponsePla2g6Pla2g5Pla2g2amelittinInflammationDemyelinationAnxa1TT15TTTTTTRed Blood CellsMyelinEndothelial LeukocyteAdehsion Factors32Icam1SelpTTTTPlasticityKlk8TT27MicrogliaActivated Microglia/MacrophagesActivated Microglia/MacrophagesGfap5TTIntermediateFillament23Cdk4Tacr1E2f5Rb1PrkcaE2f1Mapk1Ccnd1MycGadd45aMapk3TTTTTTAstroctyeNeuron & OligodendrocyteApoptosis/NecrosisMicrogliaProliferationCasp3Trp53CytotoxicCytotoxicChst11VcanCol4a1Xylt1Col2a1AcanBcanGlial Scar FromationSox9Axonal GrowthInhibition23IgG, IgMTrp53TT39TTTTGrin1Vim26TT42T Cell StimulatingFK5064Ppp3ca35TTFK50630FK50630Gap43TTFK506Axonal Regeneration30Fkbp1aIl2C3 ToxinC1Q and Fc receptive cellsMagRtn4RhoaRhocRhobRock2OmgRtn4rLilrb331MyelinInjury ResponseArachidonic acidPGH2PTGS237TT18ROSNox4Mir23bOlomoucine17Cdk1Gdnf1TTSema6aTT29Axonal GrowthInhibitionGja1ATP-Release6TTBdnfTTImmediate Response Genes24


This pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that involves the regulation of gene expression and signaling in motor neurons, oligodentrocytes, microglia, and astrocytes that trigger immediate immune responses lasting several weeks. Within 24 hours, chemoattractants and cytokines released from the site of injury activate neutrophils which further recruit B and T cells or recruit monocytes that ultimately result in infiltration and activation by microglia and macrophages. These immune responses result in inflammation, excitotoxicity, cell death, formation of glial scar, and suppression of axonal regeneration. An increase in the expression of cell cycle genes further results in proliferation of astrocytes and microglia that leads to apoptosis and necrosis of oligodentrocytes and neurons.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



View all...
  1. Puschmann TB, Turnley AM; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Yu CG, Yezierski RP, Joshi A, Raza K, Li Y, Geddes JW; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Saganová K, Gálik J, Blaško J, Korimová A, Račeková E, Vanický I; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Saadoun S, Bell BA, Verkman AS, Papadopoulos MC; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Floriddia EM, Rathore KI, Tedeschi A, Quadrato G, Wuttke A, Lueckmann JM, Kigerl KA, Popovich PG, Di Giovanni S; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. Kitayama M, Ueno M, Itakura T, Yamashita T; ''Activated microglia inhibit axonal growth through RGMa.''; PLoS One, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. Cafferty WB, Duffy P, Huebner E, Strittmatter SM; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. Wu J, Stoica BA, Faden AI; ''Cell cycle activation and spinal cord injury.''; Neurotherapeutics, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. Adjan VV, Hauser KF, Bakalkin G, Yakovleva T, Gharibyan A, Scheff SW, Knapp PE; ''Caspase-3 activity is reduced after spinal cord injury in mice lacking dynorphin: differential effects on glia and neurons.''; Neuroscience, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  11. Tian DS, Dong Q, Pan DJ, He Y, Yu ZY, Xie MJ, Wang W; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  12. Im YB, Jee MK, Choi JI, Cho HT, Kwon OH, Kang SK; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  13. López-Vales R, Ghasemlou N, Redensek A, Kerr BJ, Barbayianni E, Antonopoulou G, Baskakis C, Rathore KI, Constantinou-Kokotou V, Stephens D, Shimizu T, Dennis EA, Kokotos G, David S; ''Phospholipase A2 superfamily members play divergent roles after spinal cord injury.''; FASEB J, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  14. Saganová K, Orendácová J, Sulla I Jr, Filipcík P, Cízková D, Vanický I; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  15. Sharma HS; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  16. Dekaban GA, Thawer S; ''Pathogenic antibodies are active participants in spinal cord injury.''; J Clin Invest, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  17. Pineau I, Sun L, Bastien D, Lacroix S; ''Astrocytes initiate inflammation in the injured mouse spinal cord by promoting the entry of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes in an IL-1 receptor/MyD88-dependent fashion.''; Brain Behav Immun, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  18. Menet V, Prieto M, Privat A, Giménez y Ribotta M; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  19. Eng LF, Ghirnikar RS, Lee YL; ''Glial fibrillary acidic protein: GFAP-thirty-one years (1969-2000).''; Neurochem Res, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  20. Resnick DK, Graham SH, Dixon CE, Marion DW; ''Role of cyclooxygenase 2 in acute spinal cord injury.''; J Neurotrauma, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  21. Farooque M, Isaksson J, Olsson Y; ''Improved recovery after spinal cord trauma in ICAM-1 and P-selectin knockout mice.''; Neuroreport, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  22. David S, Kroner A; ''Repertoire of microglial and macrophage responses after spinal cord injury.''; Nat Rev Neurosci, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  23. Shim SO, Cafferty WB, Schmidt EC, Kim BG, Fujisawa H, Strittmatter SM; ''PlexinA2 limits recovery from corticospinal axotomy by mediating oligodendrocyte-derived Sema6A growth inhibition.''; Mol Cell Neurosci, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  24. Myers SA, DeVries WH, Andres KR, Gruenthal MJ, Benton RL, Hoying JB, Hagg T, Whittemore SR; ''CD47 knockout mice exhibit improved recovery from spinal cord injury.''; Neurobiol Dis, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  25. Liu NK, Zhang YP, Han S, Pei J, Xu LY, Lu PH, Shields CB, Xu XM; ''Annexin A1 reduces inflammatory reaction and tissue damage through inhibition of phospholipase A2 activation in adult rats following spinal cord injury.''; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  26. ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  27. Fabes J, Anderson P, Yáñez-Muñoz RJ, Thrasher A, Brennan C, Bolsover S; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  28. Chu GK, Yu W, Fehlings MG; ''The p75 neurotrophin receptor is essential for neuronal cell survival and improvement of functional recovery after spinal cord injury.''; Neuroscience, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  29. Terayama R, Bando Y, Murakami K, Kato K, Kishibe M, Yoshida S; ''Neuropsin promotes oligodendrocyte death, demyelination and axonal degeneration after spinal cord injury.''; Neuroscience, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  30. Lee SM, Rosen S, Weinstein P, van Rooijen N, Noble-Haeusslein LJ; ''Prevention of both neutrophil and monocyte recruitment promotes recovery after spinal cord injury.''; J Neurotrauma, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  31. Lee JK, Geoffroy CG, Chan AF, Tolentino KE, Crawford MJ, Leal MA, Kang B, Zheng B; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  32. Huang C, Han X, Li X, Lam E, Peng W, Lou N, Torres A, Yang M, Garre JM, Tian GF, Bennett MV, Nedergaard M, Takano T; ''Critical role of connexin 43 in secondary expansion of traumatic spinal cord injury.''; J Neurosci, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  33. Saiwai H, Ohkawa Y, Yamada H, Kumamaru H, Harada A, Okano H, Yokomizo T, Iwamoto Y, Okada S; ''The LTB4-BLT1 axis mediates neutrophil infiltration and secondary injury in experimental spinal cord injury.''; Am J Pathol, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  34. Hashimoto M, Ito T, Fukumitsu H, Nomoto H, Furukawa Y, Furukawa S; ''Stimulation of production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and nitric oxide by lipopolysaccharide with different dose-responsiveness in cultured rat macrophages.''; Biomed Res, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  35. Tohda C, Kuboyama T; ''Current and future therapeutic strategies for functional repair of spinal cord injury.''; Pharmacol Ther, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  36. ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  37. McKillop WM, Dragan M, Schedl A, Brown A; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  38. Tonai T, Shiba K, Taketani Y, Ohmoto Y, Murata K, Muraguchi M, Ohsaki H, Takeda E, Nishisho T; ''A neutrophil elastase inhibitor (ONO-5046) reduces neurologic damage after spinal cord injury in rats.''; J Neurochem, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  39. Woods AS, Kaminski R, Oz M, Wang Y, Hauser K, Goody R, Wang HY, Jackson SN, Zeitz P, Zeitz KP, Zolkowska D, Schepers R, Nold M, Danielson J, Gräslund A, Vukojevic V, Bakalkin G, Basbaum A, Shippenberg T; ''Decoy peptides that bind dynorphin noncovalently prevent NMDA receptor-mediated neurotoxicity.''; J Proteome Res, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  40. Di Giovanni S, Knoblach SM, Brandoli C, Aden SA, Hoffman EP, Faden AI; ''Gene profiling in spinal cord injury shows role of cell cycle in neuronal death.''; Ann Neurol, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  41. ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  42. Lavezzi AM, Casale V, Oneda R, Weese-Mayer DE, Matturri L; ''Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Sudden Intrauterine Unexplained Death: Correlation Between Hypoplasia of Raph√ج�Ω√ج�ΩΩ Nuclei and Serotonin Transporter Gene Promoter Polymorphism.''; Pediatr Res, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


View all...
106874view13:35, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
102465view05:52, 24 December 2018EgonwFixed a reference.
102464view05:51, 24 December 2018EgonwFixed a data source.
87679view08:55, 25 July 2016LindarieswijkOntology Term : 'disease pathway' added !
79927view12:02, 27 April 2015EveloReplaced human C5 gene with mouse homologe Hc
79915view10:57, 27 April 2015EveloCorrected datasource for: ENSG00000106804 (was gene cards, should have been ensembl)
78436view10:26, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
71041view01:36, 25 September 2013DMicaelModified description
69986view22:01, 11 July 2013MaintBotupdated to 2013 schema
59003view20:15, 21 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl data source
57151view12:39, 23 January 2013EgonwUsed "PubChem-compound"
55957view00:47, 29 December 2012NsalomonisSpecify description
55952view00:20, 29 December 2012Nsalomonisre-sized fonts and spacing for image export
55943view22:52, 28 December 2012NsalomonisOntology Term : 'traumatic neurosis' added !
55942view22:51, 28 December 2012NsalomonisOntology Term : 'spinal cord disease' added !
55941view22:51, 28 December 2012NsalomonisOntology Term : 'astrocyte of the spinal cord' added !
55940view22:49, 28 December 2012NsalomonisNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AcanGeneProductENSMUSG00000030607 (Ensembl Mouse)
Anxa1GeneProductENSMUSG00000024659 (Ensembl Mouse)
Aqp4GeneProductENSMUSG00000024411 (Ensembl Mouse)
Arachidonic acidMetaboliteHMDB01043 (HMDB)
Arg1GeneProductENSMUSG00000019987 (Ensembl Mouse)
BcanGeneProductENSMUSG00000004892 (Ensembl Mouse)
BdnfGeneProductENSMUSG00000048482 (Ensembl Mouse)
Btg2GeneProductENSMUSG00000020423 (Ensembl Mouse)
C5GeneProductENSG00000106804 (CTD Gene)
Casp3GeneProductENSMUSG00000031628 (Ensembl Mouse)
Ccl2GeneProductENSMUSG00000035385 (Ensembl Mouse)
Ccnd1GeneProductENSMUSG00000070348 (Ensembl Mouse)
Ccng1GeneProductENSMUSG00000020326 (Ensembl Mouse)
Ccr2GeneProductENSMUSG00000049103 (Ensembl Mouse)
Cd47GeneProductENSMUSG00000055447 (Ensembl Mouse)
Cdk1GeneProductENSMUSG00000019942 (Ensembl Mouse)
Cdk2GeneProductENSMUSG00000025358 (Ensembl Mouse)
Cdk4GeneProductENSMUSG00000006728 (Ensembl Mouse)
Chst11GeneProductENSMUSG00000034612 (Ensembl Mouse)
Col2a1GeneProductENSMUSG00000022483 (Ensembl Mouse)
Col4a1GeneProductENSMUSG00000031502 (Ensembl Mouse)
Cspg4GeneProductENSMUSG00000032911 (Ensembl Mouse)
Cxcl10GeneProductENSMUSG00000034855 (Ensembl Mouse)
Cxcl1GeneProductENSMUSG00000029380 (Ensembl Mouse)
Cxcl2GeneProductENSMUSG00000058427 (Ensembl Mouse)
E2f1GeneProductENSMUSG00000027490 (Ensembl Mouse)
E2f5GeneProductENSMUSG00000027552 (Ensembl Mouse)
Efnb2GeneProductENSMUSG00000001300 (Ensembl Mouse)
Egr1GeneProductENSMUSG00000038418 (Ensembl Mouse)
Epha4GeneProductENSMUSG00000026235 (Ensembl Mouse)
FK506Metabolite104987-11-3 (CAS)
Fcgr2bGeneProductENSMUSG00000026656 (Ensembl Mouse)
Fkbp1aGeneProductENSMUSG00000032966 (Ensembl Mouse)
FosGeneProductENSMUSG00000021250 (Ensembl Mouse)
Gadd45aGeneProductENSMUSG00000036390 (Ensembl Mouse)
Gap43GeneProductENSMUSG00000047261 (Ensembl Mouse)
GdnfGeneProductENSMUSG00000022144 (Ensembl Mouse)
GfapGeneProductENSMUSG00000020932 (Ensembl Mouse)
Gja1GeneProductENSMUSG00000050953 (Ensembl Mouse)
Grin1GeneProductENSMUSG00000026959 (Ensembl Mouse)
Icam1GeneProductENSMUSG00000037405 (Ensembl Mouse)
IfngGeneProductENSMUSG00000055170 (Ensembl Mouse)
Il1aGeneProductENSMUSG00000027399 (Ensembl Mouse)
Il1bGeneProductENSMUSG00000027398 (Ensembl Mouse)
Il1r1GeneProductENSMUSG00000026072 (Ensembl Mouse)
Il2GeneProductENSMUSG00000027720 (Ensembl Mouse)
Il4GeneProductENSMUSG00000000869 (Ensembl Mouse)
Il6GeneProductENSMUSG00000025746 (Ensembl Mouse)
Klk8GeneProductENSMUSG00000064023 (Ensembl Mouse)
LTB4Metabolite169 (PubChem)
Lilrb3GeneProductENSMUSG00000058818 (Ensembl Mouse)
Ltb4r1GeneProductENSMUSG00000046908 (Ensembl Mouse)
LtbGeneProductENSMUSG00000024399 (Ensembl Mouse)
MagGeneProductENSMUSG00000036634 (Ensembl Mouse)
Mapk1GeneProductENSMUSG00000063358 (Ensembl Mouse)
Mapk3GeneProductENSMUSG00000063065 (Ensembl Mouse)
MbpGeneProductENSMUSG00000041607 (Ensembl Mouse)
Mir23bGeneProductENSMUSG00000065599 (Ensembl Mouse)
Mmp12GeneProductENSMUSG00000049723 (Ensembl Mouse)
Mmp9GeneProductENSMUSG00000017737 (Ensembl Mouse)
MycGeneProductENSMUSG00000022346 (Ensembl Mouse)
NOMetabolite145068 (PubChem)
NcanGeneProductENSMUSG00000002341 (Ensembl Mouse)
NgfrGeneProductENSMUSG00000000120 (Ensembl Mouse)
Nos1GeneProductENSMUSG00000029361 (Ensembl Mouse)
Nos2GeneProductENSMUSG00000020826 (Ensembl Mouse)
Nox4GeneProductENSMUSG00000030562 (Ensembl Mouse)
Nr4a1GeneProductENSMUSG00000023034 (Ensembl Mouse)
Ntn1GeneProductENSMUSG00000020902 (Ensembl Mouse)
OlomoucineMetaboliteHMDB35233 (HMDB)
OmgGeneProductENSMUSG00000049612 (Ensembl Mouse)
PGH2MetaboliteHMDB01381 (HMDB)
PTGS2GeneProduct469616 (Entrez Gene)
PdynGeneProductENSMUSG00000027400 (Ensembl Mouse)
Pla2g2aGeneProductENSMUSG00000058908 (Ensembl Mouse)
Pla2g5GeneProductENSMUSG00000041193 (Ensembl Mouse)
Pla2g6GeneProductENSMUSG00000042632 (Ensembl Mouse)
Plxna2GeneProductENSMUSG00000026640 (Ensembl Mouse)
Ppp3caGeneProductENSMUSG00000028161 (Ensembl Mouse)
Prb1GeneProductENSMUSG00000067543 (Ensembl Mouse)
PrkcaGeneProductENSMUSG00000050965 (Ensembl Mouse)
PtpraGeneProductENSMUSG00000027303 (Ensembl Mouse)
Ptprz1GeneProductENSMUSG00000068748 (Ensembl Mouse)
Rb1GeneProductENSMUSG00000022105 (Ensembl Mouse)
RgmaGeneProductENSMUSG00000070509 (Ensembl Mouse)
RhoaGeneProductENSMUSG00000007815 (Ensembl Mouse)
RhobGeneProductENSMUSG00000054364 (Ensembl Mouse)
RhocGeneProductENSMUSG00000002233 (Ensembl Mouse)
Rock2GeneProductENSMUSG00000020580 (Ensembl Mouse)
Rtn4GeneProductENSMUSG00000020458 (Ensembl Mouse)
Rtn4rGeneProductENSMUSG00000043811 (Ensembl Mouse)
SelpGeneProductENSMUSG00000026580 (Ensembl Mouse)
Sema6aGeneProductENSMUSG00000019647 (Ensembl Mouse)
Slit1GeneProductENSMUSG00000025020 (Ensembl Mouse)
Slit2GeneProductENSMUSG00000031558 (Ensembl Mouse)
Slit3GeneProductENSMUSG00000056427 (Ensembl Mouse)
Sox9GeneProductENSMUSG00000000567 (Ensembl Mouse)
Tacr1GeneProductENSMUSG00000030043 (Ensembl Mouse)
Tgfb1GeneProductENSMUSG00000002603 (Ensembl Mouse)
Tlr4GeneProductENSMUSG00000039005 (Ensembl Mouse)
TnfGeneProductENSMUSG00000024401 (Ensembl Mouse)
Tnfsf13GeneProductENSMUSG00000089669 (Ensembl Mouse)
Tnfsf13bGeneProductENSMUSG00000031497 (Ensembl Mouse)
Trp53GeneProductENSMUSG00000059552 (Ensembl Mouse)
VcanGeneProductENSMUSG00000021614 (Ensembl Mouse)
VimGeneProductENSMUSG00000026728 (Ensembl Mouse)
Xylt1GeneProductENSMUSG00000030657 (Ensembl Mouse)
Zfp36GeneProductENSMUSG00000044786 (Ensembl Mouse)
melittinMetabolite16133648 (PubChem)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

Personal tools