Neuroinflammation (Homo sapiens)

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1Proteolysis and IkB DegradationNF-κBUbiquination and PhosphorylationOxidative Stress, Inflammatory Cytokines, UVProteinsAP-1CytokinesJNKNADPHPI3KL-arginineCa2+JUNIKKαMAPK14COX1NitrateIL-1BTLR4AKTNADP+CalmodulinFOSiNOSCOX2MTORp65O2Nitrate reductaseROSNitritep50H2ONOIκBαL-citrullineTNF-α2NADPHNADP+O2JUNp50p65p50p65IκBαIκBαp50p65p50p653


Neuroinflammation is inflammation specific to parts of the central nervous system. It can be triggered by external or internal factors, such as UV damage, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. Stress on the cell leads to activation of inflammatory response pathways that involve several transcription factors such as AP-1 and NFkB, which will lead to the transcription of several proteins and/or cytokines.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Shabab T, Khanabdali R, Moghadamtousi SZ, Kadir HA, Mohan G; ''Neuroinflammation pathways: a general review.''; Int J Neurosci, 2017 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Xing B, Bachstetter AD, Van Eldik LJ; ''Inhibition of neuronal p38α, but not p38β MAPK, provides neuroprotection against three different neurotoxic insults.''; J Mol Neurosci, 2015 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Liu T, Zhang L, Joo D, Sun SC; ''NF-κB signaling in inflammation.''; Signal Transduct Target Ther, 2017 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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125017view18:51, 13 January 2023EgonwCorrect data source
123490view04:49, 29 July 2022EgonwMade a pathway clickable
111814view19:06, 8 September 2020EgonwCorrected the format of the BRENDA identifier.
110412view10:17, 9 May 2020EgonwReplaced secondary ChEBI identifiers with a primary identifiers.
110407view03:27, 9 May 2020Marvin M2Ontology Term : 'stress response pathway' added !
110386view15:59, 8 May 2020AnnabayaModified description
110382view15:35, 8 May 2020AnnabayaOntology Term : 'regulatory pathway pertinent to the brain' added !
110380view15:33, 8 May 2020AnnabayaOntology Term : 'PW:0000754' removed !
110379view15:33, 8 May 2020AnnabayaOntology Term : 'drug pathway' added !
110369view15:15, 8 May 2020AnnabayaEdit NFkB interactions
110366view12:19, 8 May 2020AnnabayaEdit interactions and fix gene IDs
110353view13:39, 7 May 2020AnnabayaNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AKTGeneProduct391 (HGNC Accession number)
COX1GeneProductENSG00000198804 (Ensembl)
COX2GeneProductENSG00000198712 (Ensembl)
Ca2+MetaboliteCHEBI:29108 (ChEBI)
CalmodulinMetaboliteCHEBI:3324 (ChEBI)
FOSGeneProductENSG00000170345 (Ensembl)
H2OMetaboliteCHEBI:15377 (ChEBI)
IKKαGeneProductENSG00000213341 (Ensembl)
IL-1BGeneProduct481 (HomoloGene)
IκBαGeneProductENSG00000100906 (Ensembl)
JNKGeneProductENSG00000107643 (Ensembl)
JUNGeneProductENSG00000177606 (Ensembl)
L-arginineMetaboliteCHEBI:16467 (ChEBI)
L-citrullineMetaboliteCHEBI:57743 (ChEBI)
MAPK14GeneProductENSG00000112062 (Ensembl)
MTORGeneProductENSG00000198793 (Ensembl)
NADP+MetaboliteCHEBI:18009 (ChEBI)
NADPHMetaboliteCHEBI:16474 (ChEBI)
NOMetaboliteCHEBI:16480 (ChEBI)
Nitrate reductaseGeneProduct1.7.99.4 (BRENDA)
NitrateMetaboliteCHEBI:48107 (ChEBI)
NitriteMetaboliteCHEBI:16301 (ChEBI)
O2MetaboliteCHEBI:15379 (ChEBI)
PI3KGeneProductIPR000403 (InterPro)
ROSPathwayWP3941 (WikiPathways)
TLR4GeneProductENSG00000136869 (Ensembl)
TNF-αGeneProduct496 (HomoloGene)
iNOSGeneProductENSG00000007171 (Ensembl)
p50GeneProductENSG00000138303 (Ensembl)
p65GeneProductENSG00000173039 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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