Vitamin A and carotenoid metabolism (Pan troglodytes)

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6, 10, 11gap junction communicationRE + dietary lipidsRetinal pigment epithelium specific?DietRE + dietary lipids?RE + dietary lipidsRhodopsin formation?chylomicronNucleus11-cis binding proteinRA-binding proteinsNuclear receptorsBlood?ROL-binding proteins?ROL=retinol; RAL=retinaldehyde, RA = retinoic acid, RE = retinyl ester, RPE = retinal pigment epithelium PPAR pathwaysLiver/other organs?EnterocyteCytochrome P450 familySult1a1AstaxanthinAldh1a313,14 dehydroretinal11-cis-Retinol9-cis-Retinoic acidMAPKCyp26b1all-trans RetinolVitamin AScarb14-oxo-Retinoic acidBetacaroteneCRABP1LuteinBCO2BCMO1Rdh5Scarb1Aldh1a3Npc1l1LratRetinyl esterLplARATRdh8RETSATall-trans Retinoic acidVitamin A acidRBP4LratSult2b1ALDH1A1Beta-CryptoxanthinRetinolVitamin A9-cis-RetinalRBP1Zeaxanthin13,14 dehydro RABCMO1Cyp26a1RDH5RPE6511-cis-RetinalADH4ViolaxanthinRbp7RXRgall-trans RetinalBcmo1ALDH1A1Rdh12All-trans-13,14-dihydroretinolRARbRlbp1BetacaroteneAbcg8Cyp2e1RetinolVitamin AVitamin D3Rdh12Cd36RARgRXRaCanthaxanthinLycopeneALDH1A2RetinalVitamin A aldehydeALDH1A2Rdh10ADH1AAlpha-CaroteneRARaDHRS3Retinyl esterRetinol dehydrogenasesbeta 10' apocorotenalAWAT2Abcg5BetacaroteneBetacaroteneCRABP2RXRball-transe 4-oxo RARBP29-cis-Retinol7, 133, 4, 131, 8, 14, 172, 5, 9, 12, 15...


This pathway is about carotenoid and vitamin A metabolism. The initial version was created by the NuGO focusteam on Carotenoid metabolism. It was used to test a text mining workflow which added some additional entities (see Waagmeester et al. 2009).


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP716(r46094) with a 78% conversion rate.

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Ontology Terms



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  1. Johansson S, Melhus H; ''Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man.''; J Bone Miner Res, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Boosalis MG, Snowdon DA, Tully CL, Gross MD; ''Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.''; Nutrition, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Micozzi MS, Brown ED, Edwards BK, Bieri JG, Taylor PR, Khachik F, Beecher GR, Smith JC Jr; ''Plasma carotenoid response to chronic intake of selected foods and beta-carotene supplements in men.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Khachik F, Beecher GR, Goli MB, Lusby WR, Smith JC Jr; ''Separation and identification of carotenoids and their oxidation products in the extracts of human plasma.''; Anal Chem, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  5. Czeczuga-Semeniuk E, Wolczynski S, Markiewicz W; ''Preliminary identification of carotenoids in malignant and benign neoplasms of the breast and surrounding fatty tissue.''; Neoplasma, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  6. Bendich A, Olson JA; ''Biological actions of carotenoids.''; FASEB J, 1989 PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Sies H, Stahl W, Sundquist AR; ''Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids.''; Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Torma H, Rollman O, Binderup L, Michaelsson G; ''Vitamin D analogs affect the uptake and metabolism of retinol by human epidermal keratinocytes in culture.''; J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  9. Huet F, Semama D, Maingueneau C, Charavel A, Nivelon JL; ''Vitamin A deficiency and nocturnal vision in teenagers with cystic fibrosis.''; Eur J Pediatr, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  10. Waagmeester A, Pezik P, Coort S, Tourniaire F, Evelo C, Rebholz-Schuhmann D; ''Pathway enrichment based on text mining and its validation on carotenoid and vitamin A metabolism.''; OMICS, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  11. Balmer JE, Blomhoff R; ''Gene expression regulation by retinoic acid.''; J Lipid Res, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  12. Ruhl CE, Everhart JE; ''Relation of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase activity with iron and antioxidant levels in the United States.''; Gastroenterology, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  13. Handelman GJ, Dratz EA, Reay CC, van Kuijk JG; ''Carotenoids in the human macula and whole retina.''; Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC
  14. Amir H, Karas M, Giat J, Danilenko M, Levy R, Yermiahu T, Levy J, Sharoni Y; ''Lycopene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 cooperate in the inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of differentiation in HL-60 leukemic cells.''; Nutr Cancer, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  15. Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Rojas-Hidalgo E; ''Seasonal and sex-related variations in six serum carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  16. VandenLangenberg GM, Brady WE, Nebeling LC, Block G, Forman M, Bowen PE, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Mares-Perlman JA; ''Influence of using different sources of carotenoid data in epidemiologic studies.''; J Am Diet Assoc, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  17. Hidiroglou M, Williams CJ; ''Interrelationships among liposoluble vitamins in ruminants.''; Am J Vet Res, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC


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106935view13:40, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
74498view16:00, 26 April 2014EgonwFixed a PubMed ID.
71665view19:40, 17 October 2013MaintBotAutomated update of data sources
69242view18:35, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
58905view04:47, 21 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
48147view18:40, 9 May 2012MaintBotUpdating from human to fix xrefs
41547view01:58, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
34278view21:57, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
32769view18:32, 4 September 2009MaintBotModified categories
30488view21:38, 29 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
11-cis-RetinalMetaboliteHMDB0002152 (HMDB)
11-cis-RetinolMetaboliteHMDB0006216 (HMDB)
13,14 dehydro RAMetabolite
13,14 dehydroretinalMetabolite
4-oxo-Retinoic acidMetaboliteHMDB0006285 (HMDB)
9-cis-RetinalMetaboliteHMDB0006218 (HMDB)
9-cis-Retinoic acidMetaboliteHMDB0002369 (HMDB)
9-cis-RetinolMetaboliteHMDB0006217 (HMDB)
ADH1AGeneProduct744064 (Entrez Gene)
ADH4GeneProduct461394 (Entrez Gene)
ALDH1A1GeneProduct464529 (Entrez Gene)
ALDH1A2GeneProduct746847 (Entrez Gene)
AWAT2GeneProduct473654 (Entrez Gene)
Abcg564240 (Entrez Gene)
Abcg864241 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a3220 (Entrez Gene)
All-trans-13,14-dihydroretinolMetaboliteHMDB0011618 (HMDB)
Alpha-CaroteneMetaboliteHMDB0003993 (HMDB)
AstaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0002204 (HMDB)
BCMO1GeneProduct468043 (Entrez Gene)
BCO2GeneProduct451548 (Entrez Gene)
Bcmo153630 (Entrez Gene)
Beta-CryptoxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0002268 (HMDB)
BetacaroteneMetaboliteHMDB0000561 (HMDB)
CRABP1GeneProduct740693 (Entrez Gene)
CRABP2GeneProduct469838 (Entrez Gene)
CanthaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0003154 (HMDB)
Cd36948 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26a11592 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26b156603 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp2e11571 (Entrez Gene)
DHRS3GeneProduct737006 (Entrez Gene)
Lpl4023 (Entrez Gene)
LratENSG00000121207 (Ensembl)
LuteinMetaboliteHMDB0003233 (HMDB)
LycopeneMetaboliteHMDB0003000 (HMDB)
Npc1l129881 (Entrez Gene)
RARa5914 (Entrez Gene)
RARb5915 (Entrez Gene)
RARg5916 (Entrez Gene)
RBP1GeneProduct743893 (Entrez Gene)
RBP2GeneProduct743813 (Entrez Gene)
RBP4GeneProduct450617 (Entrez Gene)
RDH5GeneProduct467029 (Entrez Gene)
RETSATGeneProduct470420 (Entrez Gene)
RPE656121 (Entrez Gene)
RXRa6256 (Entrez Gene)
RXRb6257 (Entrez Gene)
RXRg6258 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh10157506 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh12145226 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh55959 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh850700 (Entrez Gene)
Retinal Vitamin A aldehydeMetaboliteHMDB0001358 (HMDB)
Retinol Vitamin AMetaboliteHMDB0000305 (HMDB)
Retinol dehydrogenasesGeneProduct
Retinyl esterMetaboliteHMDB0003598 (HMDB)
Rlbp16017 (Entrez Gene)
Scarb1949 (Entrez Gene)
Sult1a16817 (Entrez Gene)
Sult2b16820 (Entrez Gene)
ViolaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0003101 (HMDB)
Vitamin D3MetaboliteHMDB0000876 (HMDB)
ZeaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0002789 (HMDB)
all-trans RetinalMetaboliteHMDB0001358 (HMDB)
all-trans Retinoic acid Vitamin A acidMetaboliteHMDB0001852 (HMDB)
all-trans Retinol Vitamin AMetaboliteHMDB0000305 (HMDB)
all-transe 4-oxo RAMetabolite
beta 10' apocorotenalMetabolite

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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