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Inflammation can contribute to multiple hallmarks by supplying bioactive molecules to the tumor microenvironment, including growth factors that sustain proliferative signaling, survival factors that limit cell death, proangiogenic factors, extracellular matrix-modifying enzymes that facilitate angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, and inductive signals that lead to activation of EMT and other hallmark-facilitating programs. Also, inflammatory cells can release chemicals, for example reactive oxygen species, that are actively mutagenic for nearby cancer cells, accelerating their genetic evolution toward states of heightened malignancy. (Adapted from Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation, Hanahan and Weinberg, Cell 2011)

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