Amino acid conjugation (Homo sapiens)

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1carboxylic acid AMP esterL-GlutamineTaurineATPPhosphateGlycinecarboxyl CoAPhosphatecarboxylic acidcarboxyl amino acid conjugate


Xenobiotic compounds containing a carboxylic acid group (-COOH) or an aromatic hydroxylamine (-NHOH) group can be substrates for amino acid conjugation. (Source: Amino acid conjugation is important in the biotransformation of several xenobiotic carboxylic acids. An amide or peptide bond can be formed between the carboxyl group of the xenobiotic and the amino group of an amino acid, mainly glycine, taurine or glutamine. (Source: Hutt A.J., Caldwell J. Conjugation Reactions In Drug Metabolism; Chapter 10 Amino acid conjugation; 1990).

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  1. Knights KM, Sykes MJ, Miners JO; ''Amino acid conjugation: contribution to the metabolism and toxicity of xenobiotic carboxylic acids.''; Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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106831view13:31, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
98936view12:43, 16 October 2018DeSlChanged all arrows to mim-conversion.
98935view12:42, 16 October 2018DeSlAdded general lit. ref; connected side metabolites properly.
98805view21:05, 9 October 2018EveloModified description
97770view13:34, 7 June 2018IreneHemelModified description
94201view14:49, 25 August 2017Mkutmonadded missing metabolite identifier
63154view20:18, 8 May 2013MaintBotUpdating GPML version
58502view18:56, 14 February 2013MaintBotModified title
44948view12:33, 6 October 2011MartijnVanIerselOntology Term : 'amino acid metabolic pathway' added !
41214view23:45, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
33423view14:53, 30 November 2009MaintBotRemoved group label
29732view22:25, 1 June 2009KhanspersModified categories
29686view10:32, 27 May 2009Pieter GiesbertzNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ATPMetaboliteHMDB0000538 (HMDB)
GlycineMetaboliteHMDB0000123 (HMDB)
L-GlutamineMetaboliteHMDB0000641 (HMDB)
PhosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001429 (HMDB)
TaurineMetaboliteHMDB0000251 (HMDB)
carboxyl CoAMetabolite
carboxyl amino acid conjugateMetabolite
carboxylic acid AMP esterMetabolite
carboxylic acidMetaboliteCHEBI:33575 (ChEBI)

Annotated Interactions

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