mRNA processing (Anopheles gambiae)

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SR-proteinssnRNP Sm core complex5Additional FactorsCF IIFormation of the Spliceosomal A complexUGGUFormation of pre-mRNPsAGAGRNAi pathwayYYYYAGRnmt (methyltransferase)Internal methylation of mRNAPiexon 2P-Lariat Formation and 5'-Splice Site Cleavage3YYYYU2565Cleavage of mRNA at the 3'-endCPSFsnRNP Sm core complexU5 snRNP(3)(2)SR-proteinsmRNA polyadenylationProcessing of Intron-Containing Pre-mRNAdegradedAGPoly(A)-binding protein IIexon 1SR-repressor proteinsAmRNA Capping3Formation of the Spliceosomal A complexPolr2asnRNP Sm core complexPrimary RNA transcriptU4Formation of the Spliceosomal B complexNote: New participating members shown at each stepiPoPoly(A) polymerase alphaAAAAAAAmRNA 3'-end processing5Additional FactorsU6 snRNPCF IhnRNP regulatorsCPSFU4:U5:U6 tri-snRNP complexCA5Regulation ofAlternative SplicingPoly(A)pb IIYYYYSR protein phosphatases5AMisc.exon 1SR-proteinsPutative Alternative SplicingRegulatorsright click on blue text for detailed informationSpt53intronYYYY3Formation of the Spliceosomal B complexU55exon 1U15Additional SR proteinsU1 snRNPRngtt (capping enzyme)U1 snRNPKinases Phosphorylating RS domains?mRNA cappingPexon 1AGFormation of pre-mRNPsFormation of the Spliceosomal E complexCstFFormation of the active Spliceosomal C complexheterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteinsAAUAAAYYYY3353U2AF(2a)Cleavage at the 3'-Splice-Site and Exon Ligation5U2 snRNPU4/U6splicesome associated helicasesmRNA splicing (major pathway)SR protein kinases3mRNA splice site selectionCap BindingRNA helicase AhnRNPsexon 2RNA helicaseSerine/Argenine Rich Proteins(SR)SR-binding sitesASR-phosphatasesU53Aexon 2CFI(2b)exon 2SF3b14bAInternal methylation of mRNASR-kinases3CstF5(2c)CF II5Methylation of mRNAsplicing factor SF3BU4 snRNPPoly(A) polYYYYSR-binding sitesexon 1Additional FactorsAU2 snRNPs5U2AFFormation of the Spliceosomal E complexAG5 G cap3Formation of the Spliceosomal C complexexon 2exon 2Accessory Proteinssplicing factor SF3AUG3U2 snRNPexon 1(1)pre-mRNAU6AgaP_AGAP011340DDX20U4 snRNAAgaP_AGAP009570SF3A3AgaP_AGAP008303AgaP_AGAP000399ATPAgaP_AGAP002956HNRPA2B1U5 snRNAAgaP_AGAP012380AgaP_AGAP003635AgaP_AGAP003460AgaP_AGAP001224AgaP_AGAP004765HNRPCAgaP_AGAP003428AgaP_AGAP004592AgaP_AGAP008433AgaP_AGAP002307AgaP_AGAP004610AgaP_AGAP011494SFRS2CUGBP1AgaP_AGAP007242CPSF4CLK2SSFA1PSKH1NONOPRPF4BAgaP_AGAP006108AgaP_AGAP002947AgaP_AGAP009477AgaP_AGAP010918AgaP_AGAP001538U5-116KDAgaP_AGAP011637U1 snRNAAgaP_AGAP007212AgaP_AGAP001792AgaP_AGAP009296AgaP_AGAP005298FUSIP1AgaP_AGAP002706RNU2HNRPH1AgaP_AGAP001460AgaP_AGAP006668AgaP_AGAP009905CLK4SRPK2SFRS5AgaP_AGAP007246AgaP_AGAP000847HNRPUPCBP2SF4AgaP_AGAP010496AgaP_AGAP002474AgaP_AGAP003462SNRPNAgaP_AGAP006599AgaP_AGAP002265AgaP_AGAP002614AgaP_AGAP007810AgaP_AGAP006171SSFA1AgaP_AGAP004682AgaP_AGAP001195AgaP_AGAP002144AgaP_AGAP006885AgaP_AGAP008122AgaP_AGAP002776AgaP_AGAP005322AgaP_AGAP002374AgaP_AGAP005523AgaP_AGAP004090AgaP_AGAP012054AgaP_AGAP011328SNRPNAgaP_AGAP002193AgaP_AGAP003945HNRPA3P1SFRS14AgaP_AGAP003794AgaP_AGAP002908DICER1AgaP_AGAP001064AgaP_AGAP004950SFRS4AgaP_AGAP008925AgaP_AGAP005366AgaP_AGAP003019AgaP_AGAP003936AgaP_AGAP005142AgaP_AGAP000178AgaP_AGAP009093AgaP_AGAP008925AgaP_AGAP007670AgaP_AGAP005021AgaP_AGAP004414AgaP_AGAP009506NCBP2AgaP_AGAP002658AgaP_AGAP001419SNRPB2AgaP_AGAP006240CLK1AgaP_AGAP007701AgaP_AGAP006885AgaP_AGAP011035AgaP_AGAP006755AgaP_AGAP005117AgaP_AGAP005136SFRS9AgaP_AGAP011149AgaP_AGAP002895PAPOLARBMXSFRS10AgaP_AGAP008577AgaP_AGAP002144AgaP_AGAP005136AgaP_AGAP008298AgaP_AGAP011907HRMT1L1HNRPKSSFA1FUSIP1PTBP2AgaP_AGAP001645SNRPEHNRPH2AgaP_AGAP005549GMPAgaP_AGAP007325AgaP_AGAP008263AgaP_AGAP005640AgaP_AGAP008528


Description

This process describes the conversion of precursor messenger RNA into mature messenger RNA (mRNA). The pre-mRNA molecule undergoes three main modifications. These modifications are 5' capping, 3' polyadenylation, and RNA splicing, which occur in the cell nucleus before the RNA is translated.

5' Capping: Capping of the pre-mRNA involves the addition of 7-methylguanosine (m7G) to the 5' end. The cap protects the 5' end of the primary RNA transcript from attack by ribonucleases that have specificity to the 3'5' phosphodiester bonds.

3' Processing: The pre-mRNA processing at the 3' end of the RNA molecule involves cleavage of its 3' end and then the addition of about 200 adenine residues to form a poly(A) tail. As the poly(A) tails is synthesised, it binds multiple copies of poly(A) binding protein, which protects the 3'end from ribonuclease digestion.

Splicing: RNA splicing is the process by which introns, regions of RNA that do not code for protein, are removed from the pre-mRNA and the remaining exons connected to re-form a single continuous molecule.

Description adapted from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-transcriptional_modification

Comments

GenMAPP notes 
Gene lists from obtained from InterPro 9-23-2003: Mm RNA-binding region RNP-1 (RNA recognition motif)
GenMAPP remarks 
Adapted from http://www.reactome.org.
HomologyConvert 
This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP411(r30272) with a 65% conversion rate.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms

 

Bibliography

No bibliography


History

View all...
CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
105892view11:21, 16 August 2019MkutmonHMDB identifier unification
94573view17:53, 28 September 2017AlexanderPicoremoved nested group
71445view19:12, 17 October 2013MaintBotAutomated update of data sources
68444view19:18, 5 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
67494view11:09, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'spliceosome pathway' added !
40476view18:47, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35234view19:22, 11 February 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
35233view19:10, 11 February 2010KhanspersModified description
33733view23:44, 8 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
32285view13:09, 15 August 2009MaintBotFixed text labels
31836view12:28, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
31313view20:14, 13 August 2009MaintBotFixed text labels
30798view23:44, 29 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ATPMetabolite
AgaP_AGAP000178GeneProduct1272086 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP000399GeneProduct1271847 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP000847GeneProduct1277360 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP001064GeneProduct1278678 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP001195GeneProduct1281974 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP001224GeneProduct1281946 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP001419GeneProduct1281757 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP001460GeneProduct1281715 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP001538GeneProduct1281638 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP001645GeneProduct1281527 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP001792GeneProduct1281323 (Entrez Gene) GenBank sequence: M10329
AgaP_AGAP002144GeneProduct1269414 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP002193GeneProduct1269364 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP002265GeneProduct1269293 (Entrez Gene) PMID: 14559993. SRrp86 is a unique member of the SR protein superfamily containing one RNA recognition motif and two serine-arginine (SR)-rich domains separated by an unusual glutamic acid-lysine (EK)-rich region. Previously, we showed that SRrp86 could regulate alternative splicing by both positively and negatively modulating the activity of other SR proteins and that the unique EK domain could inhibit both constitutive and alternative splicing. These functions were most consistent with the model in which SRrp86 functions by interacting with and thereby modulating the activity of target proteins. To identify the specific proteins that interact with SRrp86, we used a yeast two-hybrid library screen and immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry. We show that SRrp86 interacts with all of the core SR proteins, as well as a subset of other splicing regulatory proteins, including SAF-B, hnRNP G, YB-1, and p72. In contrast to previous results that showed activation of SRp20 by SRrp86, we now show that SAF-B, hnRNP G, and 9G8 all antagonize the activity of SRrp86. Overall, we conclude that not only does SRrp86 regulate SR protein activity but that it is, in turn, regulated by other splicing factors to control alternative splice site selection.
AgaP_AGAP002307GeneProduct1273662 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP002374GeneProduct3290608 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP002474GeneProduct1273485 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP002614GeneProduct1273354 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP002658GeneProduct1273301 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP002706GeneProduct1273262 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP002776GeneProduct1273194 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP002895GeneProduct1273072 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP002908GeneProduct1273053 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP002947GeneProduct1273015 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP002956GeneProduct1273007 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP003019GeneProduct1272933 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP003428GeneProduct1272801 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP003460GeneProduct1272829 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP003462GeneProduct1272833 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP003635GeneProduct1274299 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP003794GeneProduct1271533 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP003936GeneProduct1278762 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP003945GeneProduct1278776 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP004090GeneProduct1270887 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP004414GeneProduct1274558 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP004592GeneProduct1275942 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP004610GeneProduct1275923 (Entrez Gene) PMID: 14729963
AgaP_AGAP004682GeneProduct1268691 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP004765GeneProduct1278460 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP004950GeneProduct1275761 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP005021GeneProduct4576284 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP005117GeneProduct1274794 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP005136GeneProduct1274814 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP005142GeneProduct1274820 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP005298GeneProduct1270385 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP005322GeneProduct1276029 (Entrez Gene) PMID: 12773558
AgaP_AGAP005366GeneProduct3289953 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP005523GeneProduct1276207 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP005549GeneProduct1276233 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP005640GeneProduct1276326 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP006108GeneProduct4576730 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP006171GeneProduct1276838 (Entrez Gene) PMID: 12773558
AgaP_AGAP006240GeneProduct1276901 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP006599GeneProduct1277182 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP006668GeneProduct4576768 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP006755GeneProduct1270305 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP006885GeneProduct1270195 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP007212GeneProduct1269919 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP007242GeneProduct1269904 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP007246GeneProduct1269901 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP007325GeneProduct1269848 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP007670GeneProduct1269557 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP007701GeneProduct1269532 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP007810GeneProduct1278148 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP008122GeneProduct1277833 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP008263GeneProduct1277723 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP008298GeneProduct1277686 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP008303GeneProduct1277682 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP008433GeneProduct1277542 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP008528GeneProduct1277444 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP008577GeneProduct1275439 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP008925GeneProduct1279895 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP009093GeneProduct1280046 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP009296GeneProduct1280262 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP009477GeneProduct1271433 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP009506GeneProduct1271405 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP009570GeneProduct1278931 (Entrez Gene) PMID: 14729963
AgaP_AGAP009905GeneProduct1279319 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP010496GeneProduct1275237 (Entrez Gene) Antagonist splicing factor
AgaP_AGAP010918GeneProduct1271032 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP011035GeneProduct1269464 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP011149GeneProduct1270778 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP011328GeneProduct1270609 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP011340GeneProduct1270599 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP011494GeneProduct1278378 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP011637GeneProduct1280995 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP011907GeneProduct1280756 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP012054GeneProduct1280613 (Entrez Gene)
AgaP_AGAP012380GeneProduct1280333 (Entrez Gene)
CLK1GeneProductPMID: 15010457: Inhibitor John C. Bell, PhD

Professor, Depts. of Medicine and Biochemistry, Microbiology & Immunology University of Ottawa Career Scientist, Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre Associate Scientist, The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute Telephone: 613-737-7700 ext 6893 Fax: 613-247-3524 Email: John.Bell@orcc.on.ca The control of pre-mRNA splicing by the Clk kinase family

We are studying a family of kinases which we believe provide an interface between intracellular signaling networks and the post-transcriptional mechanism of mRNA splicing. We are performing a structure:function analysis of the three Clk family members to identify domains in the three proteins which are involved in regulating splicing. Using homologous recombination we are generating null strains of mice which are lacking one, two or all three Clk genes. The Clk kinases all possess dual specificity kinase activity and yeast expression systems are being used to produce large amounts of the kinase to perform a detailed analysis of the sites of serine, threonine and tyrosine autophosphorylation within the kinase.
CLK2GeneProduct
CLK4GeneProduct
CPSF4GeneProduct
CUGBP1GeneProduct
DDX20GeneProduct
DICER1GeneProduct
FUSIP1GeneProductFUSI MOUSE PMID: 11684676
GMPMetaboliteHMDB01397 (HMDB)
HNRPA2B1GeneProduct
HNRPA3P1GeneProduct
HNRPCGeneProduct
HNRPH1GeneProduct
HNRPH2GeneProduct
HNRPKGeneProduct
HNRPUGeneProduct
HRMT1L1GeneProduct
NCBP2GeneProduct
NONOGeneProduct
PAPOLAGeneProduct
PCBP2GeneProduct
PRPF4BGeneProduct
PSKH1GeneProductPMID: 12466556
PTBP2GeneProduct
RBMXGeneProduct
RNU2GeneProductGenBank sequence: K00027
SF3A3GeneProduct
SF4GeneProductinferred from: SURP 2, G patch protein, UniProt:O60378
SFRS10GeneProduct
SFRS14GeneProduct
SFRS2GeneProduct
SFRS4GeneProduct
SFRS5GeneProduct
SFRS9GeneProductPMID: 12738786, PMID: 12024014 (associated with hnRNP A1 splicing)
SNRPB2GeneProduct
SNRPEGeneProduct
SNRPNGeneProduct
SRPK2GeneProductPMID: 12773558
SSFA1GeneProduct
U1 snRNARnaGenBank sequence: J00645
U4 snRNAGeneProductGenBank sequence: M10328, M18004
U5 snRNAGeneProductGenBank sequence: AB021173
U5-116KDGeneProduct

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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