Major receptors targeted by epinephrine and norepinephrine (Homo sapiens)

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1PLCMetabolite conversionβ2 receptorα1 receptors:Vasoconstrictionof tissues (except brain)α2 receptorβ1 receptorA proteinReleases calcium into cytoplasmProtein phosphorylationRelease from brainLiver or muscle cellNorepinephrinePIP3ADCY1ATPEpinephrineGlycolysisDAGcalciumα2A receptorNeurotransmittersPKAα1A receptorPKCSerineGlycogen synthesisACProtein phosphorylationα1B receptorα1D receptorα2B receptorα2C receptorIP3ACpyro-phosphatecAMPACADCY2ADCY3ADCY4ADCY5ADCY6ADCY7ADCY8ADCY9ADCY10A proteinThreonineA proteinSerinePA proteinThreoninePLiver cellsGlycogen breakdownHeart and skeletal musclesLiver cellsHeart and skeletal musclesLiver, heart and skeletal muscle cellsIndicates specific neurotransmitterStimulationInhibitionBinding


The physiologic "fear" response is associated with the signaling activity of adrenergic receptors stimulated by epinephrine/norepinephrine.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Glen D. Lawrence; ''The Fats of Life: Essential Fatty Acids in Health and Disease''; Rutgers University Press; ISBN 978-0-8135-4677-3, 2010


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119266view07:54, 23 June 2021FinterlyAdded ISBN for book citation
105272view21:21, 25 July 2019Khanspersconverted interactions in legend to graphical lines
105097view19:09, 5 July 2019AlexanderPicoModified description
105096view19:06, 5 July 2019AlexanderPicoModified title
104814view11:57, 19 June 2019ChrisAdded a legend
104630view05:48, 7 June 2019EgonwRemoved the RHEA: prefix from the identifier.
104482view19:18, 28 May 2019DeSlLayout changes
104481view19:18, 28 May 2019DeSlConnected PKC part (left hand side) again properly.
104480view19:05, 28 May 2019DeSlAdded PW links
104479view18:56, 28 May 2019DeSlAdded phosphorylation reaction conversion by PKA and regulation by cAMP.
104477view18:41, 28 May 2019DeSlAdded reactions for AC catalysing cAMP production
104473view14:52, 28 May 2019DeSlStarted updating pw with more biological content.
104454view15:38, 27 May 2019DeSlAdded IDs to adrenergic receptors.
104453view15:31, 27 May 2019DeSlAdded cellular compartment
104452view15:30, 27 May 2019DeSlAdded lit. ref for whole PW.
104451view15:29, 27 May 2019DeSlAdding special characters again, with UTF-8 encoding...
104450view15:23, 27 May 2019DeSlFixing special characters (again)
104449view15:17, 27 May 2019DeSlAdded neurotransmitter PW node, changed labels into Protein nodes (updated special characters) and connected with MIM-binding.
104445view11:49, 27 May 2019Chrischecking for special characters
104428view06:20, 25 May 2019EgonwRemoved broken identifier
104427view06:15, 25 May 2019EgonwModified title
104333view13:57, 17 May 2019FehrhartOntology Term : 'norepinephrine signaling pathway' added !
104332view13:56, 17 May 2019FehrhartOntology Term : 'epinephrine signaling pathway' added !
104178view05:37, 9 May 2019EgonwFixed the type of an metabolite; updated the sec cAMP identifiers to primary ChEBI identifiers.
104133view13:00, 6 May 2019ChrisModified title
104132view12:59, 6 May 2019ChrisOntology Term : 'classic metabolic pathway' added !
104131view12:55, 6 May 2019ChrisNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACProtein4.6.1.1 (Enzyme Nomenclature) "There are ten known isoforms of adenylyl cyclases in mammals" []
ADCY10ProteinQ96PN6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ADCY1ProteinQ08828 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ADCY2ProteinQ08462 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ADCY3ProteinO60266 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ADCY4ProteinQ8NFM4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ADCY5ProteinO95622 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ADCY6ProteinO43306 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ADCY7ProteinP51828 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ADCY8ProteinP40145 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ADCY9ProteinO60503 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ATPMetaboliteCHEBI:30616 (ChEBI)
DAGMetaboliteQ161466 (Wikidata) diacylglycerol
EpinephrineMetaboliteQ132621 (Wikidata) AKA adrenaline
Glycogen breakdownPathwayWP500 (WikiPathways)
Glycogen synthesisPathwayWP500 (WikiPathways)
GlycolysisPathwayWP534 (WikiPathways)
IP3Metaboliteinositol triphosphate
NeurotransmittersPathwayWP4220 (WikiPathways)
PIP3Metaboliteinositol 4,5-biphosphate
PKAProtein2.7.11.11 (Enzyme Nomenclature) Protein Kinase A
PKCProtein2.7.11.13 (Enzyme Nomenclature) Protein Kinase C
SerineMetaboliteCHEBI:17115 (ChEBI)
ThreonineMetaboliteCHEBI:57926 (ChEBI)
cAMPMetaboliteCHEBI:58165 (ChEBI)
calciumMetaboliteCHEBI:22984 (ChEBI)
pyro- phosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:33019 (ChEBI)
α1A receptorProteinP3548 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
α1B receptorProteinP3568 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
α1D receptorProteinP25100 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
α2A receptorProteinP08913 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
α2B receptorProteinP18089 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
α2C receptorProteinP18825 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
β1 receptor ProteinP08588 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR)
β2 receptor ProteinP07550 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR)

Annotated Interactions

SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
ATPcAMPmim-conversion15390 (Rhea)
pyro- phosphatemim-conversion15390 (Rhea)
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