Retinol metabolism (Gallus gallus)

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2, 2311-cis ROL?11-cis binding proteinRE13,14 dehydro RAchylomicron13,14 dehydro RALRPE-specificCytochrome P450 familyBloodall-trans RAPPAR pathways9-cis RAROL=retinol; RAL=retinaldehyde, RA = retinoic acid, RE = retinyl ester, RPE = retinal pigment epithelium ROL-binding proteins9-cis ROLall-trans-4-oxo RAEnterocyte13,14 dehydro ROLRE + dietary lipids?all-trans-4-oxo dehydro RAROLall-trans RAL11-cis RALbeta-carotene?Nuclear receptorsbeta-caroteneNucleus9-cis RALbeta-carotene?RALbeta-10'-apocarotenalROLbeta-caroteneall-trans ROLRERE + dietary lipidsLiver/other organsRA-binding proteins??RE + dietary lipidsRBP7Rdh5Cyp2e1RXRaABCG5RBP2ALDH1A1DHRS3RXRbBcmo1Rdh5ABCG8SCARB1RARgScarb1Rpe65BCMO1CD36LPLCYP26A1ARATRDH12Bcmo1CRABP1CYP26B1Sult2b1RDH12RBP4astaxanthinALDH1A2LRATRARBALDH1A2RBP1Npc1l1lycopeneAdh4Sult1a1ALDH1A1RDH10LRATALDH1A3luteinzeaxanthinVitamin D3RETSATMAPKRARaRLBP1alpha-caroteneBcdo2Adh1ALDH1A3Crabp2cryptoxanthinviolaxanthinRXRGRdh8canthaxanthinbeta-cryptoxanthin1, 7, 12-15, 17...5, 6, 8, 9, 18...3, 4, 11, 224, 10, 16


This pathway is about carotenoid metabolism. It is mainly created by the NuGO focusteam on Carotenoid metabolism. Finally it was subject to a text mining workflow which added some additional entities.


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP716(r30274) with a 60% conversion rate.

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Ontology Terms



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  1. Botilsrud M, Holmberg I, Wathne KO, Blomhoff HK, Norum KR, Blomhoff R; ''Effect of retinoids and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 bound to their plasma transport proteins on growth and differentiation of HL-60 cells.''; Scand J Clin Lab Invest, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Balmer JE, Blomhoff R; ''Gene expression regulation by retinoic acid.''; J Lipid Res, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Sies H, Stahl W, Sundquist AR; ''Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids.''; Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Handelman GJ, Dratz EA, Reay CC, van Kuijk JG; ''Carotenoids in the human macula and whole retina.''; Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC
  5. Ruhl CE, Everhart JE; ''Relation of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase activity with iron and antioxidant levels in the United States.''; Gastroenterology, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  6. VandenLangenberg GM, Brady WE, Nebeling LC, Block G, Forman M, Bowen PE, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Mares-Perlman JA; ''Influence of using different sources of carotenoid data in epidemiologic studies.''; J Am Diet Assoc, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Hidiroglou M, Williams CJ; ''Interrelationships among liposoluble vitamins in ruminants.''; Am J Vet Res, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Boosalis MG, Snowdon DA, Tully CL, Gross MD; ''Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.''; Nutrition, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  9. Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Rojas-Hidalgo E; ''Seasonal and sex-related variations in six serum carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  10. Khachik F, Beecher GR, Goli MB, Lusby WR, Smith JC Jr; ''Separation and identification of carotenoids and their oxidation products in the extracts of human plasma.''; Anal Chem, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  11. Sommerburg O, Keunen JE, Bird AC, van Kuijk FJ; ''Fruits and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes.''; Br J Ophthalmol, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  12. Vásárhelyi B, Blázovics A, Fehér J; ''[The role of vitamin A analogues and derivatives in the regulation of cell function].''; Orv Hetil, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC
  13. Johansson S, Melhus H; ''Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man.''; J Bone Miner Res, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  14. Satoh T; ''[Fat-soluble vitamins: biotransformation].''; Nihon Rinsho, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC
  15. Amir H, Karas M, Giat J, Danilenko M, Levy R, Yermiahu T, Levy J, Sharoni Y; ''Lycopene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 cooperate in the inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of differentiation in HL-60 leukemic cells.''; Nutr Cancer, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  16. Micozzi MS, Brown ED, Edwards BK, Bieri JG, Taylor PR, Khachik F, Beecher GR, Smith JC Jr; ''Plasma carotenoid response to chronic intake of selected foods and beta-carotene supplements in men.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  17. Heber D, Lu QY; ''Overview of mechanisms of action of lycopene.''; Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  18. Huet F, Semama D, Maingueneau C, Charavel A, Nivelon JL; ''Vitamin A deficiency and nocturnal vision in teenagers with cystic fibrosis.''; Eur J Pediatr, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  19. Czeczuga-Semeniuk E, Wolczynski S, Markiewicz W; ''Preliminary identification of carotenoids in malignant and benign neoplasms of the breast and surrounding fatty tissue.''; Neoplasma, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  20. Torma H, Rollman O, Binderup L, Michaelsson G; ''Vitamin D analogs affect the uptake and metabolism of retinol by human epidermal keratinocytes in culture.''; J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  21. Sturgeon SR, Ziegler RG, Brinton LA, Nasca PC, Mallin K, Gridley G; ''Diet and the risk of vulvar cancer.''; Ann Epidemiol, 1991 PubMed Europe PMC
  22. Yong LC, Forman MR, Beecher GR, Graubard BI, Campbell WS, Reichman ME, Taylor PR, Lanza E, Holden JM, Judd JT; ''Relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids in premenopausal women: application of the USDA-NCI carotenoid food-composition database.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  23. Bendich A, Olson JA; ''Biological actions of carotenoids.''; FASEB J, 1989 PubMed Europe PMC


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106122view12:02, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
81022view13:06, 11 July 2015EgonwRemoved an empty reference.
74440view07:14, 20 April 2014EgonwCompleted a few PubMed IDs with title, authors, etc.
74439view07:05, 20 April 2014EgonwFixed a PubMed ID.
74235view06:53, 9 April 2014EgonwRemoved a data source where no ID was given.
74231view16:28, 8 April 2014EgonwRemoved a data source where no ID was given.
71186view15:43, 11 October 2013EgonwRemoved source details from the pathway title.
68879view17:22, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
67629view11:35, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'retinol metabolic pathway' added !
56483view08:37, 8 January 2013EgonwReplaced data source 'hmdbid' with 'HMDB'.
47782view05:54, 6 April 2012Khanspersupdated xref
41021view22:57, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
33942view18:14, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
32773view18:35, 4 September 2009MaintBotModified categories
30374view20:59, 29 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ABCG5GeneProduct421401 (Entrez Gene)
ABCG8GeneProduct421402 (Entrez Gene)
ALDH1A1GeneProduct395264 (Entrez Gene)
ALDH1A2GeneProduct395844 (Entrez Gene)
ALDH1A3GeneProduct395389 (Entrez Gene)
BCMO1GeneProduct395346 (Entrez Gene)
Bcdo2GeneProduct419792 (Entrez Gene)
Bcmo1GeneProduct395346 (Entrez Gene)
CD36GeneProduct417730 (Entrez Gene)
CRABP1GeneProduct374211 (Entrez Gene)
CYP26A1GeneProduct408183 (Entrez Gene)
CYP26B1GeneProduct428809 (Entrez Gene)
DHRS3GeneProduct419480 (Entrez Gene)
LPLGeneProduct396219 (Entrez Gene)
LRATGeneProduct422403 (Entrez Gene)
RARBGeneProduct396266 (Entrez Gene)
RARaGeneProduct395213 (Entrez Gene)
RBP1GeneProduct424821 (Entrez Gene)
RBP2GeneProduct424822 (Entrez Gene)
RBP4GeneProduct396166 (Entrez Gene)
RBP7GeneProduct419447 (Entrez Gene)
RDH10GeneProduct420183 (Entrez Gene)
RDH12GeneProduct423274 (Entrez Gene)
RETSATGeneProduct426549 (Entrez Gene)
RLBP1GeneProduct415492 (Entrez Gene)
RXRGGeneProduct396231 (Entrez Gene)
RXRaGeneProduct417143 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh5GeneProduct424169 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh8GeneProduct429086 (Entrez Gene)
Rpe65GeneProduct395700 (Entrez Gene)
SCARB1GeneProduct416814 (Entrez Gene)
Scarb1GeneProduct416814 (Entrez Gene)
Vitamin D3MetaboliteHMDB0000876 (HMDB)
alpha-caroteneMetaboliteHMDB0003993 (HMDB)
astaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0002204 (HMDB)
beta-cryptoxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0002268 (HMDB)
canthaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0003154 (HMDB)
cryptoxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0002268 (HMDB)
luteinMetaboliteHMDB0003233 (HMDB)
lycopeneMetaboliteHMDB0003000 (HMDB)
violaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0003101 (HMDB)
zeaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB0002789 (HMDB)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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