Linoleic acid metabolism known to be affected by coronavirus infection (Homo sapiens)

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13"Upon HCoV-229E infection, the glycerophospholipids, as main components of the cell membrane, were metabolized to lysophospholipids (LysPx) and Fatty Acids (FAs) after cPLA2 enzyme activation." [PMID:30654597]Linoleoyl-CoAdesaturaseArachidonic acidFADS2SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 PathwayMolecular mechanismOmega-3/Omega-6 FA synthesisLysoPC16:0LysPE 16:0GlycerophospholipidsCytosolic Phospholipase A2(cPLA2)palmitic acidbishomo-gamma-linolenic acidlinoleic acidoleic acidgamma-linolenic acid4HCoV-229Etrimersurfaceglycoprotein Ssurfaceglycoprotein Smembraneglycoprotein M2, 5SARS-CoV-2RNA5nucleocapsidprotein Nenvelopeprotein E55CoA(18:2(9Z,12Z))CoA(18:3(6Z,9Z,12Z))ACOT2CoA(20:3(8Z,11Z,14Z))33ELOVL23ELOVL5Arachidonoyl-CoA33FADS13


Lipid metabolism alternations that are related to infection by corona viruses. The information comes from the Yan et al. in 2019 in the bibliography, particularly Figure 5. That paper uses the HCoV-229E virus as a model. Note that that is different from the virus that causes the 2020 pandemic SARS-CoV-2. Fig 5 is in turn taken from, which is a very simplified pathway, omitting several steps The paper mentions that after virus infection many of the metabolites in his figure are increased in concentration. Interestingly, exogenous supplement of LA or AA in HCoV-229E-infected cells significantly suppressed HCoV-229E virus replication and this also happened in MERS-CoV.

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  1. Yan B, Chu H, Yang D, Sze KH, Lai PM, Yuan S, Shuai H, Wang Y, Kao RY, Chan JF, Yuen KY; ''Characterization of the Lipidomic Profile of Human Coronavirus-Infected Cells: Implications for Lipid Metabolism Remodeling upon Coronavirus Replication.''; Viruses, 2019 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Walls AC, Park YJ, Tortorici MA, Wall A, McGuire AT, Veesler D; ''Structure, Function, and Antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein.''; Cell, 2020 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Dennis EA, Deems RA, Harkewicz R, Quehenberger O, Brown HA, Milne SB, Myers DS, Glass CK, Hardiman G, Reichart D, Merrill AH Jr, Sullards MC, Wang E, Murphy RC, Raetz CR, Garrett TA, Guan Z, Ryan AC, Russell DW, McDonald JG, Thompson BM, Shaw WA, Sud M, Zhao Y, Gupta S, Maurya MR, Fahy E, Subramaniam S; ''A mouse macrophage lipidome.''; J Biol Chem, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Sigrist CJ, Bridge A, Le Mercier P; ''A potential role for integrins in host cell entry by SARS-CoV-2.''; Antiviral Res, 2020 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Kandeel M, Ibrahim AA, Fayez M, Al-Nazawi M; ''From SARS and MERS CoVs to SARS-CoV-2: moving toward more biased codon usage in viral structural and non-structural genes.''; J Med Virol, 2020 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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115866view16:12, 18 March 2021DeSlAdded shape around PW node
115864view16:08, 18 March 2021DeSlAdded missing metabolites for dashed lines
111153view08:33, 21 July 2020EgonwMade the pathway clickable
110787view09:11, 5 June 2020DeSlModified title
110786view08:57, 5 June 2020DeSlModified description
110785view08:56, 5 June 2020DeSlAdded lit ref for stimulation of cPLA2
110784view08:55, 5 June 2020DeSlUpdated title again (was accidentally overwritten).
110783view08:53, 5 June 2020DeSlAdded details on how HCoV-229E is related to lipid metabolism alterations.
110457view08:40, 13 May 2020Mkutmonfixed unconnected lines, layout
110338view19:18, 6 May 2020EgonwMade the full membrane visible
109709view14:45, 29 March 2020FehrhartOntology Term : 'lipid metabolic pathway' added !
109708view14:44, 29 March 2020FehrhartOntology Term : 'viral infectious disease' added !
109707view14:44, 29 March 2020FehrhartOntology Term : 'severe acute respiratory syndrome' added !
109602view22:38, 26 March 2020EveloModified title
109597view14:51, 26 March 2020EveloModified description
109593view11:01, 26 March 2020EveloModified description
109586view15:33, 25 March 2020EgonwAdded a ChEBI identifier
109542view20:04, 22 March 2020Conroy lipidsModified description
109538view19:50, 22 March 2020Conroy lipidschanged to dotted arrows as conversion from gamma linolenic acid onwards multistep? Not fully convinced these reactions are accurate
109535view19:54, 21 March 2020Conroy lipids
109534view19:34, 21 March 2020Conroy lipidsannotated palmitic and oleic, added reaction lines (correctly?) removed generic 'fatty acids'
109533view19:07, 21 March 2020Conroy lipidstypo
109532view19:06, 21 March 2020Conroy lipidsannotated linoleoly coa DS
109531view18:55, 21 March 2020Conroy lipidsnonascii to 'gamma'
109530view18:46, 21 March 2020Conroy lipidsAdded lipidmaps IDs, EC numbers, moved cPLAs to geneproduct
109503view12:02, 20 March 2020EgonwModified description
109502view12:00, 20 March 2020EgonwAdded the source article
109501view11:46, 20 March 2020EgonwNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACOT2GeneProductENSG00000119673 (Ensembl) Homology Mapping from Mus musculus to Homo sapiens: Original ID = L:171210
Arachidonic acidMetaboliteLMFA01030001 (LIPID MAPS)
Arachidonoyl-CoAMetaboliteLMFA07050288 (LIPID MAPS) aka CoA(20:4)
CoA(18:2(9Z,12Z))MetaboliteLMFA07050343 (LIPID MAPS)
CoA(18:3(6Z,9Z,12Z))MetaboliteLMFA07050322 (LIPID MAPS)
CoA(20:3(8Z,11Z,14Z))MetaboliteLMFA07050278 (LIPID MAPS)
Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)GeneProduct3.1.1.4 (BRENDA)
ELOVL2GeneProductENSG00000197977 (Ensembl) Homology Mapping from Mus musculus to Homo sapiens: Original ID = L:54326
ELOVL5GeneProductENSG00000012660 (Ensembl) Homology Mapping from Mus musculus to Homo sapiens: Original ID = L:68801
FADS1GeneProductENSG00000149485 (Ensembl) Homology Mapping from Mus musculus to Homo sapiens: Original ID = L:76267
FADS2ProteinO95864 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GlycerophospholipidsMetaboliteCHEBI:37739 (ChEBI)


GeneProduct1.14.19.3 (BRENDA)
LysPE 16:0Metabolite
LysoPC16:0MetaboliteLMGP01050113 (LIPID MAPS)
Omega-3/Omega-6 FA synthesisPathwayWP4723 (WikiPathways)
SARS-CoV-2 RNARnaQ82069695 (Wikidata)
SARS-CoV-2 and

COVID-19 Pathway

Molecular mechanism
PathwayWP4846 (WikiPathways)
bishomo-gamma-linolenic acidMetaboliteLMFA01030158 (LIPID MAPS)
envelope protein EProteinP0DTC4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
gamma-linolenic acidMetaboliteLMFA01030141 (LIPID MAPS)
linoleic acidMetaboliteLMFA01030120 (LIPID MAPS)
membrane glycoprotein MProteinP0DTC5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
nucleocapsid protein NProteinP0DTC9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
oleic acid MetaboliteLMFA01030002 (LIPID MAPS)
palmitic acidMetaboliteLMFA01010001 (LIPID MAPS)
surface glycoprotein SProteinP0DTC2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
trimerComplexCPX-5682 (Complex Portal)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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