DNA Damage Reversal (Homo sapiens)

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2111111nucleoplasmABH2 protein6-O-methyguanine containing damaged DNAFormaldehydeDNA with no 6-O-methylated guanineAcetaldehydeOxygenAlkylated DNA with 1-methyladenineAlkylated DNA with 3-methylcytosineMGMTSuccinateCO2MGMT containing S-methyl-L-cysteineAlkylated DNA with 1-ethyladenineABH3 proteinRepaired DNA after oxidative dealkylation2-Oxoglutarate


DNA damage can be directly reversed by dealkylation.

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Ontology Terms



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  1. Mitra S, Kaina B.; ''Regulation of repair of alkylation damage in mammalian genomes.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Zheng G, Dahl JA, Niu Y, Fedorcsak P, Huang CM, Li CJ, Vågbø CB, Shi Y, Wang WL, Song SH, Lu Z, Bosmans RP, Dai Q, Hao YJ, Yang X, Zhao WM, Tong WM, Wang XJ, Bogdan F, Furu K, Fu Y, Jia G, Zhao X, Liu J, Krokan HE, Klungland A, Yang YG, He C.; ''ALKBH5 is a mammalian RNA demethylase that impacts RNA metabolism and mouse fertility.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Daniels DS, Mol CD, Arvai AS, Kanugula S, Pegg AE, Tainer JA.; ''Active and alkylated human AGT structures: a novel zinc site, inhibitor and extrahelical base binding.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Feng C, Liu Y, Wang G, Deng Z, Zhang Q, Wu W, Tong Y, Cheng C, Chen Z.; ''Crystal structures of the human RNA demethylase Alkbh5 reveal basis for substrate recognition.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Dina C, Meyre D, Gallina S, Durand E, Körner A, Jacobson P, Carlsson LM, Kiess W, Vatin V, Lecoeur C, Delplanque J, Vaillant E, Pattou F, Ruiz J, Weill J, Levy-Marchal C, Horber F, Potoczna N, Hercberg S, Le Stunff C, Bougnères P, Kovacs P, Marre M, Balkau B, Cauchi S, Chèvre JC, Froguel P.; ''Variation in FTO contributes to childhood obesity and severe adult obesity.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. Duguid EM, Rice PA, He C.; ''The structure of the human AGT protein bound to DNA and its implications for damage detection.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. Vora RA, Pegg AE, Ealick SE.; ''A new model for how O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase binds DNA.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. Han Z, Niu T, Chang J, Lei X, Zhao M, Wang Q, Cheng W, Wang J, Feng Y, Chai J.; ''Crystal structure of the FTO protein reveals basis for its substrate specificity.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. Merkestein M, Sellayah D.; ''Role of FTO in Adipocyte Development and Function: Recent Insights.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. Trewick SC, Henshaw TF, Hausinger RP, Lindahl T, Sedgwick B.; ''Oxidative demethylation by Escherichia coli AlkB directly reverts DNA base damage.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  11. Rasimas JJ, Dalessio PA, Ropson IJ, Pegg AE, Fried MG.; ''Active-site alkylation destabilizes human O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  12. Dango S, Mosammaparast N, Sowa ME, Xiong LJ, Wu F, Park K, Rubin M, Gygi S, Harper JW, Shi Y.; ''DNA unwinding by ASCC3 helicase is coupled to ALKBH3-dependent DNA alkylation repair and cancer cell proliferation.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  13. Frayling TM, Timpson NJ, Weedon MN, Zeggini E, Freathy RM, Lindgren CM, Perry JR, Elliott KS, Lango H, Rayner NW, Shields B, Harries LW, Barrett JC, Ellard S, Groves CJ, Knight B, Patch AM, Ness AR, Ebrahim S, Lawlor DA, Ring SM, Ben-Shlomo Y, Jarvelin MR, Sovio U, Bennett AJ, Melzer D, Ferrucci L, Loos RJ, Barroso I, Wareham NJ, Karpe F, Owen KR, Cardon LR, Walker M, Hitman GA, Palmer CN, Doney AS, Morris AD, Smith GD, Hattersley AT, McCarthy MI.; ''A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  14. Zhao X, Yang Y, Sun BF, Zhao YL, Yang YG.; ''FTO and obesity: mechanisms of association.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  15. Lindahl T, Demple B, Robins P.; ''Suicide inactivation of the E. coli O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  16. Jia G, Fu Y, Zhao X, Dai Q, Zheng G, Yang Y, Yi C, Lindahl T, Pan T, Yang YG, He C.; ''N6-methyladenosine in nuclear RNA is a major substrate of the obesity-associated FTO.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  17. Xu C, Liu K, Tempel W, Demetriades M, Aik W, Schofield CJ, Min J.; ''Structures of human ALKBH5 demethylase reveal a unique binding mode for specific single-stranded N6-methyladenosine RNA demethylation.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  18. Tubbs JL, Pegg AE, Tainer JA.; ''DNA binding, nucleotide flipping, and the helix-turn-helix motif in base repair by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase and its implications for cancer chemotherapy.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  19. Chen B, Liu H, Sun X, Yang CG.; ''Mechanistic insight into the recognition of single-stranded and double-stranded DNA substrates by ABH2 and ABH3.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  20. Aas PA, Otterlei M, Falnes PO, Vågbø CB, Skorpen F, Akbari M, Sundheim O, Bjørås M, Slupphaug G, Seeberg E, Krokan HE.; ''Human and bacterial oxidative demethylases repair alkylation damage in both RNA and DNA.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  21. Moore MH, Gulbis JM, Dodson EJ, Demple B, Moody PC.; ''Crystal structure of a suicidal DNA repair protein: the Ada O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase from E. coli.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  22. Duncan T, Trewick SC, Koivisto P, Bates PA, Lindahl T, Sedgwick B.; ''Reversal of DNA alkylation damage by two human dioxygenases.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  23. Sundheim O, Vågbø CB, Bjørås M, Sousa MM, Talstad V, Aas PA, Drabløs F, Krokan HE, Tainer JA, Slupphaug G.; ''Human ABH3 structure and key residues for oxidative demethylation to reverse DNA/RNA damage.''; PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
2-Oxoglutarate Metabolite30915 (ChEBI)

containing damaged DNA

UnknownREACT_4587 (Reactome)
ABH2 protein ProteinQ6NS38 (UniProt)
ABH3 protein ProteinQ96Q83 (UniProt)
Acetaldehyde Metabolite15343 (ChEBI)
Alkylated DNA with


UnknownREACT_5603 (Reactome)
Alkylated DNA with


UnknownREACT_3986 (Reactome)
Alkylated DNA with


UnknownREACT_4006 (Reactome)
CO2 Metabolite16526 (ChEBI)
DNA with no 6-O-

methylated guanine

UnknownREACT_4869 (Reactome)
Formaldehyde Metabolite16842 (ChEBI)
MGMT ProteinP16455 (UniProt)
MGMT containing S-


ProteinP16455 (UniProt)
Oxygen Metabolite15379 (ChEBI)
Repaired DNA after

oxidative dealkylation

UnknownREACT_2610 (Reactome)
Succinate Metabolite15741 (ChEBI)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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