DNA Replication (Homo sapiens)

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1, 2Processive complexRFC Heteropentamer:RNA primer-DNA primerPCNA homotrimerMcm5Mcm5Orc4p58Ubiquitin3. DNA replication initiationOrc2Mcm7Degraded by proteasome in cytosolRFC140Cdc6Orc complexMcm6Mcm4DNA polymerase alpha:primase: origin complexOriginMcm4Mcm2Phosphorylated Orc1Orc3Orc5p180Cdt1Orc2Cdc6Orc3Mcm10Orc5Cdt1Orc3RFC Heteropentamer:RNA primer-DNA primer5. Leading/lagging strand synthesis4. Switching of origins to post-replicative statep70Orc1RNA primer-DNA primer:origin duplex:PCNAMcm 4,6,7 trimer forms andassociates with the replication forkRNA PrimerOrc complexMcm6Orc complexCdt1p49Mcm10Degraded byproteasomein cytosolMcm3DNAPolymerase ADNA polymerase alpha:primase: origin complexOrc complexRNA primer-DNA primerUbiquitinPhosphorylated Cdc6Mcm2RFC36Mcm3Orc2RFC381. Assembly of the pre-replicative complexCdt1Cdc6Orc complexPre-replicative complexMcm7Cdc6Orc3Ubiquitinated Cdc62. Activation of the pre-replicative complexPrimasePhosphorylation ofMcm 2-7 complexRFC37RNA primer-DNA primerOrc5Orc4Pre-replicative complexGemininOrc2RFC40Ubiquitinated Orc1Cdt1CDT1ORC3LPOLD4ATPCDC6dGTPRFC3dUTPPOLEPRIM2AMCM4RFC4UTPORC2LADPMCM3ORC4LMCM5ATPGTPRFC5RPA4ORC6LCDK2MCM2PCNAPRIM1POLE2POLD1UBCPOLD3CDC7ASKRFC1ORC5LPOLAMCM7UBA52dATPGMNNATPORC1LCTPdCTPCDC45LPOLD2MCM10POLA2ADPRPA2MCM6ATPRPA1RFC2RPA3


Studies in the past decade have suggested that the basic mechanism of DNA replication initiation is conserved in all kingdoms of life. Initiation in unicellular eukaryotes, in particular Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), is well understood, and has served as a model for studies of DNA replication initiation in multicellular eukaryotes, including humans. In general terms, the first step of initiation is the binding of the replication initiator to the origin of replication. The replicative helicase is then assembled onto the origin, usually by a helicase assembly factor. Either shortly before or shortly after helicase assembly, some local unwinding of the origin of replication occurs in a region rich in adenine and thymine bases (often termed a DNA unwinding element, DUE). The unwound region provides the substrate for primer synthesis and initiation of DNA replication. The best-defined eukaryotic origins are those of S. cerevisiae, which have well-conserved sequence elements for initiator binding, DNA unwinding and binding of accessory proteins. In multicellular eukaryotes, unlike S. cerevisiae, these loci appear not to be defined by the presence of a DNA sequence motif. Indeed, choice of replication origins in a multicellular eukaryote may vary with developmental stage and tissue type. In cell-free models of metazoan DNA replication, such as the one provided by Xenopus egg extracts, there are only limited DNA sequence specificity requirements for replication initiation. Source description: http://www.reactome.org/content/detail/69306. Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the CPTAC Assay Portal

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Ontology Terms



  1. Cimbora DM, Groudine M; ''The control of mammalian DNA replication: a brief history of space and timing.''; Cell, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Bell SP, Dutta A; ''DNA replication in eukaryotic cells.''; Annu Rev Biochem, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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107180view14:26, 17 September 2019MaintBotChEBI identifier normalization
106374view00:56, 23 August 2019KhanspersModified description
105566view06:22, 9 August 2019KhanspersModified description
104049view16:27, 27 April 2019DeSlAdded new anchor for PCNA
104048view16:21, 27 April 2019DeSlOntology Term : 'DNA replication pathway' added !
104047view16:19, 27 April 2019DeSlAdded references.
102301view20:51, 17 December 2018Khanspersremoved GenMAPP comment
96302view18:25, 7 March 2018EgonwReplaced a secondary ChEBI identifier with a primary identifier.
94886view18:02, 11 October 2017AlexanderPicoReattached interactions to anchors
94885view18:01, 11 October 2017AlexanderPicoReattached interactions to anchors
89897view13:12, 6 October 2016MkutmonModified description
89893view13:09, 6 October 2016MkutmonModified description
89891view13:08, 6 October 2016MkutmonReverted to version '14:46, 29 April 2015' by Mkutmon
89889view13:07, 6 October 2016MkutmonModified description
79981view14:46, 29 April 2015Zari
76196view22:59, 16 June 2014MaintBotminor move - test
70091view18:20, 12 July 2013MaintBotupdating to 2013 schema
41036view23:15, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
34997view23:26, 9 February 2010KhanspersModified description
34437view18:16, 10 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
32440view17:17, 15 August 2009MaintBotFixed text labels
32113view13:49, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
21660view11:32, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:DNA replication Reactome]] moved to [[Pathway:WP466]]: Moved to stable identifier
13884view13:07, 19 May 2008Thomasadded connectors and merged multi-line labels
13882view13:04, 19 May 2008ThomasWIP on connectors
13880view12:50, 19 May 2008ThomasWIP on connecting lines
13055view11:12, 17 May 2008MaintBotautomated metabolite conversion
12949view10:44, 17 May 2008MaintBotSticky edges patch by Sjoerd
12482view10:24, 15 May 2008ThomasModified categories
11947view00:15, 13 May 2008KhanspersUpdated pathway
7990view13:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Human:DNA replication Reactome]] moved to [[Pathway:Homo sapiens:DNA replication Reactome]]: Renaming species
7619view16:04, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
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19417view22:17, 22 May 2007D.Korengpml file for [[Human:DNA_replication_Reactome]]
6307view22:17, 22 May 2007Kdahlquistgpml file for [[Human:DNA_replication_Reactome]]

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ADPMetabolite58-64-0 (CAS)
ASKGeneProduct10926 (Entrez Gene)
ATPMetabolite1927-31-7 (CAS)
CDC45LGeneProduct8318 (Entrez Gene)
CDC6GeneProduct990 (Entrez Gene)
CDC7GeneProduct8317 (Entrez Gene)
CDK2GeneProduct1017 (Entrez Gene)
CDT1GeneProduct81620 (Entrez Gene)
CTPMetabolite65-47-4 (CAS)
GMNNGeneProduct51053 (Entrez Gene)
GTPMetabolite2564-35-4 (CAS)
MCM10GeneProduct55388 (Entrez Gene)
MCM2GeneProduct4171 (Entrez Gene)
MCM3GeneProduct4172 (Entrez Gene)
MCM4GeneProduct4173 (Entrez Gene)
MCM5GeneProduct4174 (Entrez Gene)
MCM6GeneProduct4175 (Entrez Gene)
MCM7GeneProduct4176 (Entrez Gene)
ORC1LGeneProduct4998 (Entrez Gene)
ORC2LGeneProduct4999 (Entrez Gene)
ORC3LGeneProduct23595 (Entrez Gene)
ORC4LGeneProduct5000 (Entrez Gene)
ORC5LGeneProduct5001 (Entrez Gene)
ORC6LGeneProduct23594 (Entrez Gene)
PCNAGeneProduct5111 (Entrez Gene)
POLA2GeneProduct23649 (Entrez Gene)
POLAGeneProduct5422 (Entrez Gene)
POLD1GeneProduct5424 (Entrez Gene)
POLD2GeneProduct5425 (Entrez Gene)
POLD3GeneProduct10714 (Entrez Gene)
POLD4GeneProduct57804 (Entrez Gene)
POLE2GeneProduct5427 (Entrez Gene)
POLEGeneProduct5426 (Entrez Gene)
PRIM1GeneProduct5557 (Entrez Gene)
PRIM2AGeneProductENSG00000146143 (Ensembl)
RFC1GeneProduct5981 (Entrez Gene)
RFC2GeneProduct5982 (Entrez Gene)
RFC3GeneProduct5983 (Entrez Gene)
RFC4GeneProduct5984 (Entrez Gene)
RFC5GeneProduct5985 (Entrez Gene)
RPA1GeneProduct6117 (Entrez Gene)
RPA2GeneProduct6118 (Entrez Gene)
RPA3GeneProduct6119 (Entrez Gene)
RPA4GeneProduct29935 (Entrez Gene)
UBA52GeneProduct7311 (Entrez Gene)
UBCGeneProduct7316 (Entrez Gene)
UTPMetaboliteCHEBI:15713 (ChEBI)
dATPMetabolite1927-31-7 (CAS)
dCTPMetabolite2056-98-6 (CAS)
dGTPMetabolite2564-35-4 (CAS)
dUTPMetaboliteCHEBI:17625 (ChEBI)

Annotated Interactions

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