Nicotine effect on chromaffin cells (Homo sapiens)

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BloodstreamMembranedepolarizationVesicleChromaffin cellIncreased heart rateIncreased blood pressureRaise glucose levelCACNA1GK+Ca++Na+EpinephrineCACNA1CCHRNA3CHRNB4EpinephrineK+Ca++NicotineNa+


Nicotine is an alkaloid found in tobacco plants. It is a substance that acts as a stimulant in humans and is one of the main factors responsible for tobacco dependence. When nicotine enters the body, it is distributed quickly through the bloodstream, and it can cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the central nervous system (CNS). It binds to two main types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: the ganglion type and the CNS type.

In chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, nicotine binds to the ganglion-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which is composed of alpha 3 (CHRNA3) and beta 4 (CHRNB4) subunits. By binding to the receptors, nicotine causes cell depolarization and an influx of calcium through voltage dependent calcium channels. Calcium triggers the release of epinephrine from the chromaffin vesicles into the bloodstream, which leads to increased heart rate and blood pressure and elevation of blood glucose level.

Sources: PharmGKB:Nicotine in Chromaffin Cells, Wikipedia:Nicotine

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117164view09:49, 18 May 2021EweitzModified title
106160view12:05, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
78574view14:50, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
75233view21:09, 12 May 2014Khanspersfixed unconnected line
70559view20:47, 12 August 2013MetalmephistoPeriodical save, work in progress
69019view17:48, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
59435view13:59, 27 February 2013AndraPeriodical save, work in progress
45363view20:50, 7 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'nicotine pathway' added !
45362view20:49, 7 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'chromaffin cell' added !
41193view23:43, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
38869view18:25, 24 September 2010KhanspersChanged title
38482view18:23, 17 September 2010AlexanderPicoModified description
38357view18:10, 2 September 2010KhanspersChanged layout
38353view23:05, 1 September 2010KhanspersChanged layout
38346view21:08, 1 September 2010KhanspersModified description
38345view21:07, 1 September 2010KhanspersChanged name
38340view19:13, 1 September 2010KhanspersModified categories
38339view19:13, 1 September 2010KhanspersModified description
38338view19:11, 1 September 2010KhanspersModified description
38337view19:08, 1 September 2010KhanspersChanged name and datanode types
38336view19:07, 1 September 2010KhanspersNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
CACNA1CGeneProduct775 (Entrez Gene)
CACNA1GGeneProduct8913 (Entrez Gene)
CHRNA3GeneProduct1136 (Entrez Gene)
CHRNB4GeneProduct1143 (Entrez Gene)
Ca++MetaboliteHMDB00464 (HMDB)
EpinephrineMetaboliteHMDB00068 (HMDB)
K+MetaboliteHMDB00586 (HMDB)
Na+MetaboliteHMDB00588 (HMDB)
NicotineMetaboliteHMDB01934 (HMDB)

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