Vitamin B12 Metabolism (Homo sapiens)

From WikiPathways

Revision as of 09:35, 20 July 2012 by Andra (Talk | contribs)
Jump to: navigation, search
692, 14, 91, 129, 148...19, 73, 21698, 129, 181, 216, 352LEGENDBiomarker forSelenium statusFrom intracellular part to the plasmaBindingSelenoproteinsProtein*Process or metabolism involved in Se PathwayNecessary stimulationCofactorsProtein with polymorphismConversionCleavageNitrogen CompundsMetabolitesStimulationCofactor conversionTranscription factoris composed ofEnzymesCatalysisOther proteinsMicronutrientsOverarching processNegative EffectReactionInhibitionIntracellularPlasmaPGF2aa-TocopherolRELANFkB2Thromboxane A2IF*MCP18-Isoprostaglandin F2aLipoprotein metabolisma-TocopherolProstaglandin metabolismLipid peroxidationF2-IsoprostanePGE2PGF2aMegalinThromboxane B2TCN2*CUBNPGE2NFkB1Thromboxane B2HCMCP1Thromboxane B28-Isoprostaglandin F2aPGE1DNA OxidationProtein tyrosine nitrationTCN2*F2-IsoprostanePGE1132, 141, 180141105, 17579, 125, 134, 142, 190...9, 24, 107, 119, 285...90, 180, 23322587, 180251105, 175, 20016, 2279, 125, 134, 142, 190...1546224, 119, 200, 219, 237...40, 209138, 215626224, 119, 315138, 21524, 119, 143, 3151419, 24, 119, 285, 297...90, 180, 233187, 266, 31587, 18062141MSR*MM-CoA-HMTR*MATMUTMCEECBRMMABSHMT83, 20516756, 321195, 268, 315568, 15, 47, 60, 84...11913, 2565, 15, 107, 256CBS8, 169NADP+NADHNADP+NADP+MPO98, 130, 161, 261CysteineThrombinPLGPLGtPAFactor VIIPAI-1Factor VIIPAI-1tPAThrombin38, 108108, 284108, 28438, 108197197197197197197H2O25,10-Methylene-THF83, 291Creatinine5-methyl-THFCreatinine5-methyl-THF19, 47, 73, 278, 291...9, 2319, 23119, 47, 73, 278, 291...SOD3SOD3CTH8THF291NADPHNADNADPHNADPHMTHFR*60, 291HomocysteineHomocysteine14, 32, 38, 47, 105...14, 32, 38, 47, 105...SOD1Pyridoxal 5'-phosphatePyridoxal 5'-phosphate138, 210, 227, 278, 331138, 210, 227, 278, 331SerineSerine83, 20583, 205oxLDLAPOA1SAA1VLDL/APOBLDLRLDL/APOBSRB1LDLSAA3APOA1ACTSAA2LDL-CTAGSAA4HDLHDL-CAPOBLDLHDL-CABCA1CholesterolVLDL-TAGAPOEoxLDLAPOBVLDLHDLVLDLVLDL-TAGTAGHDL/APOA1APOA1-NO2TyrLDL-CACTHDL/SAACholesterol263, 35074175, 209, 234, 242, 26174, 280175, 209, 234, 242, 261263230, 35035, 82, 127263, 3507435, 82, 12774, 28074, 219, 23774263, 328349263175, 209, 234, 242, 2617435, 8274, 28046, 16646, 1667474, 34974, 280166, 23026374263, 3287474, 280, 349263351263175, 209, 234, 242, 26174, 175, 219, 2378-OHdGAdenosylcobalaminMethylcob(III)alaminVitamin B12/CobalaminFADAdenosylcobalamin8-OHdGCob(II)alaminVitamin B12/CobalaminCob(I)alaminMethylcob(III)alamin7, 24, 32, 119, 127...19, 73, 119, 25619, 73, 119, 2565, 15, 119, 256119, 195154151547, 24, 32, 50, 71...119, 1955, 15, 119, 256, 259Chlorinevitamin Dvitamin DChlorine127127CystathionineSOD2ZincZincO3NON2ONO2HNO2NO3-HOCl84, 130, 161, 30284, 122, 268FibrinogenIL1BFibrinogenRANTESHbA1cTNFaALBINSRIL10D-dimerALBsICAM-1INSFibrinD-dimerFibrinHbA1cHBA1IL1BIL6CRPIL6HBBINSTNFaRANTESIL1014839, 266121, 150, 331197, 284200, 288197, 284129, 22222, 155, 234, 246, 283...13513571, 99, 24139, 266135148121, 12990, 129, 222241, 301200, 28850, 90, 129, 241, 255...121, 150, 33171, 99, 241197, 248197, 248121, 129, 155, 262129, 241, 255, 28314, 183, 283135RiboflavinRiboflavin80, 12780, 127O2Cbl/TCCbl/HCD-Methylmalonyl-CoA S-AdenosylmethionineMethionine Succinyl-CoA Methylmalonic acidCbl/TC S-AdenosylhomocysteineMethionine S-Adenosylmethionine S-AdenosylhomocysteineL-Methylmalonyl-CoA Methylmalonic acidCbl/IF24, 119, 31556, 195, 31524, 119, 3159, 24, 119, 31515, 76, 167, 256, 291195, 31547, 272, 29115, 76, 167, 256, 29156, 19556, 195, 315224, 29147, 272, 291224, 29124, 119, 31532, 56, 195, 268ONOO-ONOOHNitrotyrosine225GlucoseFructosamineFructosamineGlucose3999, 1353999, 135Ascorbic acidAscorbic acidAscorbic acid125, 134, 142, 318125, 134, 142, 318125, 134, 142, 318


Description

No description

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms

 

Bibliography

View all...
  1. Schumm K, Rocha S, Caamano J, Perkins ND; ''Regulation of p53 tumour suppressor target gene expression by the p52 NF-kappaB subunit.''; EMBO J, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Momoi T, Ben-Yoseph Y, Nadler HL; ''Substrate-specificities of acid and alkaline ceramidases in fibroblasts from patients with Farber disease and controls.''; Biochem J, 1982 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Mayer O Jr, Simon J, Rosolová H, Hromádka M, Subrt I, Vobrubová I; ''The effects of folate supplementation on some coagulation parameters and oxidative status surrogates.''; Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Banning A, Florian S, Deubel S, Thalmann S, Müller-Schmehl K, Jacobasch G, Brigelius-Flohé R; ''GPx2 counteracts PGE2 production by dampening COX-2 and mPGES-1 expression in human colon cancer cells.''; Antioxid Redox Signal, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  5. Ferguson AD, Labunskyy VM, Fomenko DE, Araç D, Chelliah Y, Amezcua CA, Rizo J, Gladyshev VN, Deisenhofer J; ''NMR structures of the selenoproteins Sep15 and SelM reveal redox activity of a new thioredoxin-like family.''; J Biol Chem, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  6. Kosco MH, Gray D; ''Signals involved in germinal center reactions.''; Immunol Rev, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Galijasevic S, Saed GM, Hazen SL, Abu-Soud HM; ''Myeloperoxidase metabolizes thiocyanate in a reaction driven by nitric oxide.''; Biochemistry, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Hammarström S; ''Leukotrienes.''; Annu Rev Biochem, 1983 PubMed Europe PMC
  9. Schafer BL, Bishop RW, Kratunis VJ, Kalinowski SS, Mosley ST, Gibson KM, Tanaka RD; ''Molecular cloning of human mevalonate kinase and identification of a missense mutation in the genetic disease mevalonic aciduria.''; J Biol Chem, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  10. Shchedrina VA, Zhang Y, Labunskyy VM, Hatfield DL, Gladyshev V; ''Structure-function relationships, physiological roles and evolution of mammalian ER-resident selenoproteins.''; Antioxid Redox Signal, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  11. Anderson ME, Allison RD, Meister A; ''Interconversion of leukotrienes catalyzed by purified gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase: concomitant formation of leukotriene D4 and gamma-glutamyl amino acids.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1982 PubMed Europe PMC
  12. Goriely S, Molle C, Nguyen M, Albarani V, Haddou NO, Lin R, De Wit D, Flamand V, Willems F, Goldman M; ''Interferon regulatory factor 3 is involved in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and TLR3-induced IL-12p35 gene activation.''; Blood, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  13. Ahlberg J, Angelin B, Björkhem I, Einarsson K, Leijd B; ''Hepatic cholesterol metabolism in normo- and hyperlipidemic patients with cholesterol gallstones.''; J Lipid Res, 1979 PubMed Europe PMC
  14. Betsholtz IH, Wikvall K; ''Cytochrome P450 CYP27-catalyzed oxidation of C27-steroid into C27-acid.''; J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  15. Jakubowski H; ''Molecular basis of homocysteine toxicity in humans.''; Cell Mol Life Sci, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  16. Zhang C, Cai Y, Adachi MT, Oshiro S, Aso T, Kaufman RJ, Kitajima S; ''Homocysteine induces programmed cell death in human vascular endothelial cells through activation of the unfolded protein response.''; J Biol Chem, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  17. Johnson MR, Barnes S, Diasio RB; ''Radioassay of bile acid coenzyme A:glycine/taurine: N-acyltransferase using an n-butanol solvent extraction procedure.''; Anal Biochem, 1989 PubMed Europe PMC
  18. Al-Obaidi MK, Philippou H, Stubbs PJ, Adami A, Amersey R, Noble MM, Lane DA; ''Relationships between homocysteine, factor VIIa, and thrombin generation in acute coronary syndromes.''; Circulation, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  19. Helgerud P, Saarem K, Norum KR; ''Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase in human small intestine: its activity and some properties of the enzymic reaction.''; J Lipid Res, 1981 PubMed Europe PMC
  20. Hoyos B, Ballard DW, Böhnlein E, Siekevitz M, Greene WC; ''Kappa B-specific DNA binding proteins: role in the regulation of human interleukin-2 gene expression.''; Science, 1989 PubMed Europe PMC
  21. Hooper PL, Hooper EM, Hunt WC, Garry PJ, Goodwin JS; ''Vitamins, lipids and lipoproteins in a healthy elderly population.''; Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 1983 PubMed Europe PMC
  22. Erickson SK, Bösterling B; ''Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase from human liver: partial purification and reconstruction into defined phospholipid-cholesterol vesicles.''; J Lipid Res, 1981 PubMed Europe PMC
  23. Clifton PM, Mackinnon AM, Barter PJ; ''Effects of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) on composition, size, and density of high density lipoproteins in subjects with myocardial infarction.''; J Lipid Res, 1985 PubMed Europe PMC
  24. Heirman I, Ginneberge D, Brigelius-Flohé R, Hendrickx N, Agostinis P, Brouckaert P, Rottiers P, Grooten J; ''Blocking tumor cell eicosanoid synthesis by GP x 4 impedes tumor growth and malignancy.''; Free Radic Biol Med, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  25. Remoli ME, Ragimbeau J, Giacomini E, Gafa V, Severa M, Lande R, Pellegrini S, Coccia EM; ''NF-{kappa}B is required for STAT-4 expression during dendritic cell maturation.''; J Leukoc Biol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  26. Lykidis A, Jackson PD, Rock CO, Jackowski S; ''The role of CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase and phosphatidylinositol synthase activity levels in the regulation of cellular phosphatidylinositol content.''; J Biol Chem, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  27. Paz K, Hemi R, LeRoith D, Karasik A, Elhanany E, Kanety H, Zick Y; ''A molecular basis for insulin resistance. Elevated serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2 inhibits their binding to the juxtamembrane region of the insulin receptor and impairs their ability to undergo insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation.''; J Biol Chem, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  28. Selhub J.; ''Homocysteine metabolism.''; Annu Rev Nutr, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  29. Zheng L, Nukuna B, Brennan ML, Sun M, Goormastic M, Settle M, Schmitt D, Fu X, Thomson L, Fox PL, Ischiropoulos H, Smith JD, Kinter M, Hazen SL; ''Apolipoprotein A-I is a selective target for myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation and functional impairment in subjects with cardiovascular disease.''; J Clin Invest, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  30. Bianco AC, Kim BW; ''Deiodinases: implications of the local control of thyroid hormone action.''; J Clin Invest, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  31. Janciauskiene S, Wright HT; ''Inflammation, antichymotrypsin, and lipid metabolism: autogenic etiology of Alzheimer's disease.''; Bioessays, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  32. Cheng JB, Jacquemin E, Gerhardt M, Nazer H, Cresteil D, Heubi JE, Setchell KD, Russell DW; ''Molecular genetics of 3beta-hydroxy-Delta5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase deficiency in 16 patients with loss of bile acid synthesis and liver disease.''; J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  33. Agaugué S, Perrin-Cocon L, Coutant F, André P, Lotteau V; ''1-Methyl-tryptophan can interfere with TLR signaling in dendritic cells independently of IDO activity.''; J Immunol, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  34. Lu C, Qiu F, Zhou H, Peng Y, Hao W, Xu J, Yuan J, Wang S, Qiang B, Xu C, Peng X; ''Identification and characterization of selenoprotein K: an antioxidant in cardiomyocytes.''; FEBS Lett, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  35. MacDonald IA, Rochon YP, Hutchison DM, Holdeman LV; ''Formation of ursodeoxycholic acid from chenodeoxycholic acid by a 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-elaborating Eubacterium aerofaciens strain cocultured with 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-elaborating organisms.''; Appl Environ Microbiol, 1982 PubMed Europe PMC
  36. Isseroff RR, Ziboh VA, Chapkin RS, Martinez DT; ''Conversion of linoleic acid into arachidonic acid by cultured murine and human keratinocytes.''; J Lipid Res, 1987 PubMed Europe PMC
  37. Yamauchi Y, Reid PC, Sperry JB, Furukawa K, Takeya M, Chang CC, Chang TY; ''Plasma membrane rafts complete cholesterol synthesis by participating in retrograde movement of precursor sterols.''; J Biol Chem, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  38. Nakamura MT, Nara TY; ''Structure, function, and dietary regulation of delta6, delta5, and delta9 desaturases.''; Annu Rev Nutr, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  39. Walker GA, Murphy S, Huennekens FM; ''Enzymatic conversion of vitamin B 12a to adenosyl-B 12: evidence for the existence of two separate reducing systems.''; Arch Biochem Biophys, 1969 PubMed Europe PMC
  40. Bates CJ, Schneede J, Mishra G, Prentice A, Mansoor MA; ''Relationship between methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, vitamin B12 intake and status and socio-economic indices, in a subset of participants in the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and over.''; Eur J Clin Nutr, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  41. Pedretti A, Bocci E, Maggi R, Vistoli G; ''Homology modelling of human DHCR24 (seladin-1) and analysis of its binding properties through molecular docking and dynamics simulations.''; Steroids, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  42. Lu B, Xu FY, Jiang YJ, Choy PC, Hatch GM, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR; ''Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding human cardiolipin synthase (hCLS1).''; J Lipid Res, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  43. Kim YI; ''Role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in cancer risk modification and treatment.''; Future Oncol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  44. Gustafsson J; ''Bile acid synthesis during development. Mitochondrial 12 alpha-hydroxylation in human fetal liver.''; J Clin Invest, 1985 PubMed Europe PMC
  45. Singh S, Madzelan P, Banerjee R; ''Properties of an unusual heme cofactor in PLP-dependent cystathionine beta-synthase.''; Nat Prod Rep, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  46. Needleman P, Raz A, Minkes MS, Ferrendelli JA, Sprecher H; ''Triene prostaglandins: prostacyclin and thromboxane biosynthesis and unique biological properties.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1979 PubMed Europe PMC
  47. Sica A, Tan TH, Rice N, Kretzschmar M, Ghosh P, Young HA; ''The c-rel protooncogene product c-Rel but not NF-kappa B binds to the intronic region of the human interferon-gamma gene at a site related to an interferon-stimulable response element.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  48. Huerta C, Borek D, Machius M, Grishin NV, Zhang H; ''Structure and mechanism of a eukaryotic FMN adenylyltransferase.''; J Mol Biol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  49. Gaughan DJ, Kluijtmans LA, Barbaux S, McMaster D, Young IS, Yarnell JW, Evans A, Whitehead AS; ''The methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphism is a novel genetic determinant of plasma homocysteine concentrations.''; Atherosclerosis, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  50. Hoey L, Strain JJ, McNulty H; ''Studies of biomarker responses to intervention with vitamin B-12: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  51. Zhai XY, Nielsen R, Birn H, Drumm K, Mildenberger S, Freudinger R, Moestrup SK, Verroust PJ, Christensen EI, Gekle M; ''Cubilin- and megalin-mediated uptake of albumin in cultured proximal tubule cells of opossum kidney.''; Kidney Int, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  52. Lucock M; ''Folic acid: nutritional biochemistry, molecular biology, and role in disease processes.''; Mol Genet Metab, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  53. Schaap D, de Widt J, van der Wal J, Vandekerckhove J, van Damme J, Gussow D, Ploegh HL, van Blitterswijk WJ, van der Bend RL; ''Purification, cDNA-cloning and expression of human diacylglycerol kinase.''; FEBS Lett, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  54. Pesch J, Brehm U, Staib C, Grummt F; ''Repression of interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 promoters by tumor suppressor protein p53.''; J Interferon Cytokine Res, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  55. Sala A, Voelkel N, Maclouf J, Murphy RC; ''Leukotriene E4 elimination and metabolism in normal human subjects.''; J Biol Chem, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  56. Jackowski S, Fagone P; ''CTP: Phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase: paving the way from gene to membrane.''; J Biol Chem, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  57. Kryukov GV, Castellano S, Novoselov SV, Lobanov AV, Zehtab O, Guigó R, Gladyshev VN; ''Characterization of mammalian selenoproteomes.''; Science, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  58. Schnedl WJ, Liebminger A, Roller RE, Lipp RW, Krejs GJ; ''Hemoglobin variants and determination of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c).''; Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  59. Zamocky M, Furtmüller PG, Obinger C; ''Evolution of catalases from bacteria to humans.''; Antioxid Redox Signal, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  60. Gordon MM, Brada N, Remacha A, Badell I, del Río E, Baiget M, Santer R, Quadros EV, Rothenberg SP, Alpers DH; ''A genetic polymorphism in the coding region of the gastric intrinsic factor gene (GIF) is associated with congenital intrinsic factor deficiency.''; Hum Mutat, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  61. Bowser PA, Gray GM; ''Sphingomyelinase in pig and human epidermis.''; J Invest Dermatol, 1978 PubMed Europe PMC
  62. Burk RF, Hill KE, Motley AK; ''Selenoprotein metabolism and function: evidence for more than one function for selenoprotein P.''; J Nutr, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  63. Murakami M, Nakatani Y, Tanioka T, Kudo I; ''Prostaglandin E synthase.''; Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  64. Hammad SM, Stefansson S, Twal WO, Drake CJ, Fleming P, Remaley A, Brewer HB Jr, Argraves WS; ''Cubilin, the endocytic receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B(12) complex, mediates high-density lipoprotein holoparticle endocytosis.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  65. Molnar J, Garamvolgyi Z, Herold M, Adanyi N, Somogyi A, Rigo J Jr; ''Serum selenium concentrations correlate significantly with inflammatory biomarker high-sensitive CRP levels in Hungarian gestational diabetic and healthy pregnant women at mid-pregnancy.''; Biol Trace Elem Res, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  66. Kypreos KE, van Dijk KW, van Der Zee A, Havekes LM, Zannis VI; ''Domains of apolipoprotein E contributing to triglyceride and cholesterol homeostasis in vivo. Carboxyl-terminal region 203-299 promotes hepatic very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride secretion.''; J Biol Chem, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  67. Riedel B, Fiskerstrand T, Refsum H, Ueland PM; ''Co-ordinate variations in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase, and the cobalamin cofactors in human glioma cells during nitrous oxide exposure and the subsequent recovery phase.''; Biochem J, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  68. Deo AK, Bandiera SM; ''Identification of human hepatic cytochrome p450 enzymes involved in the biotransformation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid.''; Drug Metab Dispos, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  69. Bohnenkamp HR, Papazisis KT, Burchell JM, Taylor-Papadimitriou J; ''Synergism of Toll-like receptor-induced interleukin-12p70 secretion by monocyte-derived dendritic cells is mediated through p38 MAPK and lowers the threshold of T-helper cell type 1 responses.''; Cell Immunol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  70. Gautier G, Humbert M, Deauvieau F, Scuiller M, Hiscott J, Bates EE, Trinchieri G, Caux C, Garrone P; ''A type I interferon autocrine-paracrine loop is involved in Toll-like receptor-induced interleukin-12p70 secretion by dendritic cells.''; J Exp Med, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  71. Itabe H; ''Oxidative modification of LDL: its pathological role in atherosclerosis.''; Clin Rev Allergy Immunol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  72. Leonard S, Arbogast D, Geyer D, Jones C, Sinensky M; ''Localization of the gene encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase to human chromosome 5.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC
  73. Wang LH, Kulmacz RJ; ''Thromboxane synthase: structure and function of protein and gene.''; Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  74. Krishnaveni GV, Hill JC, Veena SR, Bhat DS, Wills AK, Karat CL, Yajnik CS, Fall CH; ''Low plasma vitamin B12 in pregnancy is associated with gestational 'diabesity' and later diabetes.''; Diabetologia, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  75. Borzutzky A, Crompton B, Bergmann AK, Giliani S, Baxi S, Martin M, Neufeld EJ, Notarangelo LD; ''Reversible severe combined immunodeficiency phenotype secondary to a mutation of the proton-coupled folate transporter.''; Clin Immunol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  76. Bose R, Kolesnick R; ''Measurement of ceramide synthase activity.''; Methods Enzymol, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  77. Birn H, Willnow TE, Nielsen R, Norden AG, Bönsch C, Moestrup SK, Nexø E, Christensen EI; ''Megalin is essential for renal proximal tubule reabsorption and accumulation of transcobalamin-B(12).''; Am J Physiol Renal Physiol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  78. Hoey L, McNulty H, Strain JJ; ''Studies of biomarker responses to intervention with riboflavin: a systematic review.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  79. Bosschaerts T, Guilliams M, Noel W, Hérin M, Burk RF, Hill KE, Brys L, Raes G, Ghassabeh GH, De Baetselier P, Beschin A; ''Alternatively activated myeloid cells limit pathogenicity associated with African trypanosomiasis through the IL-10 inducible gene selenoprotein P.''; J Immunol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  80. Zhao R, Qiu A, Tsai E, Jansen M, Akabas MH, Goldman ID; ''The proton-coupled folate transporter: impact on pemetrexed transport and on antifolates activities compared with the reduced folate carrier.''; Mol Pharmacol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  81. Lewis GF, Rader DJ; ''New insights into the regulation of HDL metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport.''; Circ Res, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  82. Rampersaud GC, Kauwell GP, Bailey LB; ''Folate: a key to optimizing health and reducing disease risk in the elderly.''; J Am Coll Nutr, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  83. Engels F, Nijkamp FP; ''Pharmacological inhibition of leukotriene actions.''; Pharm World Sci, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  84. Esmon CT; ''Does inflammation contribute to thrombotic events?''; Haemostasis, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  85. Mudd JO, Borlaug BA, Johnston PV, Kral BG, Rouf R, Blumenthal RS, Kwiterovich PO Jr; ''Beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: defining the role of low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity in coronary artery disease.''; J Am Coll Cardiol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  86. Chatterjee S, Castiglione E; ''UDPgalactose:glucosylceramide beta 1----4-galactosyltransferase activity in human proximal tubular cells from normal and familial hypercholesterolemic homozygotes.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 1987 PubMed Europe PMC
  87. Hahn FM, Xuan JW, Chambers AF, Poulter CD; ''Human isopentenyl diphosphate: dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase: overproduction, purification, and characterization.''; Arch Biochem Biophys, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  88. Amaral JD, Castro RE, Steer CJ, Rodrigues CM; ''p53 and the regulation of hepatocyte apoptosis: implications for disease pathogenesis.''; Trends Mol Med, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  89. Bleys J, Navas-Acien A, Guallar E; ''Serum selenium and diabetes in U.S. adults.''; Diabetes Care, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  90. Schöneich C; ''Methionine oxidation by reactive oxygen species: reaction mechanisms and relevance to Alzheimer's disease.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  91. Paradisi G, Cucinelli F, Mele MC, Barini A, Lanzone A, Caruso A; ''Endothelial function in post-menopausal women: effect of folic acid supplementation.''; Hum Reprod, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  92. Mahley RW; ''Apolipoprotein E: cholesterol transport protein with expanding role in cell biology.''; Science, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC
  93. Hansel A, Heinemann SH, Hoshi T; ''Heterogeneity and function of mammalian MSRs: enzymes for repair, protection and regulation.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  94. Brigelius-Flohé R; ''Tissue-specific functions of individual glutathione peroxidases.''; Free Radic Biol Med, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  95. Wu C, Bates SM; ''Should D-dimer testing be used to predict the risk of recurrence after discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy for a first unprovoked episode of venous thromboembolism?''; Pol Arch Med Wewn, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  96. Kilpatrick L, Johnson JL, Nickbarg EB, Wang ZM, Clifford TF, Banach M, Cooperman BS, Douglas SD, Rubin H; ''Inhibition of human neutrophil superoxide generation by alpha 1-antichymotrypsin.''; J Immunol, 1991 PubMed Europe PMC
  97. Giera M, Renard D, Plössl F, Bracher F; ''Lathosterol side chain amides: a new class of human lathosterol oxidase inhibitors.''; Steroids, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  98. Verrax J, Calderon PB; ''The controversial place of vitamin C in cancer treatment.''; Biochem Pharmacol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  99. Chanarin I; ''Cobalamins and nitrous oxide: a review.''; J Clin Pathol, 1980 PubMed Europe PMC
  100. Whitaker MO, Wyche A, Fitzpatrick F, Sprecher H, Needleman P; ''Triene prostaglandins: prostaglandin D3 and icosapentaenoic acid as potential antithrombotic substances.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1979 PubMed Europe PMC
  101. Sniderman AD; ''How, when, and why to use apolipoprotein B in clinical practice.''; Am J Cardiol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  102. Manieri W, Moore ME, Soellner MB, Tsang P, Caperelli CA; ''Human glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase: active site mutants as mechanistic probes.''; Biochemistry, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  103. Moreno JJ; ''New aspects of the role of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids in cell growth and cancer development.''; Biochem Pharmacol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  104. Gao Y, Hannan NR, Wanyonyi S, Konstantopolous N, Pagnon J, Feng HC, Jowett JB, Kim KH, Walder K, Collier GR; ''Activation of the selenoprotein SEPS1 gene expression by pro-inflammatory cytokines in HepG2 cells.''; Cytokine, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  105. Edmondson DE, Newton-Vinson P; ''The covalent FAD of monoamine oxidase: structural and functional role and mechanism of the flavinylation reaction.''; Antioxid Redox Signal, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  106. Arbogast S, Beuvin M, Fraysse B, Zhou H, Muntoni F, Ferreiro A; ''Oxidative stress in SEPN1-related myopathy: from pathophysiology to treatment.''; Ann Neurol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  107. Watanabe F, Oki Y, Nakano Y, Kitaoka S; ''Occurrence and characterization of cyanocobalamin reductase (NADPH; CN-eliminating) involved in decyanation of cyanocobalamin in Euglena gracilis.''; J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo), 1988 PubMed Europe PMC
  108. Bjørke Monsen AL, Ueland PM, Vollset SE, Guttormsen AB, Markestad T, Solheim E, Refsum H; ''Determinants of cobalamin status in newborns.''; Pediatrics, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  109. Gladyshev VN, Jeang KT, Wootton JC, Hatfield DL; ''A new human selenium-containing protein. Purification, characterization, and cDNA sequence.''; J Biol Chem, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  110. Moore SA, Hurt E, Yoder E, Sprecher H, Spector AA; ''Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts involves peroxisomal retroconversion of tetracosahexaenoic acid.''; J Lipid Res, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  111. Bills TK, Smith JB, Silver MJ; ''Selective release of archidonic acid from the phospholipids of human platelets in response to thrombin.''; J Clin Invest, 1977 PubMed Europe PMC
  112. Videla LA, Rodrigo R, Araya J, Poniachik J; ''Insulin resistance and oxidative stress interdependency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.''; Trends Mol Med, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  113. Stoffel W, LeKim D, Sticht G; ''Metabolism of sphingosine bases. 8. Distribution, isolation and properties of D-3-oxosphinganine reductase. Stereospecificity of the NADPH-dependent reaction of 3-oxodihydrospingosine (2-amino-1-hydroxyoctadecane-3-one).''; Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem, 1968 PubMed Europe PMC
  114. Becker BF; ''Towards the physiological function of uric acid.''; Free Radic Biol Med, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC
  115. Youssef D, El Abbassi A, Jordan RM, Peiris AN; ''Fructosamine--an underutilized tool in diabetes management: case report and literature review.''; Tenn Med, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  116. Jakobsson A, Westerberg R, Jacobsson A; ''Fatty acid elongases in mammals: their regulation and roles in metabolism.''; Prog Lipid Res, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  117. Barth E, Albuszies G, Baumgart K, Matejovic M, Wachter U, Vogt J, Radermacher P, Calzia E; ''Glucose metabolism and catecholamines.''; Crit Care Med, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  118. Lööf L, Wengle B; ''Enzymatic sulphation of bile salts in human liver.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 1978 PubMed Europe PMC
  119. Abate A, Yang G, Dennery PA, Oberle S, Schröder H; ''Synergistic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by vitamin E and aspirin.''; Free Radic Biol Med, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  120. Santhanam U, Ray A, Sehgal PB; ''Repression of the interleukin 6 gene promoter by p53 and the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1991 PubMed Europe PMC
  121. Holleran WM, Williams ML, Gao WN, Elias PM; ''Serine-palmitoyl transferase activity in cultured human keratinocytes.''; J Lipid Res, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  122. Packer L, Witt EH, Tritschler HJ; ''alpha-Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant.''; Free Radic Biol Med, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  123. Das UN; ''Folic acid says NO to vascular diseases.''; Nutrition, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  124. van der Westhuyzen DR, Cai L, de Beer MC, de Beer FC; ''Serum amyloid A promotes cholesterol efflux mediated by scavenger receptor B-I.''; J Biol Chem, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  125. Kwak SE, Kim JE, Kim DW, Kwon OS, Choi SY, Kang TC; ''Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase, not pyridoxal kinase, involves in long-term potentiation induction in the rat dentate gyrus.''; Hippocampus, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  126. Kamagate A, Dong HH; ''FoxO1 integrates insulin signaling to VLDL production.''; Cell Cycle, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  127. Schäfer M, Werner S; ''Oxidative stress in normal and impaired wound repair.''; Pharmacol Res, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  128. Chen D, Zhang XY, Shi Y; ''Identification and functional characterization of hCLS1, a human cardiolipin synthase localized in mitochondria.''; Biochem J, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  129. Papp LV, Lu J, Holmgren A, Khanna KK; ''From selenium to selenoproteins: synthesis, identity, and their role in human health.''; Antioxid Redox Signal, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  130. Karpe F, Bickerton AS, Hodson L, Fielding BA, Tan GD, Frayn KN; ''Removal of triacylglycerols from chylomicrons and VLDL by capillary beds: the basis of lipoprotein remnant formation.''; Biochem Soc Trans, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  131. Cuebas DA, Phillips C, Schmitz W, Conzelmann E, Novikov DK; ''The role of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase in bile acid synthesis.''; Biochem J, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  132. Serhan CN; ''Lipoxins and novel aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxins (ATL): a jungle of cell-cell interactions or a therapeutic opportunity?''; Prostaglandins, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  133. Fowler B, Leonard JV, Baumgartner MR; ''Causes of and diagnostic approach to methylmalonic acidurias.''; J Inherit Metab Dis, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  134. el Attar TM, Lin HS; ''Effect of vitamin C and vitamin E on prostaglandin synthesis by fibroblasts and squamous carcinoma cells.''; Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  135. Fernandes-Costa F, Metz J; ''Vitamin B12 binders (transcobalamins) in serum.''; Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci., 1982 PubMed Europe PMC
  136. Shen W, Stone K, Jales A, Leitenberg D, Ladisch S; ''Inhibition of TLR activation and up-regulation of IL-1R-associated kinase-M expression by exogenous gangliosides.''; J Immunol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  137. Proctor PH.; ''Free radicals, uric acid, and human disease.''; Free Radic Biol Med., 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  138. Guimarães MJ, Peterson D, Vicari A, Cocks BG, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Ferrick DA, Kastelein RA, Bazan JF, Zlotnik A; ''Identification of a novel selD homolog from eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea: is there an autoregulatory mechanism in selenocysteine metabolism?''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  139. Ferré P; ''The biology of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: relationship with lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.''; Diabetes, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  140. Nitahara Y, Aoyama Y, Horiuchi T, Noshiro M, Yoshida Y; ''Purification and characterization of rat sterol 14-demethylase P450 (CYP51) expressed in Escherichia coli.''; J Biochem, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  141. Houssa B, Schaap D, van der Wal J, Goto K, Kondo H, Yamakawa A, Shibata M, Takenawa T, van Blitterswijk WJ; ''Cloning of a novel human diacylglycerol kinase (DGKtheta) containing three cysteine-rich domains, a proline-rich region, and a pleckstrin homology domain with an overlapping Ras-associating domain.''; J Biol Chem, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  142. Molnár I, Balázs C, Szegedi G, Sipka S; ''Inhibition of type 2,5'-deiodinase by tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 and interferon gamma in human thyroid tissue.''; Immunol Lett, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  143. Shields DJ, Lehner R, Agellon LB, Vance DE; ''Membrane topography of human phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase.''; J Biol Chem, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  144. Ogawa H, Gomi T, Fujioka M; ''Serine hydroxymethyltransferase and threonine aldolase: are they identical?''; Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  145. Taki T, Kanfer JN; ''Phospholipase D from rat brain.''; Methods Enzymol, 1981 PubMed Europe PMC
  146. Lund EG, Kerr TA, Sakai J, Li WP, Russell DW; ''cDNA cloning of mouse and human cholesterol 25-hydroxylases, polytopic membrane proteins that synthesize a potent oxysterol regulator of lipid metabolism.''; J Biol Chem, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  147. Feghali CA, Wright TM; ''Cytokines in acute and chronic inflammation.''; Front Biosci, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  148. Puig-Kröger A, Sierra-Filardi E, Domí­nguez-Soto A, Samaniego R, Corcuera MT, Gómez-Aguado F, Ratnam M, Sánchez-Mateos P, Corbí­ AL; ''Folate receptor beta is expressed by tumor-associated macrophages and constitutes a marker for M2 anti-inflammatory/regulatory macrophages.''; Cancer Res, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  149. Häberle J, Pauli S, Berning C, Koch HG, Linnebank M; ''TC II deficiency: avoidance of false-negative molecular genetics by RNA-based investigations.''; J Hum Genet, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  150. Reilly IA, FitzGerald GA; ''Inhibition of thromboxane formation in vivo and ex vivo: implications for therapy with platelet inhibitory drugs.''; Blood, 1987 PubMed Europe PMC
  151. Whitehead VM; ''Acquired and inherited disorders of cobalamin and folate in children.''; Br J Haematol, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  152. Marnett LJ; ''Lipid peroxidation-DNA damage by malondialdehyde.''; Mutat Res, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  153. Voelker DR; ''Phosphatidylserine decarboxylase.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  154. Refsum H, Johnston C, Guttormsen AB, Nexo E; ''Holotranscobalamin and total transcobalamin in human plasma: determination, determinants, and reference values in healthy adults.''; Clin Chem, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  155. Huwyler J, Bürgin M, Zeugin T, Gut J; ''Transformation of 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid into dihydroxy- and cysteinyl-leukotrienes by rat hepatocytes: effects of glutathione.''; Mol Pharmacol, 1991 PubMed Europe PMC
  156. Zetterberg H, Nexö E, Regland B, Minthon L, Boson R, Palmér M, Rymo L, Blennow K; ''The transcobalamin (TC) codon 259 genetic polymorphism influences holo-TC concentration in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Alzheimer disease.''; Clin Chem, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  157. Morrow JD, Roberts LJ 2nd.; ''The isoprostanes. Current knowledge and directions for future research.''; Biochem Pharmacol., 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  158. Bütikofer P, Yee MC, Schott MA, Lubin BH, Kuypers FA; ''Generation of phosphatidic acid during calcium-loading of human erythrocytes. Evidence for a phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D.''; Eur J Biochem, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC
  159. Levin G, Duffin KL, Obukowicz MG, Hummert SL, Fujiwara H, Needleman P, Raz A; ''Differential metabolism of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid by cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2: implications for cellular synthesis of prostaglandin E1 and prostaglandin E2.''; Biochem J, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  160. Ho TC, Chen SL, Yang YC, Chen CY, Feng FP, Hsieh JW, Cheng HC, Tsao YP; ''15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 induces vascular endothelial cell apoptosis through the sequential activation of MAPKS and p53.''; J Biol Chem, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  161. Waterham HR, Wijburg FA, Hennekam RC, Vreken P, Poll-The BT, Dorland L, Duran M, Jira PE, Smeitink JA, Wevers RA, Wanders RJ; ''Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is caused by mutations in the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene.''; Am J Hum Genet, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  162. Johnson KR, Johnson KY, Becker KP, Bielawski J, Mao C, Obeid LM; ''Role of human sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase 1 in the regulation of intra- and extracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate levels and cell viability.''; J Biol Chem, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  163. Shigenaga MK, Gimeno CJ, Ames BN; ''Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine as a biological marker of in vivo oxidative DNA damage.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1989 PubMed Europe PMC
  164. Yamaoka S, Miyaji M, Kitano T, Umehara H, Okazaki T; ''Expression cloning of a human cDNA restoring sphingomyelin synthesis and cell growth in sphingomyelin synthase-defective lymphoid cells.''; J Biol Chem, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  165. Jeong D, Kim TS, Chung YW, Lee BJ, Kim IY; ''Selenoprotein W is a glutathione-dependent antioxidant in vivo.''; FEBS Lett, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  166. Bierbach H; ''Studies on long chain fatty acid:CoA ligase from human small intestine.''; Gut, 1980 PubMed Europe PMC
  167. Neumann D, Kollewe C, Resch K, Martin MU.; ''The death domain of IRAK-1: an oligomerization domain mediating interactions with MyD88, Tollip, IRAK-1, and IRAK-4.''; Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  168. Denis D, Charleson S, Rackham A, Jones TR, Ford-Hutchinson AW, Lord A, Cirino M, Girard Y, Larue M, Rokach J.; ''Synthesis and biological activities of leukotriene F4 and leukotriene F4 sulfone.''; Prostaglandins., 1982 PubMed Europe PMC
  169. Karthikeyan S, Zhou Q, Osterman AL, Zhang H; ''Ligand binding-induced conformational changes in riboflavin kinase: structural basis for the ordered mechanism.''; Biochemistry, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  170. Brigelius-Flohé R; ''Glutathione peroxidases and redox-regulated transcription factors.''; Biol Chem, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  171. Franken PA, Van den Berg L, Huang J, Gunyuzlu P, Lugtigheid RB, Verheij HM, De Haas GH; ''Purification and characterization of a mutant human platelet phospholipase A2 expressed in Escherichia coli. Cleavage of a fusion protein with cyanogen bromide.''; Eur J Biochem, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  172. Dubois RN, Abramson SB, Crofford L, Gupta RA, Simon LS, Van De Putte LB, Lipsky PE; ''Cyclooxygenase in biology and disease.''; FASEB J, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  173. Chen Y, Dennis EA; ''Expression and characterization of human group V phospholipase A2.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  174. Hussein O, Rosenblat M, Refael G, Aviram M; ''Dietary selenium increases cellular glutathione peroxidase activity and reduces the enhanced susceptibility to lipid peroxidation of plasma and low-density lipoprotein in kidney transplant recipients.''; Transplantation, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  175. Basu S; ''F2-isoprostanes in human health and diseases: from molecular mechanisms to clinical implications.''; Antioxid Redox Signal, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  176. Fowler B; ''Genetic defects of folate and cobalamin metabolism.''; Eur J Pediatr, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  177. Powis G, Montfort WR; ''Properties and biological activities of thioredoxins.''; Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  178. Kainou T, Kawamura K, Tanaka K, Matsuda H, Kawamukai M; ''Identification of the GGPS1 genes encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from mouse and human.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  179. Choi SW, Mason JB; ''Folate and carcinogenesis: an integrated scheme.''; J Nutr, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  180. Denis D, Charleson S, Rackham A, Jones TR, Ford-Hutchinson AW, Lord A, Cirino M, Girard Y, Larue M, Rokach J.; ''Synthesis and biological activities of leukotriene F4 and leukotriene F4 sulfone''; Prostaglandins., 1982 PubMed Europe PMC
  181. Banerjee R; ''B12 trafficking in mammals: A for coenzyme escort service.''; ACS Chem Biol, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  182. Abu-Soud HM, Hazen SL; ''Nitric oxide is a physiological substrate for mammalian peroxidases.''; J Biol Chem, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  183. Navab M, Anantharamaiah GM, Reddy ST, Van Lenten BJ, Fogelman AM; ''HDL as a biomarker, potential therapeutic target, and therapy.''; Diabetes, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  184. Izzo AA, Piscitelli F, Capasso R, Marini P, Cristino L, Petrosino S, Di Marzo V; ''Basal and Fasting/Refeeding-regulated Tissue Levels of Endogenous PPAR-alpha Ligands in Zucker Rats.''; Obesity (Silver Spring), 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  185. Labunskyy VM, Hatfield DL, Gladyshev VN; ''The Sep15 protein family: roles in disulfide bond formation and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum.''; IUBMB Life, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  186. Tomohiro S, Kawaguti A, Kawabe Y, Kitada S, Kuge O; ''Purification and characterization of human phosphatidylserine synthase 1 and 2.''; Biochem J, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  187. Schnurr K, Belkner J, Ursini F, Schewe T, Kühn H; ''The selenoenzyme phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase controls the activity of the 15-lipoxygenase with complex substrates and preserves the specificity of the oxygenation products.''; J Biol Chem, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  188. Yun J, Kim JY, Kim OY, Jang Y, Chae JS, Kwak JH, Lim HH, Park HY, Lee SH, Lee JH; ''Associations of plasma homocysteine level with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, LDL atherogenicity, and inflammation profile in healthy men.''; Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  189. Cipollone F, Cicolini G, Bucci M; ''Cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin synthases in atherosclerosis: recent insights and future perspectives.''; Pharmacol Ther, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  190. Bailey JM, Bryant RW, Whiting J, Salata K; ''Characterization of 11-HETE and 15-HETE, together with prostacyclin, as major products of the cyclooxygenase pathway in cultured rat aorta smooth muscle cells.''; J Lipid Res, 1983 PubMed Europe PMC
  191. Xie S, Wang Q, Wu H, Cogswell J, Lu L, Jhanwar-Uniyal M, Dai W; ''Reactive oxygen species-induced phosphorylation of p53 on serine 20 is mediated in part by polo-like kinase-3.''; J Biol Chem, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  192. Aksoy E, Vanden Berghe W, Detienne S, Amraoui Z, Fitzgerald KA, Haegeman G, Goldman M, Willems F; ''Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhances TRIF-dependent NF-kappa B activation and IFN-beta synthesis downstream of Toll-like receptor 3 and 4.''; Eur J Immunol, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  193. Malle E, Marsche G, Arnhold J, Davies MJ; ''Modification of low-density lipoprotein by myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants and reagent hypochlorous acid.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  194. Eklund CM; ''Proinflammatory cytokines in CRP baseline regulation.''; Adv Clin Chem, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  195. Cao S, Zhang X, Edwards JP, Mosser DM; ''NF-kappaB1 (p50) homodimers differentially regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages.''; J Biol Chem, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  196. Liu YY, Han TY, Giuliano AE, Cabot MC; ''Expression of glucosylceramide synthase, converting ceramide to glucosylceramide, confers adriamycin resistance in human breast cancer cells.''; J Biol Chem, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  197. Guan ZZ, Wang YN, Xiao KQ, Hu PS, Liu JL; ''Activity of phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase in brain affected by Alzheimer's disease.''; Neurochem Int, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  198. Scalabrino G, Peracchi M; ''New insights into the pathophysiology of cobalamin deficiency.''; Trends Mol Med, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  199. Mamalakis G, Kafatos A, Tornaritis M, Alevizos B; ''Anxiety and adipose essential fatty acid precursors for prostaglandin E1 and E2.''; J Am Coll Nutr, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  200. Hesse-Bähr K, Dreher I, Köhrle J; ''The influence of the cytokines Il-1beta and INFgamma on the expression of selenoproteins in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2.''; Biofactors, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  201. McCay PB; ''Vitamin E: interactions with free radicals and ascorbate.''; Annu Rev Nutr, 1985 PubMed Europe PMC
  202. Stoffel W, LeKim D, Sticht G; ''Biosynthesis of dihydrosphingosine in vitro.''; Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem, 1968 PubMed Europe PMC
  203. Kimura M, Okuno E, Inada J, Ohyama H, Kido R; ''Purification and characterization of amino-acid N-choloyltransferase from human liver.''; Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem, 1983 PubMed Europe PMC
  204. Sneddon AA, Wu HC, Farquharson A, Grant I, Arthur JR, Rotondo D, Choe SN, Wahle KW; ''Regulation of selenoprotein GPx4 expression and activity in human endothelial cells by fatty acids, cytokines and antioxidants.''; Atherosclerosis, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  205. Ben Jilani KE, Panee J, He Q, Berry MJ, Li PA; ''Overexpression of selenoprotein H reduces Ht22 neuronal cell death after UVB irradiation by preventing superoxide formation.''; Int J Biol Sci, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  206. Joensen AM, Schmidt EB, Dethlefsen C, Johnsen SP, Tjønneland A, Rasmussen LH, Overvad K; ''Dietary intake of total marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid and the risk of acute coronary syndrome - a cohort study.''; Br J Nutr, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  207. Gao Y, Feng HC, Walder K, Bolton K, Sunderland T, Bishara N, Quick M, Kantham L, Collier GR; ''Regulation of the selenoprotein SelS by glucose deprivation and endoplasmic reticulum stress - SelS is a novel glucose-regulated protein.''; FEBS Lett, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  208. Ganji V, Kafai MR; ''Demographic, health, lifestyle, and blood vitamin determinants of serum total homocysteine concentrations in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  209. Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Mehra MR, Ventura HO; ''Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases.''; J Am Coll Cardiol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  210. Politis A, Olgiati P, Malitas P, Albani D, Signorini A, Polito L, De Mauro S, Zisaki A, Piperi C, Stamouli E, Mailis A, Batelli S, Forloni G, De Ronchi D, Kalofoutis A, Liappas I, Serretti A; ''Vitamin B12 levels in Alzheimer's disease: association with clinical features and cytokine production.''; J Alzheimers Dis, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC
  211. Yamashita S, Hosaka K, Numa S; ''Acyl-donor specificities of partially purified 1-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase, 2-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase and 1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine acyltransferase from rat-liver microsomes.''; Eur J Biochem, 1973 PubMed Europe PMC
  212. Peters-Golden M, Brock TG; ''5-lipoxygenase and FLAP.''; Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  213. Watanabe K; ''Prostaglandin F synthase.''; Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  214. Grumolato L, Ghzili H, Montero-Hadjadje M, Gasman S, Lesage J, Tanguy Y, Galas L, Ait-Ali D, Leprince J, Guérineau NC, Elkahloun AG, Fournier A, Vieau D, Vaudry H, Anouar Y; ''Selenoprotein T is a PACAP-regulated gene involved in intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and neuroendocrine secretion.''; FASEB J, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  215. Simmons DL, Botting RM, Hla T; ''Cyclooxygenase isozymes: the biology of prostaglandin synthesis and inhibition.''; Pharmacol Rev, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  216. Pyne S, Pyne NJ; ''Sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling in mammalian cells.''; Biochem J, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  217. Itabe H; ''Oxidative modification of LDL: its pathological role in atherosclerosis.''; Clin Rev Allergy Immunol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  218. Horrobin DF; ''Fatty acid metabolism in health and disease: the role of delta-6-desaturase.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC
  219. Abu Khaled M, Watkins CL, Krumdieck CL; ''Inactivation of B12 and folate coenzymes by butyl nitrite as observed by NMR: implications on one-carbon transfer mechanism.''; Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC
  220. Struys EA, Jansen EE, de Meer K, Jakobs C; ''Determination of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by stable-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry.''; Clin Chem, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  221. Schöneich C; ''Methionine oxidation by reactive oxygen species: reaction mechanisms and relevance to Alzheimer's disease.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  222. Steinbrenner H, Sies H; ''Protection against reactive oxygen species by selenoproteins.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  223. Salem N Jr, Pawlosky R, Wegher B, Hibbeln J; ''In vivo conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in human adults.''; Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  224. Adams RL, Bird RJ; ''Review article: Coagulation cascade and therapeutics update: relevance to nephrology. Part 1: Overview of coagulation, thrombophilias and history of anticoagulants.''; Nephrology (Carlton), 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  225. Bandarian V, Pattridge KA, Lennon BW, Huddler DP, Matthews RG, Ludwig ML.; ''Domain alternation switches B(12)-dependent methionine synthase to the activation conformation.''; Nat Struct Biol., 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  226. Hasan UA, Caux C, Perrot I, Doffin AC, Menetrier-Caux C, Trinchieri G, Tommasino M, Vlach J; ''Cell proliferation and survival induced by Toll-like receptors is antagonized by type I IFNs.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  227. Scheurig AC, Thorand B, Fischer B, Heier M, Koenig W; ''Association between the intake of vitamins and trace elements from supplements and C-reactive protein: results of the MONICA/KORA Augsburg study.''; Eur J Clin Nutr, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  228. Ivanov A, Nash-Barboza S, Hinkis S, Caudill MA; ''Genetic variants in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase influence biomarkers of choline metabolism when folate intake is restricted.''; J Am Diet Assoc, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  229. Whanger PD; ''Selenoprotein expression and function-Selenoprotein W.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  230. Skacel N, Menon LG, Mishra PJ, Peters R, Banerjee D, Bertino JR, Abali EE; ''Identification of amino acids required for the functional up-regulation of human dihydrofolate reductase protein in response to antifolate Treatment.''; J Biol Chem, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  231. Schwarz M, Wright AC, Davis DL, Nazer H, Björkhem I, Russell DW; ''The bile acid synthetic gene 3beta-hydroxy-Delta(5)-C(27)-steroid oxidoreductase is mutated in progressive intrahepatic cholestasis.''; J Clin Invest, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  232. Spassieva S, Seo JG, Jiang JC, Bielawski J, Alvarez-Vasquez F, Jazwinski SM, Hannun YA, Obeid LM; ''Necessary role for the Lag1p motif in (dihydro)ceramide synthase activity.''; J Biol Chem, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  233. Lucock M, Daskalakis I, Briggs D, Yates Z, Levene M; ''Altered folate metabolism and disposition in mothers affected by a spina bifida pregnancy: influence of 677c -->t methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and 2756a -->g methionine synthase genotypes.''; Mol Genet Metab, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  234. Swanson DA, Pangilinan F, Mills JL, Kirke PN, Conley M, Weiler A, Frey T, Parle-McDermott A, O'Leary VB, Seltzer RR, Moynihan KA, Molloy AM, Burke H, Scott JM, Brody LC; ''Evaluation of transcobalamin II polymorphisms as neural tube defect risk factors in an Irish population.''; Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  235. Kovacs E; ''The serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble gp130 (sgp130) in different tumour stages. Correlation between the two parameters in progression of malignancy.''; Biomed Pharmacother, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  236. Northrop-Clewes CA, Thurnham DI; ''Monitoring micronutrients in cigarette smokers.''; Clin Chim Acta, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  237. He YN, Yang JR, Jiang JX, Zhou P, Liu DW, Shen HY, Chen J; ''[The role of Cubilin in albumin-induced MCP-1, RANTES expression by renal tubular epithelial cells]''; Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  238. Bertran N, Camps J, Fernandez-Ballart J, Arija V, Ferre N, Tous M, Simo D, Murphy MM, Vilella E, Joven J; ''Diet and lifestyle are associated with serum C-reactive protein concentrations in a population-based study.''; J Lab Clin Med, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  239. Panee J, Stoytcheva ZR, Liu W, Berry MJ; ''Selenoprotein H is a redox-sensing high mobility group family DNA-binding protein that up-regulates genes involved in glutathione synthesis and phase II detoxification.''; J Biol Chem, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  240. Wickremasinghe MI, Thomas LH, O'Kane CM, Uddin J, Friedland JS; ''Transcriptional mechanisms regulating alveolar epithelial cell-specific CCL5 secretion in pulmonary tuberculosis.''; J Biol Chem, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  241. Baker CH, Matsuda SP, Liu DR, Corey EJ; ''Molecular cloning of the human gene encoding lanosterol synthase from a liver cDNA library.''; Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  242. Eberhardt C, Gray PW, Tjoelker LW; ''Human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. cDNA cloning, expression, and localization to chromosome 9q34.3.''; J Biol Chem, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  243. Ho AW, Wong CK, Lam CW; ''Tumor necrosis factor-alpha up-regulates the expression of CCL2 and adhesion molecules of human proximal tubular epithelial cells through MAPK signaling pathways.''; Immunobiology, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  244. Magni G, Amici A, Emanuelli M, Orsomando G, Raffaelli N, Ruggieri S; ''Enzymology of NAD+ homeostasis in man.''; Cell Mol Life Sci, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  245. Huijghebaert SM, Hofmann AF; ''Influence of the amino acid moiety on deconjugation of bile acid amidates by cholylglycine hydrolase or human fecal cultures.''; J Lipid Res, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC
  246. Köhrle J, Jakob F, Contempré B, Dumont JE; ''Selenium, the thyroid, and the endocrine system.''; Endocr Rev, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  247. Matsukura S, Kokubu F, Kurokawa M, Kawaguchi M, Ieki K, Kuga H, Odaka M, Suzuki S, Watanabe S, Takeuchi H, Kasama T, Adachi M; ''Synthetic double-stranded RNA induces multiple genes related to inflammation through Toll-like receptor 3 depending on NF-kappaB and/or IRF-3 in airway epithelial cells.''; Clin Exp Allergy, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  248. Shimojo T, Akino T, Miura Y, Schroepfer GJ Jr; ''Sphingolipid base metabolism. Stereospecific uptake of proton in the enzymatic conversion of sphinganine 1-phosphate to ethanolamine 1-phosphate.''; J Biol Chem, 1976 PubMed Europe PMC
  249. Smith WL; ''Cyclooxygenases, peroxide tone and the allure of fish oil.''; Curr Opin Cell Biol, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  250. Minkes M, Stanford N, Chi MM, Roth GJ, Raz A, Needleman P, Majerus PW; ''Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate inhibits the availability of arachidonate to prostaglandin synthetase in human platelet suspensions.''; J Clin Invest, 1977 PubMed Europe PMC
  251. Miyazaki M, Kanto T, Inoue M, Itose I, Miyatake H, Sakakibara M, Yakushijin T, Kakita N, Hiramatsu N, Takehara T, Kasahara A, Hayashi N; ''Impaired cytokine response in myeloid dendritic cells in chronic hepatitis C virus infection regardless of enhanced expression of Toll-like receptors and retinoic acid inducible gene-I.''; J Med Virol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  252. Yang P, Chan D, Felix E, Cartwright C, Menter DG, Madden T, Klein RD, Fischer SM, Newman RA; ''Formation and antiproliferative effect of prostaglandin E(3) from eicosapentaenoic acid in human lung cancer cells.''; J Lipid Res, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  253. Bakovic M, Fullerton MD, Michel V; ''Metabolic and molecular aspects of ethanolamine phospholipid biosynthesis: the role of CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2).''; Biochem Cell Biol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  254. Wu D, Mura C, Beharka AA, Han SN, Paulson KE, Hwang D, Meydani SN; ''Age-associated increase in PGE2 synthesis and COX activity in murine macrophages is reversed by vitamin E.''; Am J Physiol, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  255. Correa-Cerro LS, Porter FD; ''3beta-hydroxysterol Delta7-reductase and the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.''; Mol Genet Metab, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  256. Weisel JW; ''Fibrinogen and fibrin.''; Adv Protein Chem, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  257. Guzik TJ, Korbut R, Adamek-Guzik T; ''Nitric oxide and superoxide in inflammation and immune regulation.''; J Physiol Pharmacol, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  258. Verkleij-Hagoort AC, van Driel LM, Lindemans J, Isaacs A, Steegers EA, Helbing WA, Uitterlinden AG, Steegers-Theunissen RP; ''Genetic and lifestyle factors related to the periconception vitamin B12 status and congenital heart defects: a Dutch case-control study.''; Mol Genet Metab, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  259. Ye Y, Shibata Y, Yun C, Ron D, Rapoport TA; ''A membrane protein complex mediates retro-translocation from the ER lumen into the cytosol.''; Nature, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  260. Faust JR, Goldstein JL, Brown MS; ''Squalene synthetase activity in human fibroblasts: regulation via the low density lipoprotein receptor.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1979 PubMed Europe PMC
  261. Inoue T, Irikura D, Okazaki N, Kinugasa S, Matsumura H, Uodome N, Yamamoto M, Kumasaka T, Miyano M, Kai Y, Urade Y; ''Mechanism of metal activation of human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase.''; Nat Struct Biol, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  262. Hammons AL, Summers CM, Woodside JV, McNulty H, Strain JJ, Young IS, Murray L, Boreham CA, Scott JM, Mitchell LE, Whitehead AS; ''Folate/homocysteine phenotypes and MTHFR 677C>T genotypes are associated with serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1.''; Clin Immunol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  263. Guzik TJ, Korbut R, Adamek-Guzik T.; ''Nitric oxide and superoxide in inflammation and immune regulation.''; J Physiol Pharmacol., 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  264. Kovachy RJ, Copley SD, Allen RH; ''Recognition, isolation, and characterization of rat liver D-methylmalonyl coenzyme A hydrolase.''; J Biol Chem, 1983 PubMed Europe PMC
  265. Folsom AR, Desvarieux M, Nieto FJ, Boland LL, Ballantyne CM, Chambless LE; ''B vitamin status and inflammatory markers.''; Atherosclerosis, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  266. Kimura T, Nakanishi K, Nakagawa T, Shibukawa A, Matsuzaki K; ''Simultaneous determination of unbound thyroid hormones in human plasma using high performance frontal analysis with electrochemical detection.''; J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  267. Al-Obaidi MK, Philippou H, Stubbs PJ, Adami A, Amersey R, Noble MM, Lane DA; ''Relationships between homocysteine, factor VIIa, and thrombin generation in acute coronary syndromes.''; Circulation, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC
  268. Maccarrone M, Meloni C, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Cococcetta N, Casciani CU, Finazzi-Agrò A, Taccone-Gallucci M; ''Vitamin E suppresses 5-lipoxygenase-mediated oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of hemodialysis patients regardless of administration route.''; Am J Kidney Dis, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  269. Fakhrzadeh H, Ghotbi S, Pourebrahim R, Nouri M, Heshmat R, Bandarian F, Shafaee A, Larijani B; ''Total plasma homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 status in healthy Iranian adults: the Tehran homocysteine survey (2003-2004)/a cross-sectional population based study.''; BMC Public Health, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  270. Klebanoff SJ; ''Myeloperoxidase: friend and foe.''; J Leukoc Biol, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  271. Bates CJ, Thane CW, Prentice A, Delves HT; ''Selenium status and its correlates in a British national diet and nutrition survey: people aged 65 years and over.''; J Trace Elem Med Biol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  272. Bates CJ, Thane CW, Prentice A, Delves HT; ''Selenium status and its correlates in a British national diet and nutrition survey: people aged 65 years and over.''; J Trace Elem Med Biol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  273. Setty BN, Stuart MJ, Walenga RW; ''Formation of 11-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in human umbilical arteries is catalyzed by cyclooxygenase.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 1985 PubMed Europe PMC
  274. Janciauskiene S, Wright HT; ''Inflammation, antichymotrypsin, and lipid metabolism: autogenic etiology of Alzheimer's disease.''; Bioessays, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  275. Needleman P, Raz A, Minkes MS, Ferrendelli JA, Sprecher H; ''Triene prostaglandins: prostacyclin and thromboxane biosynthesis and unique biological properties.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1979 PubMed Europe PMC
  276. Okuma M, Yamashita S, Numa S; ''Enzymic studies on phosphatidic acid synthesis in human platelets.''; Blood, 1973 PubMed Europe PMC
  277. Kraveka JM, Li L, Szulc ZM, Bielawski J, Ogretmen B, Hannun YA, Obeid LM, Bielawska A; ''Involvement of dihydroceramide desaturase in cell cycle progression in human neuroblastoma cells.''; J Biol Chem, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  278. Cali JJ, Russell DW; ''Characterization of human sterol 27-hydroxylase. A mitochondrial cytochrome P-450 that catalyzes multiple oxidation reaction in bile acid biosynthesis.''; J Biol Chem, 1991 PubMed Europe PMC
  279. Hink HU, Santanam N, Dikalov S, McCann L, Nguyen AD, Parthasarathy S, Harrison DG, Fukai T; ''Peroxidase properties of extracellular superoxide dismutase: role of uric acid in modulating in vivo activity.''; Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  280. May JM, Mendiratta S, Hill KE, Burk RF; ''Reduction of dehydroascorbate to ascorbate by the selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase.''; J Biol Chem, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  281. Kilpatrick L, Johnson JL, Nickbarg EB, Wang ZM, Clifford TF, Banach M, Cooperman BS, Douglas SD, Rubin H; ''Inhibition of human neutrophil superoxide generation by alpha 1-antichymotrypsin.''; J Immunol, 1991 PubMed Europe PMC
  282. Hoey L, Strain JJ, McNulty H; ''Studies of biomarker responses to intervention with vitamin B-12: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  283. White BA, Cacciapuoti AF, Fricke RJ, Whitehead TR, Mosbach EH, Hylemon PB; ''Cofactor requiremets for 7 alpha-dehydroxylation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid in cell extracts of the intestinal anaerobic bacterium, Eubacterium species V.P.I. 13708.''; J Lipid Res, 1981 PubMed Europe PMC
  284. Penning TM, Jin Y, Steckelbroeck S, Lanisnik Rizner T, Lewis M; ''Structure-function of human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases: genes and proteins.''; Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  285. Bailey SW, Ayling JE; ''The extremely slow and variable activity of dihydrofolate reductase in human liver and its implications for high folic acid intake.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  286. Hiscott J, Marois J, Garoufalis J, D'Addario M, Roulston A, Kwan I, Pepin N, Lacoste J, Nguyen H, Bensi G; ''Characterization of a functional NF-kappa B site in the human interleukin 1 beta promoter: evidence for a positive autoregulatory loop.''; Mol Cell Biol, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC
  287. Olivier LM, Chambliss KL, Gibson KM, Krisans SK; ''Characterization of phosphomevalonate kinase: chromosomal localization, regulation, and subcellular targeting.''; J Lipid Res, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  288. Semnani RT, Venugopal PG, Leifer CA, Mostböck S, Sabzevari H, Nutman TB; ''Inhibition of TLR3 and TLR4 function and expression in human dendritic cells by helminth parasites.''; Blood, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  289. Sakurai T, Yamamoto Y, Baba N, Nakano M; ''Phospholipase A(2) activity in non-glycated and glycated low density lipoproteins.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  290. Johnsen IB, Nguyen TT, Ringdal M, Tryggestad AM, Bakke O, Lien E, Espevik T, Anthonsen MW; ''Toll-like receptor 3 associates with c-Src tyrosine kinase on endosomes to initiate antiviral signaling.''; EMBO J, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  291. Glickman JF, Schmid A; ''Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase: real-time kinetics and inhibition by nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates in a scintillation assay.''; Assay Drug Dev Technol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC
  292. Lykidis A, Wang J, Karim MA, Jackowski S; ''Overexpression of a mammalian ethanolamine-specific kinase accelerates the CDP-ethanolamine pathway.''; J Biol Chem, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  293. Lijnen HR; ''Elements of the fibrinolytic system.''; Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  294. Abello N, Kerstjens HA, Postma DS, Bischoff R; ''Protein tyrosine nitration: selectivity, physicochemical and biological consequences, denitration, and proteomics methods for the identification of tyrosine-nitrated proteins.''; J Proteome Res, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  295. Lu J, Holmgren A; ''Selenoproteins.''; J Biol Chem, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  296. Waterham HR, Koster J, Romeijn GJ, Hennekam RC, Vreken P, Andersson HC, FitzPatrick DR, Kelley RI, Wanders RJ; ''Mutations in the 3beta-hydroxysterol Delta24-reductase gene cause desmosterolosis, an autosomal recessive disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis.''; Am J Hum Genet, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  297. Son YH, Jeong YT, Lee KA, Choi KH, Kim SM, Rhim BY, Kim K; ''Roles of MAPK and NF-kappaB in interleukin-6 induction by lipopolysaccharide in vascular smooth muscle cells.''; J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  298. Liu C, Wang Q, Guo H, Xia M, Yuan Q, Hu Y, Zhu H, Hou M, Ma J, Tang Z, Ling W; ''Plasma S-adenosylhomocysteine is a better biomarker of atherosclerosis than homocysteine in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed high dietary methionine.''; J Nutr, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  299. Fang JY, Xiao SD, Zhu SS, Yuan JM, Qiu DK, Jiang SJ; ''Relationship of plasma folic acid and status of DNA methylation in human gastric cancer.''; J Gastroenterol, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  300. Araya Z, Wikvall K; ''6alpha-hydroxylation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid by CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC

History

View all...
CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
107121view14:19, 17 September 2019MaintBotChEBI identifier normalization
106696view13:04, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
105852view23:16, 15 August 2019KhanspersModified description
105138view15:07, 10 July 2019DeSlConnected unconnected lines.
105137view15:00, 10 July 2019DeSlUpdated Fibrinogen as complex with 3 subunits, changed fibrin datanode type from protein to metabolite.
101942view06:31, 19 November 2018EgonwReplaced Wikipedia with Wikidata identifiers.
98243view14:14, 14 August 2018EgonwReplace a PubChem SID with a Wikidata ID (which has more links out).
97371view18:33, 11 May 2018AlexanderPicofixed legend for metabolites
97370view18:31, 11 May 2018AlexanderPicodistinguished cofactor color
97369view18:30, 11 May 2018AlexanderPicodistinguished cofactor color
97368view18:27, 11 May 2018AlexanderPicoadditional color fixes
97367view18:19, 11 May 2018AlexanderPicoupdating text color to make it visible
96978view18:20, 24 April 2018AlexanderPicoReverted to version '01:53, 8 March 2018' by AlexanderPico
96976view15:55, 24 April 2018WpblockedModified title
96310view08:53, 8 March 2018Mkutmonfix character encoding in references
96277view07:40, 5 March 2018EgonwConverted interactions to regular arrows, which were not mim:conversions.
96248view13:51, 2 March 2018Fehrhartconnected unconnected connections
96192view17:58, 23 February 2018Asios OliaModified description
96191view17:57, 23 February 2018Asios OliaModified description
96190view17:42, 23 February 2018Asios OliaModified description
96189view17:33, 23 February 2018Asios OliaModified description
95970view09:12, 11 February 2018EgonwIt had the PubChem CID from the start, but that entry is not the protein fibrin, but a small compound. I now took the Wikidata entry matching the proper Wikipedia page.
85340view11:14, 8 May 2016EgonwReplaced a mim-conversion with Arrow.
82707view08:59, 23 October 2015EgonwoxLDL has a separate identifier.
80971view13:17, 6 July 2015Mkutmonremove spaces in identifiers
79884view12:38, 23 April 2015Mkutmonremoved redundant publication xrefs
79878view11:43, 23 April 2015Mkutmonuse labels and graphical lines in legend
79872view14:53, 21 April 2015Mkutmonremoved invalid annotation for "Fibrinogen" (Database: Other)
70117view19:15, 12 July 2013MaintBotupdated to 2013 schema
69054view18:01, 8 July 2013EgonwReplaced an outdated HMDB identifier with the 3.5 one.
68769view16:12, 7 July 2013EgonwFixed the fibrin PubChem-compound data source name, Wikipedia identifier, and Enzyme Nomenclature data source names.
49537view09:35, 20 July 2012AndraCorrected Identifier error found in Rdf export
48238view06:00, 17 May 2012MaintBotUpdating PubChem xrefs
45013view18:13, 6 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'pernicious anemia' added !
45012view18:07, 6 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) metabolic pathway' added !
41028view23:13, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
39775view21:34, 17 January 2011AlexanderPicomore complete title
38840view17:36, 24 September 2010KhanspersAdded pathway links, changed line types
38839view17:34, 24 September 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
37210view20:44, 21 May 2010KhanspersModified categories
37066view15:02, 15 May 2010DamarizEnd
37065view15:00, 15 May 2010DamarizFructosamine
37064view14:58, 15 May 2010DamarizHBA1
37063view14:54, 15 May 2010DamarizPAI-1
37062view14:52, 15 May 2010DamarizPeriodical save, work in progress
37061view14:50, 15 May 2010Damarizalb(2)
37060view14:46, 15 May 2010Damarizalb
37059view14:40, 15 May 2010DamarizINS
37058view14:36, 15 May 2010Damariztpa
37057view14:30, 15 May 2010DamarizCreatinine(2)

External references

DataNodes

View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
Protein
Methylmalonic acidMetaboliteHMDB00202 (HMDB) Methylmalonate
S-AdenosylhomocysteineMetaboliteHMDB00939 (HMDB)
S-AdenosylmethionineMetaboliteHMDB01185 (HMDB)
Succinyl-CoAMetaboliteHMDB01022 (HMDB)
5,10-Methylene-THFMetaboliteHMDB01533 (HMDB) 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate
5-methyl-THFMetaboliteHMDB01396 (HMDB)
  • 5-methyltetrahydrofolate
  • Predominant food folate
8-Isoprostaglandin F2aMetaboliteHMDB05083 (HMDB)
8-OHdGMetaboliteHMDB03333 (HMDB) 8-Hydroxy-deoxyguanosine
ABCA1Protein19 (Entrez Gene) ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 1
ACTProtein12 (Entrez Gene)
  • alpha-1-antichymotrypsin
  • serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 3
ALBProtein213 (Entrez Gene) albumin
APOA1-NO2TyrProtein335 (Entrez Gene) Nitrotyrosinated apolipoprotein A-I
APOA1Protein335 (Entrez Gene) apolipoprotein A-I
APOBProtein338 (Entrez Gene) apolipoprotein B
APOEProtein348 (Entrez Gene) apolipoprotein A-I
AdenosylcobalaminMetaboliteHMDB02086 (HMDB)
Ascorbic acidMetabolite29073 (ChEBI) Vitamin C
CBRProtein1.16.1.4 (EC Number)
  • EC 1.16.1.4
  • cob(II)alamin reductase
CBSProtein875 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 4.2.1.22
  • cystathionine-beta-synthase
CRPProtein1401 (Entrez Gene) C-reactive protein, pentraxin-related
CTHProtein1491 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 4.4.1.1
  • cystathionase
CUBNGeneProduct8029 (Entrez Gene) cubilin (intrinsic factor-cobalamin receptor)
Cbl/HCMetaboliteHMDB02174 (HMDB) Cobalamin haptocorrin complex
Cbl/IFMetaboliteHMDB02174 (HMDB) Cobalamin Intrinsic factor complex
Cbl/TCMetaboliteHMDB02174 (HMDB) Cobalamin Transcobalamin complex
ChlorineMetaboliteHMDB00492 (HMDB)
CholesterolMetaboliteHMDB00067 (HMDB)
Cob(I)alaminMetaboliteHMDB03429 (HMDB) Reduced cobalamin
Cob(II)alaminMetaboliteHMDB06316 (HMDB) oxidized cobalamin
CreatinineMetaboliteHMDB00562 (HMDB)
  • Creatine anhydride
  • A breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle
CystathionineMetaboliteHMDB00099 (HMDB)
CysteineMetaboliteHMDB00574 (HMDB)
D-Methylmalonyl-CoAMetaboliteHMDB01269 (HMDB)
D-dimerProtein (Wikipedia) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibrin_degradation_product
DNA OxidationPathway
F2-IsoprostaneMetabolite53788444 (PubChem-substance)
FADMetaboliteHMDB01248 (HMDB) Flavin adenine dinucleotide
Factor VIIProtein2155 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 3.4.21.21
  • coagulation factor VII (serum prothrombin conversion accelerator)
FibrinProtein439199 (PubChem)
FibrinogenProteinGO:0005577 (Other)
FructosamineMetaboliteHMDB02030 (HMDB)
GlucoseMetaboliteHMDB00122 (HMDB)
H2O2MetaboliteHMDB03125 (HMDB) Hydrogen peroxide
HBA1Protein3039 (Entrez Gene) hemoglobin, alpha 1
HBBProtein3043 (Entrez Gene) hemoglobin, beta
HCGeneProduct6947 (Entrez Gene)
  • Haptocorrin
  • transcobalamin I (vitamin B12 binding protein, R binder family)
HDL-CMetabolite47775 (ChEBI)
  • high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  • Cholesterol transport
HDL/APOA1Metabolite39025 (ChEBI)
  • high-density lipoprotein
  • ApoA-I is present on the majority of HDL particles and constitutes aprox 70% of the apolipoprotein content of HDL particles
HDL/SAAMetabolite39025 (ChEBI)
  • high-density lipoprotein
  • SAA circulates in plasma as a constituent of high density lipoproteins (HDL).
HDLMetabolite39025 (ChEBI) high-density lipoprotein
HNO2Metabolite25567 (ChEBI) Nitrous acid
HOClMetaboliteHMDB01050 (HMDB) Hypochlorite
HbA1cProtein
  • Glycated hemoglobin
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycated_hemoglobin
HomocysteineMetaboliteHMDB00742 (HMDB)
IF*GeneProduct2694 (Entrez Gene)
  • gastric intrinsic factor (vitamin B synthesis)
  • Also known as GIF
IL10Protein3458 (Entrez Gene) interferon, gamma
IL1BProtein3553 (Entrez Gene) interleukin 1, beta
IL6Protein3569 (Entrez Gene) interleukin 6 (interferon, beta 2)
INSProtein3630 (Entrez Gene) Insulin
INSRProtein3643 (Entrez Gene) Insulin receptor
L-Methylmalonyl-CoAMetaboliteHMDB01269 (HMDB)
LDL-CMetabolite47774 (ChEBI)
  • low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
LDL/APOBMetabolite39026 (ChEBI)
  • low-density lipoprotein
  • LDL particle contains 1 molecule of apo B
LDLMetabolite39026 (ChEBI) low-density lipoprotein
LDLRProtein3949 (Entrez Gene) low density lipoprotein receptor
Lipid peroxidationPathway
Lipoprotein metabolismPathway
MATProtein4143 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 2.5.1.6
  • Methionine adenosyltransferase
MCEEProtein84693 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 5.1.99.1
  • methylmalonyl CoA epimerase
MCP1GeneProduct6347 (Entrez Gene)
  • Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1
  • CCL2
MM-CoA-HProtein3.1.2.17 (EC Number)
  • EC 3.1.2.17
  • (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA hydrolase
MMABProtein326625 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 2.5.1.17
  • methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblB type
  • Also known as ATR
MPOProtein4353 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 1.11.1.7
  • Myeloperoxidase
MSR*Protein4552 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 1.16.1.8
  • 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase
MTHFR*Protein4524 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 1.5.1.20
  • 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
  • Homozygous of (MTHFR) 677C-T variant may have enzyme activities up to 50% lower than those without the polymorphism increasing the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia
MTR*Protein4548 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 2.1.1.13
  • 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase
  • Also known as MS
MUTProtein4594 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 5.4.99.2
  • methylmalonyl Coenzyme A mutase
  • Also known as MCM
MegalinGeneProduct4036 (Entrez Gene) Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2
MethionineMetaboliteHMDB00696 (HMDB)
Methylcob(III)alaminMetaboliteHMDB02274 (HMDB)
N2OMetabolite17045 (ChEBI)
  • Dinitrogen oxide
  • Nitrous oxide
NADHMetaboliteHMDB01487 (HMDB) Reduced nicotinamide adenine diphosphate
NADMetaboliteHMDB00902 (HMDB) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADP+MetaboliteHMDB00217 (HMDB) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-Oxidized
NADPHMetaboliteHMDB00221 (HMDB) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-Reduced
NFkB1GeneProduct4790 (Entrez Gene) nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p50 subunit
NFkB2GeneProduct4791 (Entrez Gene) nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 2
NO2Metabolite33101 (ChEBI) Nitrogen dioxide
NO3-MetaboliteHMDB01853 (HMDB) Nitrate
NOMetaboliteHMDB03378 (HMDB) Nitric oxide
NitrotyrosineMetaboliteHMDB01904 (HMDB)
O2MetaboliteHMDB02168 (HMDB) Superoxide
O3Metabolite25812 (ChEBI) ozone
ONOO-ONOOHMetaboliteHMDB02179 (HMDB) Peroxynitrite
PAI-1Protein5054 (Entrez Gene) Serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 1
PGE1MetaboliteHMDB01442 (HMDB) Prostaglandin E1
PGE2MetaboliteHMDB01220 (HMDB) Prostaglandin E2
PGF2aMetaboliteHMDB01139 (HMDB) Prostaglandin F2a
PLGProtein5340 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 3.4.21.7
  • Plasminogen
Prostaglandin metabolismPathway
Protein tyrosine nitrationPathway
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB01491 (HMDB) Vitamin B6
RANTESProtein6352 (Entrez Gene)
  • CCL5
  • chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5
RELAGeneProduct5970 (Entrez Gene) nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 3, p65
RiboflavinMetaboliteHMDB00244 (HMDB)
SAA1Protein6288 (Entrez Gene) serum amyloid A1
SAA2Protein6289 (Entrez Gene) serum amyloid A2
SAA3Protein6290 (Entrez Gene) serum amyloid A3 pseudogene
SAA4Protein6291 (Entrez Gene) serum amyloid A4, constitutive
SHMTProtein6472 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 2.1.2.1
  • Serine hydroxymethyltransferase
SOD1Protein6647 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 1.15.1.1
  • superoxide dismutase 1, soluble
SOD2Protein6648 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 1.15.1.1
  • superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial
SOD3Protein6649 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 1.15.1.1
  • superoxide dismutase 3, extracellular
SRB1Protein949 (Entrez Gene) scavenger receptor class B, member 1
SerineMetaboliteHMDB00187 (HMDB)
TAGMetabolite17855 (ChEBI)
  • Triglyceride
  • Triacylglycerol
TCN2*GeneProduct6948 (Entrez Gene) transcobalamin II; macrocytic anemia
THFMetaboliteHMDB01846 (HMDB) Tetrahydrofolic acid
TNFaProtein7124 (Entrez Gene) tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2)
ThrombinProtein2147 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 3.4.21.5
  • coagulation factor II (thrombin)
Thromboxane A2MetaboliteHMDB01452 (HMDB)
Thromboxane B2MetaboliteHMDB03252 (HMDB)
VLDL-TAGMetabolite47776 (ChEBI)
  • very-low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride
  • Triglyceride transport
VLDL/APOBMetabolite39027 (ChEBI)
  • very-low-density lipoprotein
  • The VLDL is produced in the liver, contains one molecule of apoB100
VLDLMetabolite39027 (ChEBI) very-low-density lipoprotein
Vitamin B12/CobalaminMetaboliteHMDB02174 (HMDB)
ZincMetaboliteHMDB01303 (HMDB)
a-TocopherolMetaboliteHMDB01893 (HMDB) Vitamin E
oxLDLMetabolite39026 (ChEBI) oxidized low-density lipoprotein
sICAM-1Protein3383 (Entrez Gene) soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1
tPAProtein5327 (Entrez Gene)
  • EC 3.4.21.68
  • plasminogen activator, tissue
vitamin DMetabolite27300 (ChEBI)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

Personal tools