Galanin receptor pathway (Homo sapiens)

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KRT1935SLC2A44, 9, 23CRP940Galanin receptor pathwayDNARAP1Bmediated NucleusIP accumulation12, 24Endoplasmic reticulumGALR2GNAQ21GNAI121GNA1221MAPK11MAPK31Y204T202MAPK1422Y182T180ZFP3622Y182Induces angiogenesis TERF2IPGTPMAPK113MAPK313AKT113CREB114S133TBC1D44, 9T642Induces adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiationRPS6KA135Proliferation of cholangiocytesCASP338CASP816CASP1216 Induces apoptosis,Inbihits cell growthMAPK132MAPK332CCND132, 38Inhibits proliferationRegulates glucosehomeostasis RHOAKCNMA136AKT16S473FOS5, 8INS4, 10, 23, 39UCP114YAP135CDKN1C38PRKCD14PPARG14Go alpha 2POMC8SLC2A44IL622ADIPOQ9PPARGC1A14BCL2L111Increase in plasmacorticosteronelevels7, 27VEGFA22VAMP223Increase in cAMP production27CDKN1A33Increase in bloodglucose level10, 28, 39PPARG23Secretion of chlorine18Ameliorate insulin resistanceCa2+ efflux36PLCGALR22, 37GALR22, 37PMCYNRAS14RAF114S259MAPK114, 34MAPK314, 34TFAP2A14 Induces cell proliferationInduces cell survivalY204Y187T202T185S473PMCYAKT16T308Y204MAPK115MAPK315Y187T202T185Modulates morphological changes in cholinergicneuronsPI3K/AKT pathway Induces apoptosisY204Y187T202T185GNAI121MAPK132MAPK332CCND132, 38Inhibits cell proliferationCDKN1B38CDKN1C38Y204Y187T202T185Role in neuro-transmitter release and cellular excitability Cl-Cl-Cl- Induces apoptosis,Inbihits cell growthStress and pain modulationPKA dependent NucleusGNAI121Adenylyl cyclaseCREB114PRKCGmediatedPI3KmediatedAdenylyl cyclasemediatedIncrease in plasmacorticosteronelevels27PKA dependentAdenylyl cyclasemediatedParacrine regulation of glucocorticoiudsecretagogueIncrease in cAMP production27Increase in plasmacorticosteronelevels27PKA dependentAdenylyl cyclasemediatedParacrine regulation of glucocorticoiudsecretagogueGALR2GALR1CREB130DNA Nucleus CREB135Anti-depressive activityY204Y187T202T185AKT117S473MAPK313Role in nociceptionand neurondevelopment Induces adipogenesisReceptorProtein up-regulationProtein ActivationmRNA up-regulationPhosphorylation site and residueLigandInduced activation and increases protein expressionInhibitionTransportPositive regulation of gene expressionLeads to through unknown mechanismNegative regulation of gene expressionTranslocation Protein-protein interactionDephosphorylationLEGENDPhosphorylationNucleusCytoplasmPlasma membraneCYPMNUPDNAProteinProtein down-regulationmRNA up-regulationDNA bindingPKCdependentTBC1D429S473TBC1D44, 9T642AKT16S473SLC2A44, 9, 23MAPK1422Y182T180PPARG14GALR3GALR1CDKN1B38GALR1PMNU


Description

Galanin, a 29-30 amino acid neuropeptide named to be so, as a glycine residue occupies the position at N-terminal and an alanine residue at C-terminal. Galanin is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems in mammalian species. The galanin family of peptides includes ‘GMAP’ (Gaalanin- Message associated peptide), ‘GALP’ (Galanin-like Peptide), and its splice variant ‘Alarin’ along with Galanin. There are three known G-protein coupled receptor subtypes of Galanin, namely, GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3. Galaninergic signaling is predominantly inhibitory which mainly involves MAPK, AKT, AC pathways Galanin peptides have a wide range of non-neuronal functions as well as classic neuromodulatory roles, therefore it is recommended to consider as regulatory peptides. Galanin in general is associated with several biological functions such as arousal and sleep regulation, nociception, learning, inflammation, feeding, and neuroendocrine regulation. It is also implicated in diseases like Alzheimer’s, depression, epilepsy, mood disorders, stress, anxiety, diabetes mellitus, and chronic pain. The creation of this pathway is described in Gopalakrishnan et al.

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Bibliography

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History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
113773view08:08, 20 November 2020Mkutmonfix xrefs
113772view08:06, 20 November 2020Mkutmon
113770view18:03, 19 November 2020KhanspersModified description
113769view18:01, 19 November 2020KhanspersOntology Term : 'signaling pathway' added !
113768view18:01, 19 November 2020KhanspersOntology Term : 'nervous system disease' added !
113767view17:58, 19 November 2020KhanspersAdded lit ref
111988view07:12, 14 September 2020KeshavNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ADIPOQProtein9370 (Entrez Gene)
  • [Pubmed:27127795] have shown that M617 stimulates GALR1 and induces upregulation of ADIPOQ in Male Wistar Rat adipocytes.
  • Type your comment here
BCL2L11Protein10018 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed:24168112] have shown that GAL stimulates GALR2 and induces upregulation of BCL211 in HEp-2 cell line.
CDKN1AProtein1026 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed:18272487] have shown that GAL stimulates GALR2 and induces downregulation of CDKN1A in PC12-GALR2 transfected cells.
CDKN1BProtein1027 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed: 19276245] have shown that GAL stimulates GALR2 and induces upregulation of CDNK1B in serum starved UM-SCC-1-GALR2 cells with mutant p53 gene.
CDKN1CProtein1028 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed: 19276245] have shown that GAL stimulates GALR2 and induces upregulation of CDKN1C in serum starved UM-SCC-1-GALR2 cells with mutant p53.
CREB1Protein1385 (Entrez Gene)
CRPProtein1401 (Entrez Gene)
  • [Pubmed:27127795] have shown that M617 stimulates GalR1 and induces downregulation of plasma CRP in Male Wistar Rats adipocytes.
  • Type your comment here
FOSProtein2353 (Entrez Gene)
  • [Pubmed:19272414]have shown that GAL stimulates GALR1 and induces the activation of FOS in Locus coeruleus of C57BL6/J mice brain.
  • [Pubmed:25405608] have shown that GAL stimulates GalR1 and  induces the upregulation of FOS in dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus of Male Wistar-Han rat.
Go alpha 2
IL6Protein3569 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed:24568968] have shown that GAL stimulates GALR2 and induces the upregulation of IL6 in UM-SCC-1 and UM-SCC-81B SSCHN cell lines.
INSProtein3630 (Entrez Gene)
  • [Pubmed:27041232] have shown that M617 stimulates GALR1 and induces downregulation of INS in diabetic rats.
  • [Pubmed:27410235] have shown that M617 stimulates GALR1 and induces downregulation of INS in blood of diabetic rats.
  • [Pubmed:25690510] have shown that NAX-5055 stimulates GALR1 and induces downregulation of INS in CF-1 mice.
  • [Pubmed:25449850] have shown that M617 stimulates GALR1 and induces downregulation of INS in cardiac muscle of diabetic and normal Male Wistar rats.
Increase in bloodglucose levelMetabolite
  • [Pubmed:25690510] have shown that NAX-5055 stimulates GALR1 and induces an increase in blood glucose levels in CF-1 mice
  • [Pubmed: 22308501] have shown that GAL stimualtes GALR1 and induces an increase in blood glucose levels in WT via Go2 signaling
  • [Pubmed:25449850] have shown that M617 stimulates GALR1 and induces decrease in glucose levels in diabetic and normal male Wistar rats.
Increase in cAMP productionMetabolite
Increase in plasmacorticosteronelevelsMetabolite[Pubmed: 17143559] have shown that GAL stimulates GALR1 and GALR2 and induces the upregulation of corticosterone in  rat adrenal zona fasciculatoreticularis cells in an adenylyl cyclase and PKA dependent manner.
KRT19Rna3880 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed:28196718] have shown that M617 stimulates GALR1 and induces upregulation of KRT19 gene in Male Sprague- Dawley rats.
POMCProtein5443 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed:19272414]have shown that GAL stimulates GALR1 and induces downregulation of POMC in C57BL6/J mice.
PPARGRna5468 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed: 20183829] have shown that GAL stimulates GALR1 and GALR2 and induces upregulation of PPARG in epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissues of high fat diet fed mouse.
PPARGC1ARna10891 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed: 20183829] have shown that GAL stimlates GALR3 and induces downregulation of PPARGC1A in epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissues in high fat diest fed mouse.
PRKCDRna5580 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed: 20183829] have shown that GAL stimulates GALR2 and induces upregulation of PRKCD in epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissues of high fat diet fed mouse.
SLC2A4Protein6517 (Entrez Gene)
  • [Pubmed:27127795] have shown that M617 stimulates GalR1 and induces upregulation of SLC2A4 in total cell membrane and plasma membrane fractions of Male Wistar Rats adipocytes.
  • [Pubmed:27410235] have shown that M617 stimulates GALR1 and induces upregulation of SLC2A4 in plasma membrane of myocytes in diabetic rats.
  • [Pubmed: 27041232] have shown that M617 stimulates GALR1 and induces upregulation of SLC2A4 in plasma membranes of skeletal muscles in diabetic rats.
Secretion of chlorineMetabolite[Pubmed:9928160] have shown that GAL stimulates GALR1 and induces increase in Cl¯ levels in T84 cells.
TFAP2ARna7020 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed: 20183829] have shown that GAL stimulates GALR1 and GALR2 and induces upregulation of TFAP2A in epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissues of high fat diet fed mouse.
UCP1Rna7350 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed: 20183829] have shown that GAL stimulates GALR3 and induces downregulation of UCP1 in epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissues of high fat diet fed mouse.
VAMP2Protein6844 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed:27410235] have shown that M617 stimulates GALR1 and induces upregulation of VAMP2 in diabetic rats.
VEGFAProtein7422 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed:24568968] have shown that GAL stimulates GALR2 and induces the upregulation of VEGFA in UM-SCC-1 and UM-SCC-81B SSCHN cell lines.
YAP1Protein10413 (Entrez Gene) [Pubmed:28196718] have shown that GAL or M617 stimulates GALR1 and induces upregulation of YAP1 in Male Sprague-Dawley rats

Annotated Interactions

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