ACE Inhibitor Pathway - for workshop (Homo sapiens)

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522Mesangial cells aroundblood vessels in the kidneysZona glomerulosa of the adrenal glandATP6AP2CMA1Ca++TGFB1TFsAGTR1Ang 1-5ACEACE2Ang 1-9Angiotensin ICTSGACE InhibitorTFsDeoxycorticosteroneAGTR2AGTNR3C2RENMAS1AldosteroneCYP11B2Ang 1-7Angiotensin II981813261, 4ACE2ACE


This pathway is a starter pathway for the Introduction to Pathway Modeling workshop. DO NOT DELETE.

Description: The core of this pathway was elucidated over a century ago and involves the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I (Ang I) by renin, its subsequent conversion to angiotensin II (Ang II) by angiotensin converting enzyme. Ang II activates the angiotensin II receptor type 1 to induce aldosterone synthesis, increasing water and salt resorption and potassium excretion in the kidney and increasing blood pressure.

Source: PharmGKB (

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Ontology Terms



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  1. Bassett MH, White PC, Rainey WE; ''The regulation of aldosterone synthase expression.''; Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Weir MR; ''Effects of renin-angiotensin system inhibition on end-organ protection: can we do better?''; Clin Ther, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Huang Y, Wongamorntham S, Kasting J, McQuillan D, Owens RT, Yu L, Noble NA, Border W; ''Renin increases mesangial cell transforming growth factor-beta1 and matrix proteins through receptor-mediated, angiotensin II-independent mechanisms.''; Kidney Int, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Maron BA, Leopold JA; ''Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function.''; Curr Opin Investig Drugs, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Hamming I, Cooper ME, Haagmans BL, Hooper NM, Korstanje R, Osterhaus AD, Timens W, Turner AJ, Navis G, van Goor H; ''The emerging role of ACE2 in physiology and disease.''; J Pathol, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. Schwartz GL, Turner ST; ''Pharmacogenetics of antihypertensive drug responses.''; Am J Pharmacogenomics, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. McDowell SE, Coleman JJ, Ferner RE; ''Systematic review and meta-analysis of ethnic differences in risks of adverse reactions to drugs used in cardiovascular medicine.''; BMJ, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. Ferreira AJ, Raizada MK; ''Are we poised to target ACE2 for the next generation of antihypertensives?''; J Mol Med, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. Batenburg WW, Jan Danser AH; ''The (pro)renin receptor: a new addition to the renin-angiotensin system?''; Eur J Pharmacol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP, Kakafika AI, Tziomalos K, Karagiannis A; ''Angiotensin II reactivation and aldosterone escape phenomena in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade: is oral renin inhibition the solution?''; Expert Opin Pharmacother, 2007 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


111214view22:03, 24 July 2020KhanspersModified description
111213view22:03, 24 July 2020KhanspersModified description
111212view22:01, 24 July 2020KhanspersModified title
111211view22:01, 24 July 2020KhanspersNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACE InhibitorMetaboliteCHEBI:35457 (ChEBI)
ACEGeneProduct1636 (Entrez Gene)
ACE2GeneProduct59272 (Entrez Gene)
AGTGeneProduct183 (Entrez Gene)
AGTR1GeneProduct185 (Entrez Gene)
AGTR2GeneProduct186 (Entrez Gene)
ATP6AP2GeneProduct10159 (Entrez Gene)
AldosteroneMetaboliteHMDB0000037 (HMDB)
Ang 1-5MetaboliteC15852 (KEGG Compound)
Ang 1-7Metabolite110354 (Chemspider)
Ang 1-9MetaboliteC15851 (KEGG Compound)
Angiotensin IMetabolite3081372 (PubChem-compound)
Angiotensin IIMetaboliteHMDB0001035 (HMDB)
CMA1GeneProduct1215 (Entrez Gene)
CTSGGeneProduct1511 (Entrez Gene)
CYP11B2GeneProduct1585 (Entrez Gene)
Ca++MetaboliteHMDB0000464 (HMDB)
DeoxycorticosteroneMetaboliteHMDB0000016 (HMDB)
MAS1GeneProduct4142 (Entrez Gene)
NR3C2GeneProduct4306 (Entrez Gene)
RENGeneProduct5972 (Entrez Gene)
TGFB1GeneProduct7040 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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