Ureide biosynthesis (Oryza sativa)

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1, 2SpontaneousH2ONAD+Inosine-5'-phosphateIMP dehydrogenaseH2O25-hydroxyisourateAllantoinXanthosineXanthine dehydrogenaseAllantoic acidIMP dehydrogenaseIMP dehydrogenaseH2OIMP dehydrogenaseUrateNADHRibose 1-phosphateH2OXanthineH2OIMP dehydrogenasePhosphatexanthosine-5-phosphateH2OH2ONADHO2IMP dehydrogenaseUrate oxidaseNAD+CO2Phosphate5-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-ureido-2,5-dihydro-1H imidazole-5-carboxylateIMP dehydrogenase


Based on original gramene pathway.

Nitrogen is frequently the limiting nutrient for growth of many crop plants. Legumes solved this problem by establishing a symbiotic relationship with bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium, which contain the enzyme nitrogenase. Nitrogenase catalyzes the conversion of atmospheric dinitrogen to ammonia, which can be used to meet the plant's metabolic nitrogen requirements.

Before the fixed nitrogen can be used by the plant, it must be converted into organic forms that can be transported throughout the plant and further metabolized. There are two major forms of organic nitrogen compounds that can be transported - amides (such as L-asparagine and L-glutamine ) and ureides (such as allantoin and allantoate ). Temperate-region legumes, such as pea, are amide exporters, while legumes of tropical origin, such as soybean, kidney bean, and peanut, export nitrogen in the forms of ureides. Isotope-labeling studies performed with tropical legumes demonstrate that ammonia produced from dinitrogen reduction is rapidly converted into allantoin and allantoate [ Ohyama78 ], and that up to 95% of the nitrogen in the xylem sap in nodulated soybeans is in the form of ureides [ Schubert81 ].

The ammonia generated by the bacteria is first converted into the amino acid L-glutamine and then incorporated into inosine-5'-phosphate (IMP), a purine synthesized de novo during nitrogen fixation by roots (see purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II ).

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Ontology Terms



  1. Ohyama, T., Kumazawa, K; '' Incorporation of 15N into various nitrogenous compounds in intact soybean nodules after exposure to 15N(2) gas''; Plant physiology and biochemistry, 1978
  2. Schubert KR; ''Enzymes of Purine Biosynthesis and Catabolism in Glycine max: I. COMPARISON OF ACTIVITIES WITH N(2) FIXATION AND COMPOSITION OF XYLEM EXUDATE DURING NODULE DEVELOPMENT.''; Plant Physiol, 1981 PubMed Europe PMC


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107220view14:31, 17 September 2019MaintBotChEBI identifier normalization
106912view13:38, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
87851view11:51, 25 July 2016MirellaKalafatiOntology Term : 'classic metabolic pathway' added !
71861view20:51, 18 October 2013EgonwAdded a missing metabolite identifiers.
69211view18:28, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
48293view03:56, 18 May 2012MaintBotAutomatic update of PubChem xrefs
41509view01:50, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
32167view14:06, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
29651view02:07, 24 May 2009AlexanderPicoModified description
29089view19:59, 1 April 2009PjaiswalRedirected Xrefs to Rice Ensembl genes
29088view19:56, 1 April 2009Pjaiswalgene xrefs point to Gramene. The previous links to ensembl don't work
29041view12:27, 27 March 2009MaintBot
28072view12:56, 23 January 2009ThomasModified categories
28046view10:23, 23 January 2009Thomas
28045view10:22, 23 January 2009ThomasNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
5-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-ureido-2,5-dihydro-1H imidazole-5-carboxylateMetabolite443736 (PubChem-compound)
5-hydroxyisourateMetaboliteCHEBI:59562 (ChEBI)
Allantoic acidMetaboliteCHEBI:30837 (ChEBI)
AllantoinMetaboliteCHEBI:15676 (ChEBI)
CO2MetaboliteCHEBI:16526 (ChEBI)
H2O2MetaboliteCHEBI:16240 (ChEBI)
H2OMetaboliteHMDB0002111 (HMDB)
IMP dehydrogenaseGeneProductLOC_Os01g69900 (Rice Ensembl Gene)
IMP dehydrogenaseGeneProductLOC_Os01g73040 (Rice Ensembl Gene)
IMP dehydrogenaseGeneProductLOC_Os03g56800 (Rice Ensembl Gene)
IMP dehydrogenaseGeneProductLOC_Os07g42440 (Rice Ensembl Gene)
IMP dehydrogenaseGeneProductLOC_Os11g06930 (Rice Ensembl Gene)
IMP dehydrogenaseGeneProductLOC_Os11g30350 (Rice Ensembl Gene)
IMP dehydrogenaseGeneProductLOC_Os12g07190 (Rice Ensembl Gene)
Inosine-5'-phosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:17202 (ChEBI)
NAD+MetaboliteCHEBI:15846 (ChEBI)
NADHMetaboliteCHEBI:16908 (ChEBI)
O2MetaboliteCHEBI:15379 (ChEBI)
PhosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:18367 (ChEBI)
Ribose 1-phosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:16300 (ChEBI)
Urate oxidaseGeneProductLOC_Os01g64520 (Rice Ensembl Gene)
UrateMetaboliteCHEBI:17775 (ChEBI)
Xanthine dehydrogenaseGeneProductLOC_Os03g31550 (Rice Ensembl Gene)
XanthineMetaboliteCHEBI:17712 (ChEBI)
XanthosineMetaboliteCHEBI:18107 (ChEBI)
xanthosine-5-phosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:15652 (ChEBI)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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