Physiological and Pathological Hypertrophy of the Heart (Homo sapiens)

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2, 5, 11103, 158, 15154, 121, 6, 937, 141, 13RASGqGPCR agonistsLabelPAK(mechanical, oxidative, metabolic)SurvivalContractilityPathological remodelingCellular growthCompensatory hypertrophyPhysioclogical HypertrophyHypertrophic gene expressionApoptosisDecompensated heart failureElectrophysiology defectsContractilityCytokinesGiStressCamKMKK3Rac1MEF-2p38bET-1CalmodulinerkCTF1CalNBFOSLIFRgp130RhoAp38aSTAT3Ang IIJNKp38GATA-4JNKCalciumPEC-JUNNFAT3CalNAPKCEPKCb


Pathways in physiological and pathological hypertrophy of the heart. Largely based on the article from Wang Y; Signal transduction in cardiac hypertrophy--dissecting compensatory versus pathological pathways utilizing a transgenic approach." Hypertrohpy of the heart can be a physiological compensation for exercise, but it can also be a pathological compensation for hypertension and stress.

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  1. Clerk A, Sugden PH; ''Small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and myocardial hypertrophy.''; Circ Res, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Molkentin JD, Lu JR, Antos CL, Markham B, Richardson J, Robbins J, Grant SR, Olson EN; ''A calcineurin-dependent transcriptional pathway for cardiac hypertrophy.''; Cell, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Bueno OF, De Windt LJ, Tymitz KM, Witt SA, Kimball TR, Klevitsky R, Hewett TE, Jones SP, Lefer DJ, Peng CF, Kitsis RN, Molkentin JD; ''The MEK1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway promotes compensated cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic mice.''; EMBO J, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Takeishi Y, Ping P, Bolli R, Kirkpatrick DL, Hoit BD, Walsh RA; ''Transgenic overexpression of constitutively active protein kinase C epsilon causes concentric cardiac hypertrophy.''; Circ Res, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. MacLellan WR; ''Advances in the molecular mechanisms of heart failure.''; Curr Opin Cardiol, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. Wollert KC, Chien KR; ''Cardiotrophin-1 and the role of gp130-dependent signaling pathways in cardiac growth and development.''; J Mol Med, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. Lim HW, Molkentin JD; ''Calcineurin and human heart failure.''; Nat Med, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. Wang Y; ''Signal transduction in cardiac hypertrophy--dissecting compensatory versus pathological pathways utilizing a transgenic approach.''; Curr Opin Pharmacol, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. Wang Y, Su B, Sah VP, Brown JH, Han J, Chien KR; ''Cardiac hypertrophy induced by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7, a specific activator for c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase in ventricular muscle cells.''; J Biol Chem, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. Jalili T, Takeishi Y, Walsh RA; ''Signal transduction during cardiac hypertrophy: the role of G alpha q, PLC beta I, and PKC.''; Cardiovasc Res, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  11. Olson EN, Molkentin JD; ''Prevention of cardiac hypertrophy by calcineurin inhibition: hope or hype?''; Circ Res, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  12. Molkentin JD; ''Calcineurin and beyond: cardiac hypertrophic signaling.''; Circ Res, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  13. Wollert KC, Taga T, Saito M, Narazaki M, Kishimoto T, Glembotski CC, Vernallis AB, Heath JK, Pennica D, Wood WI, Chien KR; ''Cardiotrophin-1 activates a distinct form of cardiac muscle cell hypertrophy. Assembly of sarcomeric units in series VIA gp130/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-dependent pathways.''; J Biol Chem, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  14. Hunter JJ, Chien KR; ''Signaling pathways for cardiac hypertrophy and failure.''; N Engl J Med, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  15. Heineke J, Molkentin JD; ''Regulation of cardiac hypertrophy by intracellular signalling pathways.''; Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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106695view13:04, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
106538view00:03, 6 September 2019KhanspersModified description
106537view00:02, 6 September 2019KhanspersModified description
105787view19:46, 15 August 2019KhanspersModified description
97641view14:32, 31 May 2018AMTanOntology Term : 'cardiac muscle cell' added !
94723view14:21, 5 October 2017EgonwConnected lines.
88320view15:40, 1 August 2016FehrhartOntology Term : 'hypertrophic cardiomyopathy pathway' added !
78581view14:50, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
68953view17:37, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
45248view18:35, 7 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'heart disease' added !
41110view23:22, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
39763view07:39, 17 January 2011AlexanderPicomore complete title
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External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
Ang IIGeneProduct183 (Entrez Gene)
C-JUNGeneProduct3725 (Entrez Gene)
CTF1GeneProduct1489 (Entrez Gene)
CalNAGeneProduct5530 (Entrez Gene)
CalNBGeneProduct5532 (Entrez Gene)
CalciumMetaboliteHMDB00464 (HMDB)
CalmodulinProtein801 (Entrez Gene)
CamKGeneProduct817 (Entrez Gene)
ET-1GeneProduct1906 (Entrez Gene)
FOSGeneProduct2353 (Entrez Gene)
GATA-4GeneProduct2626 (Entrez Gene)
JNKGeneProduct5599 (Entrez Gene)
LIFRGeneProduct3977 (Entrez Gene)
MEF-2GeneProduct50804 (Entrez Gene)
MKK3GeneProduct5606 (Entrez Gene)
NFAT3GeneProduct4776 (Entrez Gene)
PEMetaboliteHMDB02182 (HMDB)
PKCEGeneProduct5581 (Entrez Gene)
PKCbGeneProduct5579 (Entrez Gene)
Rac1GeneProduct5879 (Entrez Gene)
RhoAGeneProduct387 (Entrez Gene)
STAT3GeneProduct6774 (Entrez Gene)
erkGeneProduct5594 (Entrez Gene)
gp130GeneProduct3572 (Entrez Gene)
p38GeneProduct1432 (Entrez Gene)
p38aGeneProduct1432 (Entrez Gene)
p38bGeneProduct5600 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

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