DNA replication (Homo sapiens)

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1, 2Orc44. Switching of origins to post-replicative stateOrc5Mcm7RNA PrimerProcessive complexOrc2RNA primer-DNA primerMcm7Mcm4Orc complexMcm2p180Cdc6Cdt1RFC38Mcm3Orc3Orc2Phosphorylation ofMcm 2-7 complexDNA polymerase alpha:primase: origin complexMcm 4,6,7 trimer forms andassociates with the replication forkPrimaseUbiquitinated Orc1DNA polymerase alpha:primase: origin complexPre-replicative complexDegraded by proteasome in cytosolMcm10Cdc6Mcm5Orc43. DNA replication initiationOrc5RFC37Pre-replicative complexMcm6UbiquitinRFC140Orc2Orc2RFC362. Activation of the pre-replicative complexCdt1Phosphorylated Orc1Orc complexMcm6Cdt1Cdt1Ubiquitinated Cdc6Mcm10RFC Heteropentamer:RNA primer-DNA primerPCNA homotrimerOrc complexCdc6UbiquitinOrc5Orc complexCdt1Cdc6Phosphorylated Cdc6GemininOrc3RNA primer-DNA primer:origin duplex:PCNAOrc3p49RFC40Mcm4Degraded byproteasomein cytosolOrc1OriginMcm3RNA primer-DNA primerp70DNAPolymerase AMcm5Mcm25. Leading/lagging strand synthesisOrc3RFC Heteropentamer:RNA primer-DNA primer1. Assembly of the pre-replicative complexOrc complexp58POLD4UBA52GMNNPRIM1POLE2RPA1ATPdCTPORC3LRPA3ATPRFC1POLD2PRIM2APOLAdUTPPOLD3dGTPMCM3ORC1LCDC6MCM6CDT1PCNACTPPOLD1UTPCDK2dATPRPA2ADPCDC7RFC3MCM5RFC5RFC2POLA2MCM4MCM7CDC45LGTPPOLEADPATPORC6LORC5LORC2LMCM10ASKRPA4UBCORC4LRFC4ATPMCM2


Studies in the past decade have suggested that the basic mechanism of DNA replication initiation is conserved in all kingdoms of life. Initiation in unicellular eukaryotes, in particular Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), is well understood, and has served as a model for studies of DNA replication initiation in multicellular eukaryotes, including humans. In general terms, the first step of initiation is the binding of the replication initiator to the origin of replication. The replicative helicase is then assembled onto the origin, usually by a helicase assembly factor. Either shortly before or shortly after helicase assembly, some local unwinding of the origin of replication occurs in a region rich in adenine and thymine bases (often termed a DNA unwinding element, DUE). The unwound region provides the substrate for primer synthesis and initiation of DNA replication. The best-defined eukaryotic origins are those of S. cerevisiae, which have well-conserved sequence elements for initiator binding, DNA unwinding and binding of accessory proteins. In multicellular eukaryotes, unlike S. cerevisiae, these loci appear not to be defined by the presence of a DNA sequence motif. Indeed, choice of replication origins in a multicellular eukaryote may vary with developmental stage and tissue type. In cell-free models of metazoan DNA replication, such as the one provided by Xenopus egg extracts, there are only limited DNA sequence specificity requirements for replication initiation. Source description: http://www.reactome.org/content/detail/69306. Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the CPTAC Assay Portal

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Ontology Terms



  1. Cimbora DM, Groudine M; ''The control of mammalian DNA replication: a brief history of space and timing.''; Cell, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Bell SP, Dutta A; ''DNA replication in eukaryotic cells.''; Annu Rev Biochem, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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117096view11:31, 17 May 2021EweitzModified title
107180view14:26, 17 September 2019MaintBotChEBI identifier normalization
106374view00:56, 23 August 2019KhanspersModified description
105566view06:22, 9 August 2019KhanspersModified description
104049view16:27, 27 April 2019DeSlAdded new anchor for PCNA
104048view16:21, 27 April 2019DeSlOntology Term : 'DNA replication pathway' added !
104047view16:19, 27 April 2019DeSlAdded references.
102301view20:51, 17 December 2018Khanspersremoved GenMAPP comment
96302view18:25, 7 March 2018EgonwReplaced a secondary ChEBI identifier with a primary identifier.
94886view18:02, 11 October 2017AlexanderPicoReattached interactions to anchors
94885view18:01, 11 October 2017AlexanderPicoReattached interactions to anchors
89897view13:12, 6 October 2016MkutmonModified description
89893view13:09, 6 October 2016MkutmonModified description
89891view13:08, 6 October 2016MkutmonReverted to version '14:46, 29 April 2015' by Mkutmon
89889view13:07, 6 October 2016MkutmonModified description
79981view14:46, 29 April 2015Zari
76196view22:59, 16 June 2014MaintBotminor move - test
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34997view23:26, 9 February 2010KhanspersModified description
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21660view11:32, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:DNA replication Reactome]] moved to [[Pathway:WP466]]: Moved to stable identifier
13884view13:07, 19 May 2008Thomasadded connectors and merged multi-line labels
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11947view00:15, 13 May 2008KhanspersUpdated pathway
7990view13:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Human:DNA replication Reactome]] moved to [[Pathway:Homo sapiens:DNA replication Reactome]]: Renaming species
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External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ADPMetabolite58-64-0 (CAS)
ASKGeneProduct10926 (Entrez Gene)
ATPMetabolite1927-31-7 (CAS)
CDC45LGeneProduct8318 (Entrez Gene)
CDC6GeneProduct990 (Entrez Gene)
CDC7GeneProduct8317 (Entrez Gene)
CDK2GeneProduct1017 (Entrez Gene)
CDT1GeneProduct81620 (Entrez Gene)
CTPMetabolite65-47-4 (CAS)
GMNNGeneProduct51053 (Entrez Gene)
GTPMetabolite2564-35-4 (CAS)
MCM10GeneProduct55388 (Entrez Gene)
MCM2GeneProduct4171 (Entrez Gene)
MCM3GeneProduct4172 (Entrez Gene)
MCM4GeneProduct4173 (Entrez Gene)
MCM5GeneProduct4174 (Entrez Gene)
MCM6GeneProduct4175 (Entrez Gene)
MCM7GeneProduct4176 (Entrez Gene)
ORC1LGeneProduct4998 (Entrez Gene)
ORC2LGeneProduct4999 (Entrez Gene)
ORC3LGeneProduct23595 (Entrez Gene)
ORC4LGeneProduct5000 (Entrez Gene)
ORC5LGeneProduct5001 (Entrez Gene)
ORC6LGeneProduct23594 (Entrez Gene)
PCNAGeneProduct5111 (Entrez Gene)
POLA2GeneProduct23649 (Entrez Gene)
POLAGeneProduct5422 (Entrez Gene)
POLD1GeneProduct5424 (Entrez Gene)
POLD2GeneProduct5425 (Entrez Gene)
POLD3GeneProduct10714 (Entrez Gene)
POLD4GeneProduct57804 (Entrez Gene)
POLE2GeneProduct5427 (Entrez Gene)
POLEGeneProduct5426 (Entrez Gene)
PRIM1GeneProduct5557 (Entrez Gene)
PRIM2AGeneProductENSG00000146143 (Ensembl)
RFC1GeneProduct5981 (Entrez Gene)
RFC2GeneProduct5982 (Entrez Gene)
RFC3GeneProduct5983 (Entrez Gene)
RFC4GeneProduct5984 (Entrez Gene)
RFC5GeneProduct5985 (Entrez Gene)
RPA1GeneProduct6117 (Entrez Gene)
RPA2GeneProduct6118 (Entrez Gene)
RPA3GeneProduct6119 (Entrez Gene)
RPA4GeneProduct29935 (Entrez Gene)
UBA52GeneProduct7311 (Entrez Gene)
UBCGeneProduct7316 (Entrez Gene)
UTPMetaboliteCHEBI:15713 (ChEBI)
dATPMetabolite1927-31-7 (CAS)
dCTPMetabolite2056-98-6 (CAS)
dGTPMetabolite2564-35-4 (CAS)
dUTPMetaboliteCHEBI:17625 (ChEBI)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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