Nicotine Metabolism (Homo sapiens)

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1, 2Liver cellNicotine-GlucNornicotineCYP2A6Cotinine N-oxideNicotine iminium ionUGT1A43'-Hydroxycotinine glucuronideNicotineNornicotineCotinine N-oxideAOX1FMO3Nicotine-Gluc3'-HydroxycotinineCotinineNicotine-N-oxideCotinineglucuronideNornicotineNicotine3'-Hydroxycotinine glucuronideCotinine5'-HydroxycotinineCYP2A6Nicotine-N-oxideNornicotineCYP2A6Cotinineglucuronide5'-HydroxycotinineUGT1A9CYP2B63'-Hydroxycotinine


Nicotine results in many metabolites after metabolization in the liver.

Nicotine is the main factor behind smoking addiction, therefore nicotine supplements can be used to stop smoking.

Nicotine is metabolized by several enzymes in the liver such as the CYP2A6 enzyme. CYP2A6 is a xenobiotic (xenos = foreigner, bios = life) metabolizer.

How well nicotine can be metabolized by the human body is not standard and depends on racial, gender, genetic and environmental factors.

The cotinine metabolite seen above in the center of the nicotine metabolism pathway is a smoking biomarker and can been measured in various tissues such as blood, urine and sweat.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Hukkanen J, Jacob P 3rd, Benowitz NL; ''Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine.''; Pharmacol Rev, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Benowitz NL, Hukkanen J, Jacob P 3rd; ''Nicotine chemistry, metabolism, kinetics and biomarkers.''; Handb Exp Pharmacol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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106147view12:04, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
99039view08:54, 26 October 2018DeSlModified description
96391view07:15, 12 March 2018Asios OliaModified description
96390view07:13, 12 March 2018Asios OliaModified description
96389view07:07, 12 March 2018Asios OliaModified description
96388view07:06, 12 March 2018Asios OliaModified description
96387view07:05, 12 March 2018Asios OliaModified description
96386view07:05, 12 March 2018Asios OliaModified description
92822view19:45, 8 July 2017AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'drug pathway' added !
92778view11:30, 4 July 2017DeSlOntology Term : 'xenobiotic metabolic pathway' added !
90593view07:00, 28 November 2016EgonwModified description
90565view09:49, 25 November 2016EgonwAdded two lit references.
89933view13:44, 6 October 2016EgonwModified description
70113view19:10, 12 July 2013MaintBotupdated to 2013 schema
70026view01:53, 12 July 2013AlexanderPicoModified title
67507view11:18, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'nicotine pathway' added !
56442view21:37, 7 January 2013EgonwAdded a missing HMDB data source value.
46348view12:55, 19 January 2012EgonwPeriodical save, work in progress
45359view20:45, 7 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'hepatocyte' added !
41180view23:42, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
38479view18:19, 17 September 2010AlexanderPicoModified description
38342view20:45, 1 September 2010KhanspersChanged name
38341view19:16, 1 September 2010KhanspersModified description
38329view18:47, 1 September 2010KhanspersChanged DataNode type and arrows
38300view21:16, 30 August 2010KhanspersChanged arrows to catalysis
38299view21:14, 30 August 2010KhanspersModified description
38298view21:13, 30 August 2010KhanspersModified description
38297view21:12, 30 August 2010KhanspersModified description
38218view20:52, 27 August 2010KhanspersModified categories
38217view20:50, 27 August 2010KhanspersModified description
38216view20:49, 27 August 2010KhanspersChanged name
38215view20:48, 27 August 2010KhanspersNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
3'-Hydroxycotinine glucuronideMetaboliteHMDB0001204 (HMDB)
3'-HydroxycotinineMetaboliteHMDB0001390 (HMDB)
5'-HydroxycotinineMetaboliteHMDB0001427 (HMDB)
AOX1GeneProduct316 (Entrez Gene)
CYP2A6GeneProduct1548 (Entrez Gene)
CYP2B6GeneProduct1555 (Entrez Gene)
Cotinine N-oxideMetaboliteHMDB0001411 (HMDB)
CotinineMetaboliteHMDB0001046 (HMDB)
CotinineglucuronideMetaboliteHMDB0001013 (HMDB)
FMO3GeneProduct2328 (Entrez Gene)
Nicotine iminium ionMetaboliteHMDB0001010 (HMDB)
Nicotine-GlucMetaboliteHMDB0001272 (HMDB)
Nicotine-N-oxideMetaboliteHMDB0001497 (HMDB)
NicotineMetaboliteHMDB0001934 (HMDB)
NornicotineMetaboliteHMDB0001126 (HMDB)
UGT1A4GeneProduct54657 (Entrez Gene)
UGT1A9GeneProduct54600 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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