Apoptosis (Mus musculus)

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Cytosol1Mitochondrionp53 RelatedpbInterferon regulatory factorsbDNA FragmentationFas LigandActivator of Cell DeathbpDegradationApoptosiseInhibitor of Cell DeathCaspeIGF1R signaling pathwayTrp53Bcl2l2Pik3r1CyctCflarRipk1Tnfrsf25TNFRSF10BTraddBcl2Casp4RelaCasp2Bbc3Trp73Casp6Traf2Irf2Mdm2Trp63CraddBaxIrf5NfkbiaNfkbieCdkn2aDffaNfkbieCasp9Igf2BidMycDiabloTraf3TnfBirc3Igf1rLtaFasCasp8Pmaip1Irf1HrkIrf6CycsIkbkgTnfrsf1bTnfsf10Igf1Casp7Apaf1Mcl1BokDffbBnip3lNfkbiaHellsTraddNfkbibFaslTnfrsf1aIrf7Bak1Mapk10Prf1Traf1ChukAkt1XiapMap2k4Bcl2l1Casp3Nfkb1Irf3Tnfrsf21Bcl2l11BadCasp11IkbkbCASP10RelaGzmbBirc2Tnfrsf1aBadIrf4Map3k1FaddJunNfkbibBirc5Ripk1Nfkb1Casp12


Apoptosis is a distinct form of cell death that is functionally and morphologically different from necrosis. Nuclear chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic shrinking, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and membrane blebbing characterize apoptosis in general. Mitochondria remain morphologically unchanged. In 1972 Kerr et al introduced the concept of apoptosis as a distinct form of "cell-death", and the mechanisms of various apoptotic pathways are still being revealed today.


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP254(r29955) with a 94% conversion rate.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Park SY, Lee JH, Ha M, Nam JW, Kim VN; ''miR-29 miRNAs activate p53 by targeting p85 alpha and CDC42.''; Nat Struct Mol Biol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Xiong Y, Fang JH, Yun JP, Yang J, Zhang Y, Jia WH, Zhuang SM; ''Effects of microRNA-29 on apoptosis, tumorigenicity, and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.''; Hepatology, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Mott JL, Kobayashi S, Bronk SF, Gores GJ; ''mir-29 regulates Mcl-1 protein expression and apoptosis.''; Oncogene, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Lakin ND, Jackson SP; ''Regulation of p53 in response to DNA damage.''; Oncogene, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Bose I, Ghosh B; ''The p53-MDM2 network: from oscillations to apoptosis.''; J Biosci, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


View all...
95784view14:36, 19 January 2018MkutmonHomology conversion update
89986view19:02, 6 October 2016Mkutmonfixed unconnected lines
82218view02:08, 16 September 2015AlexanderPicoredirected interactions directed to mitochondria for biopax conversion
69153view18:18, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
67049view09:59, 26 June 2013Christine ChichesterOntology Term : 'apoptotic cell death pathway' added !
47965view13:15, 23 April 2012MartijnVanIerselUpdated group styles
47964view13:14, 23 April 2012MartijnVanIerselAdded cytosol compartment
47963view13:10, 23 April 2012MartijnVanIerselupdated mitochondrion
47745view19:21, 5 April 2012Thomasfixed wrongly annotated genes
41341view00:26, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35103view13:10, 11 February 2010MartijnVanIerselAdded lit. ref.
34407view23:06, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
32837view19:26, 14 September 2009MaintBotAdded xrefs
31859view12:34, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
30858view00:09, 30 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
Akt1GeneProduct11651 (Entrez Gene)
Apaf1GeneProduct11783 (Entrez Gene)
BadGeneProduct12015 (Entrez Gene)
Bak1GeneProduct12018 (Entrez Gene)
BaxGeneProduct12028 (Entrez Gene)
Bbc3GeneProduct170770 (Entrez Gene)
Bcl2GeneProduct12043 (Entrez Gene)
Bcl2l11GeneProduct12125 (Entrez Gene)
Bcl2l1GeneProduct12048 (Entrez Gene)
Bcl2l2GeneProduct12050 (Entrez Gene)
BidGeneProduct12122 (Entrez Gene)
Birc2GeneProduct11797 (Entrez Gene)
Birc3GeneProduct11796 (Entrez Gene)
Birc5GeneProduct11799 (Entrez Gene)
Bnip3lGeneProduct12177 (Entrez Gene)
BokGeneProduct51800 (Entrez Gene)
Casp11GeneProduct12363 (Entrez Gene)
Casp1GeneProduct12362 (Entrez Gene)
Casp2GeneProduct12366 (Entrez Gene)
Casp3GeneProduct12367 (Entrez Gene)
Casp4GeneProduct12363 (Entrez Gene)
Casp6GeneProduct12368 (Entrez Gene)
Casp7GeneProduct12369 (Entrez Gene)
Casp8GeneProduct12370 (Entrez Gene)
Casp9GeneProduct12371 (Entrez Gene)
Cdkn2aGeneProduct12578 (Entrez Gene)
CflarGeneProduct12633 (Entrez Gene)
ChukGeneProduct12675 (Entrez Gene)
CraddGeneProduct12905 (Entrez Gene)
CycsGeneProduct13063 (Entrez Gene)
CyctGeneProduct13067 (Entrez Gene)
DffaGeneProduct13347 (Entrez Gene)
DffbGeneProduct13368 (Entrez Gene)
DiabloGeneProduct66593 (Entrez Gene)
FaddGeneProduct14082 (Entrez Gene)
FasGeneProduct14102 (Entrez Gene)
FaslGeneProduct14103 (Entrez Gene)
GzmbGeneProduct14939 (Entrez Gene)
HellsGeneProduct15201 (Entrez Gene)
HrkGeneProduct12123 (Entrez Gene)
Igf1GeneProduct16000 (Entrez Gene)
Igf1rGeneProduct16001 (Entrez Gene)
Igf2GeneProduct16002 (Entrez Gene)
IkbkbGeneProduct16150 (Entrez Gene)
IkbkgGeneProduct16151 (Entrez Gene)
Irf1GeneProduct16362 (Entrez Gene)
Irf2GeneProduct16363 (Entrez Gene)
Irf3GeneProduct54131 (Entrez Gene)
Irf4GeneProduct16364 (Entrez Gene)
Irf5GeneProduct27056 (Entrez Gene)
Irf6GeneProduct54139 (Entrez Gene)
Irf7GeneProduct54123 (Entrez Gene)
JunGeneProduct16476 (Entrez Gene)
LtaGeneProduct16992 (Entrez Gene)
Map2k4GeneProduct26398 (Entrez Gene)
Map3k1GeneProduct26401 (Entrez Gene)
Mapk10GeneProduct26414 (Entrez Gene)
Mcl1GeneProduct17210 (Entrez Gene)
Mdm2GeneProduct17246 (Entrez Gene)
MycGeneProduct17869 (Entrez Gene)
Nfkb1GeneProduct18033 (Entrez Gene)
NfkbiaGeneProduct18035 (Entrez Gene)
NfkbibGeneProduct18036 (Entrez Gene)
NfkbieGeneProduct18037 (Entrez Gene)
Pik3r1GeneProduct18708 (Entrez Gene)
Pmaip1GeneProduct58801 (Entrez Gene)
Prf1GeneProduct18646 (Entrez Gene)
RelaGeneProduct19697 (Entrez Gene)
Ripk1GeneProduct19766 (Entrez Gene)
TNFRSF10BGeneProduct21933 (Entrez Gene)
TnfGeneProduct21926 (Entrez Gene)
Tnfrsf1aGeneProduct21937 (Entrez Gene)
Tnfrsf1bGeneProduct21938 (Entrez Gene)
Tnfrsf21GeneProduct94185 (Entrez Gene)
Tnfrsf25GeneProduct85030 (Entrez Gene)
Tnfsf10GeneProduct22035 (Entrez Gene)
TraddGeneProduct71609 (Entrez Gene)
Traf1GeneProduct22029 (Entrez Gene)
Traf2GeneProduct22030 (Entrez Gene)
Traf3GeneProduct22031 (Entrez Gene)
Trp53GeneProduct22059 (Entrez Gene)
Trp63GeneProduct22061 (Entrez Gene)
Trp73GeneProduct22062 (Entrez Gene)
XiapGeneProduct11798 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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