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Tumor cells use a variety of strategies to limit or circumvent apoptosis. Most common is the loss of TP53 tumor suppressor function, which eliminates this critical damage sensor from the apoptosis-inducing circuitry. Alternatively, tumors may achieve similar ends by increasing expression of antiapoptotic regulators (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) or of survival signals (Igf1/2), by downregulating proapoptotic factors (Bax, Bim, Puma), or by short-circuiting the extrinsic ligand-induced death pathway. (Adapted from Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation, Hanahan and Weinberg, Cell 2011)

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