Cell Cycle (Homo sapiens)

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The cell cycle is the series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication). Regulation of the cell cycle involves processes crucial to the survival of a cell, including the detection and repair of genetic damage as well as the prevention of uncontrolled cell division. Two key classes of regulatory molecules, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), determine a cell's progress through the cell cycle.

Sources: Wikipedia:Cell cycle, KEGG

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Ontology Terms



  1. Canman CE, Lim DS, Cimprich KA, Taya Y, Tamai K, Sakaguchi K, Appella E, Kastan MB, Siliciano JD; ''Activation of the ATM kinase by ionizing radiation and phosphorylation of p53.''; Science, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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106351view21:36, 21 August 2019KhanspersModified description
105448view04:58, 8 August 2019KhanspersModified description
105235view13:42, 23 July 2019EgonwNo gene-gene conversion.
103430view16:00, 28 February 2019DeSlRemoved last modified item
97174view17:12, 3 May 2018AlexanderPicochanged complex to paralog group
96994view21:13, 25 April 2018Khanspersadded phosphosites
96993view20:19, 25 April 2018Khanspersinteractions and phosphosites
96985view05:19, 25 April 2018Khanspersoverhaul: updated to Ensembl, added phoshposites, complexes etc
96984view01:20, 25 April 2018Khanspersoverhaul in progress
96983view23:29, 24 April 2018Khanspersoverhaul in progress
93002view18:31, 21 July 2017KhanspersReverted to version '10:59, 16 September 2016' by Khanspers
92878view08:44, 13 July 2017JosipMadunicCell Cycle
89516view10:59, 16 September 2016Mkutmonontology tag fix
89470view13:39, 15 September 2016Mkutmonremove space from ontology term id
70629view00:22, 20 August 2013MaintBotUpdated xrefs by Anatoly Urisman
69900view19:28, 11 July 2013AlexanderPicoModified title
67101view10:06, 26 June 2013Christine ChichesterOntology Term : 'cell cycle pathway, mitotic' added !
63158view20:18, 8 May 2013MaintBotUpdating gpml version
59175view18:43, 22 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
45137view00:58, 7 October 2011AlexanderPico
45136view00:57, 7 October 2011AlexanderPicoModified description
45135view00:56, 7 October 2011AlexanderPicoModified description
45134view00:56, 7 October 2011AlexanderPicoModified description
45133view00:55, 7 October 2011AlexanderPicoModified description
45089view21:00, 6 October 2011AlexanderPico
45087view20:58, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicodb refs
45084view20:51, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicofixed pathway refs
45079view20:41, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicoadded groups
45075view20:31, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicoadded groups and db refs
45071view20:14, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicoadded db ref and group
41134view23:38, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35361view09:11, 12 February 2010MartijnVanIerselModified description
34663view12:07, 8 January 2010ThomasReverted color change of gene boxes by BadrulYahaya (no meaning for the color provided)
32357view13:40, 15 August 2009MaintBotFixed text labels
31988view13:13, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
30295view15:33, 28 July 2009BadrulYahayaPeriodical save, work in progress
28966view21:11, 18 March 2009Dmitriev200Added reference to ATM-P53 link
21055view11:30, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Cell cycle KEGG]] moved to [[Pathway:WP179]]: Moved to stable identifier
18932view20:34, 11 September 2008IlianaSachReverted to version '13:07, 22 May 2008' by IlianaSach
18929view20:33, 11 September 2008IlianaSachTest, will revert!
14322view13:07, 22 May 2008SusanGrouping and connecting
14306view12:36, 22 May 2008SusanAdded connections
12969view10:57, 17 May 2008MaintBotSticky edges patch by Sjoerd
7948view13:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Human:Cell cycle KEGG]] moved to [[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Cell cycle KEGG]]: Renaming species
7599view16:03, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
7207view12:33, 4 November 2007MaintBotAdded categories to GPML
19397view22:17, 22 May 2007BruceConklingpml file for [[Human:Cell_cycle_KEGG]]
6301view22:17, 22 May 2007Nsalomonisgpml file for [[Human:Cell_cycle_KEGG]]

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ABL1GeneProduct25 (Entrez Gene) ABL1; v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 [EC:
ARF1GeneProductENSG00000143761 (Ensembl Human)
ASKGeneProduct10926 (Entrez Gene) ASK; activator of S phase kinas
ATMGeneProduct472 (Entrez Gene) ATM; ataxia telangiectasia mutated (includes complementation groups A C and D) [EC:]
ATRGeneProduct545 (Entrez Gene) ATR; ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related
ApoptosisPathwayWP254 (WikiPathways)
BUB1GeneProduct699 (Entrez Gene) BUB1; BUB1 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 homolog (yeast) [EC:2.7.1.-]
BUB1BGeneProduct701 (Entrez Gene) BUB1B; BUB1 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 homolog beta (yeast) [EC:2.7.1.-]
BUB3GeneProduct9184 (Entrez Gene) BUB3; BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 homolog (yeast)
CCNA1GeneProduct8900 (Entrez Gene) CCNA1; cyclin A1
CCNA2GeneProduct890 (Entrez Gene) CCNA2; cyclin A2
CCNB1GeneProduct891 (Entrez Gene) CCNB1; cyclin B1
CCNB2GeneProduct9133 (Entrez Gene) CCNB2; cyclin B2
CCNB3GeneProduct85417 (Entrez Gene) CCNB3; cyclin B
CCND2GeneProduct894 (Entrez Gene) CCND2; cyclin D2
CCND3GeneProduct896 (Entrez Gene) CCND3; cyclin D3
CCNE1GeneProduct898 (Entrez Gene) CCNE1; cyclin E
CCNE2GeneProduct9134 (Entrez Gene) CCNE2; cyclin E
CCNHGeneProduct902 (Entrez Gene) CCNH; cyclin H
CDC14AGeneProduct8556 (Entrez Gene) CDC14A; CDC14 cell division cycle 14 homolog A (S. cerevisiae
CDC14BGeneProduct8555 (Entrez Gene) CDC14B; CDC14 cell division cycle 14 homolog B (S. cerevisiae
CDC20GeneProduct991 (Entrez Gene) CDC20; CDC20 cell division cycle 20 homolog (S. cerevisiae
CDC25AGeneProduct993 (Entrez Gene) CDC25A; cell division cycle 25A [EC:]
CDC25BGeneProduct994 (Entrez Gene) CDC25B; cell division cycle 25B [EC:]
CDC25CGeneProduct995 (Entrez Gene) CDC25C; cell division cycle 25C [EC:]
CDC2GeneProduct983 (Entrez Gene) CDC2; cell division cycle 2 G1 to S and G2 to M [EC:2.7.1.-
CDC45LGeneProduct8318 (Entrez Gene) CDC45L; CDC45 cell division cycle 45-like (S. cerevisiae)
CDC6GeneProduct990 (Entrez Gene) CDC6; CDC6 cell division cycle 6 homolog (S. cerevisiae
CDC7GeneProduct8317 (Entrez Gene) CDC7L1; CDC7 cell division cycle 7-like 1 (S. cerevisiae) [EC:2.7.1.-]
CDH1GeneProduct999 (Entrez Gene)
CDK2GeneProduct1017 (Entrez Gene) CDK2; cyclin-dependent kinase 2 [EC:2.7.1.-]
CDK4GeneProduct1019 (Entrez Gene) CDK4; cyclin-dependent kinase 4 [EC:2.7.1.-]
CDK6GeneProduct1021 (Entrez Gene) CDK6; cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [EC:2.7.1.-]
CDKN1AGeneProduct1026 (Entrez Gene)
CDKN1BGeneProduct1027 (Entrez Gene) CDKN1A; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21 Cip1)
CDKN2AGeneProduct1029 (Entrez Gene)
CHEK1GeneProduct1111 (Entrez Gene) CHEK1; CHK1 checkpoint homolog (S. pombe) [EC:2.7.1.-]
CHEK2GeneProduct11200 (Entrez Gene) CHEK2; CHK2 checkpoint homolog (S. pombe) [EC:2.7.1.-]
DNA ReplicationPathwayWP466 (WikiPathways)
E2F1GeneProduct1869 (Entrez Gene) E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1
E2F2GeneProduct1870 (Entrez Gene) E2F2; E2F transcription factor 2
E2F3GeneProduct1871 (Entrez Gene) E2F3; E2F transcription factor 3
E2F4GeneProduct1874 (Entrez Gene) E2F4; E2F transcription factor 4 p107/p130-binding
E2F5GeneProduct1875 (Entrez Gene) E2F5; E2F transcription factor 5 p130-binding
E2F6GeneProduct1876 (Entrez Gene) E2F6; E2F transcription factor 6
EP300GeneProduct2033 (Entrez Gene) EP300; E1A binding protein p300
ESPL1GeneProduct9700 (Entrez Gene) ESPL1; extra spindle poles like 1 (S. cerevisiae
GADD45AGeneProduct1647 (Entrez Gene)
GSK3BGeneProduct2932 (Entrez Gene) GSK3B; glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [EC:]
HDAC1GeneProduct3065 (Entrez Gene) HDAC1; histone deacetylase 1
HDAC2GeneProduct3066 (Entrez Gene) HDAC2; histone deacetylase 2
HDAC3GeneProduct8841 (Entrez Gene) HDAC3; histone deacetylase 3
HDAC4GeneProduct9759 (Entrez Gene) HDAC4; histone deacetylase 4
HDAC5GeneProduct10014 (Entrez Gene) HDAC5; histone deacetylase 5
HDAC6GeneProduct10013 (Entrez Gene) HDAC6; histone deacetylase 6
HDAC7AGeneProduct51564 (Entrez Gene) HDAC7A; histone deacetylase 7
HDAC8GeneProduct55869 (Entrez Gene) HDAC8; histone deacetylase
MAD1L1GeneProduct8379 (Entrez Gene) MAD1L1; MAD1 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (yeast
MAD2L1GeneProduct4085 (Entrez Gene) MAD2L1; MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (yeast)
MAD2L2GeneProduct10459 (Entrez Gene) MAD2L2; MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 2 (yeast)
MAPK Signaling PathwayPathwayWP382 (WikiPathways)
MCM10GeneProductENSG00000065328 (Ensembl Human)
MCM2GeneProductENSG00000073111 (Ensembl Human)
MCM3GeneProductENSG00000112118 (Ensembl Human)
MCM4GeneProductENSG00000104738 (Ensembl Human)
MCM5GeneProductENSG00000100297 (Ensembl Human)
MCM6GeneProductENSG00000076003 (Ensembl Human)
MCM7GeneProductENSG00000166508 (Ensembl Human)
MCM8GeneProductENSG00000125885 (Ensembl Human)
MCM9GeneProductENSG00000111877 (Ensembl Human)
MDM2GeneProduct4193 (Entrez Gene) MDM2; Mdm2 transformed 3T3 cell double minute 2 p53 binding protein (mouse)
MEN1GeneProductENSG00000133895 (Ensembl Human)
MPEG1GeneProduct219972 (Entrez Gene)
ORC1GeneProductENSG00000085840 (Ensembl Human)
ORC2GeneProductENSG00000115942 (Ensembl Human)
ORC3GeneProductENSG00000135336 (Ensembl Human)
ORC4GeneProductENSG00000115947 (Ensembl Human)
ORC5GeneProductENSG00000164815 (Ensembl Human)
ORC6GeneProductENSG00000091651 (Ensembl Human)
PCNAGeneProduct5111 (Entrez Gene) PCNA; proliferating cell nuclear antigen
PKMYT1GeneProduct9088 (Entrez Gene) PKMYT1; membrane-associated tyrosine- and threonine-specific cdc2-inhibitory kinas
PLK1GeneProduct5347 (Entrez Gene) PLK; polo-like kinase (Drosophila) [EC:2.7.1.-]
PRKDCGeneProduct5591 (Entrez Gene) PRKDC; protein kinase DNA-activated catalytic polypeptide [EC:]
PTTG1GeneProduct9232 (Entrez Gene) PTTG1; pituitary tumor-transforming
PTTG2GeneProduct10744 (Entrez Gene) PTTG2; pituitary tumor-transforming
PTTG3GeneProduct26255 (Entrez Gene) PTTG3; pituitary tumor-transforming
RB1GeneProduct5925 (Entrez Gene) RB1; retinoblastoma 1 (including osteosarcoma)
RBL1GeneProduct5933 (Entrez Gene) RBL1; retinoblastoma-like 1 (p107)
SCFGeneProductP21583 (Uniprot/TrEMBL)
SKP2GeneProduct6502 (Entrez Gene) SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
SMAD3GeneProduct4088 (Entrez Gene) MADH3; MAD mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Drosophila)
SMAD4GeneProduct4089 (Entrez Gene) MADH4; MAD mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (Drosophila)
SMC1L1GeneProduct8243 (Entrez Gene) SMC1L1; SMC1 structural maintenance of chromosomes 1-like 1 (yeast
TBC1D8GeneProduct11138 (Entrez Gene)
TFDP1GeneProduct7027 (Entrez Gene) TFDP1; transcription factor Dp-1
TGFB1GeneProduct7040 (Entrez Gene)
TP53GeneProduct7157 (Entrez Gene)
UBE2FGeneProduct23665 (Entrez Gene) UBE2F; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2F (UBC6 homolog C. elegans
Ubiquitin-Mediated ProteolysisPathwayWP183 (WikiPathways)
WEE1GeneProduct7465 (Entrez Gene) WEE1; WEE1+ homolog (S. pombe) [EC:]
YWHABGeneProductENSG00000166913 (Ensembl Human)
YWHAEGeneProductENSG00000108953 (Ensembl Human)
YWHAGGeneProduct7532 (Entrez Gene) YWHAG; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein gamma polypeptid
YWHAGGeneProductENSG00000170027 (Ensembl Human)
YWHAHGeneProductENSG00000128245 (Ensembl Human)
YWHAQGeneProductENSG00000134308 (Ensembl Human)
YWHAZGeneProductENSG00000164924 (Ensembl Human)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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