Ophthalmate biosynthesis in hepatocytes (Homo sapiens)

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31, 4 hepatocyteMRP-transporterGCSCysgamma-Glu-CysGSH2ABgamma-Glu-2ABophthalmate1, 2GS1, 41, 2ophthalmate


This pathway visualises the mechanism of ophthalmate biosynthesis in hepatocytes. GSH can inhibits GCC; however when the cell is facing oxidative stress, GSH is consumed, and therefore activating GCS. This enhances the biosynthesis of ophthalmate, which is transported out of the cell over the hepatocellular membrane via MRP transporters.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



  1. Orlowski M, Wilk S; ''Synthesis of ophthalmic acid in liver and kidney in vivo.''; Biochem J, 1978 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Oppenheimer L, Wellner VP, Griffith OW, Meister A; ''Glutathione synthetase. Purification from rat kidney and mapping of the substrate binding sites.''; J Biol Chem, 1979 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Soga T, Baran R, Suematsu M, Ueno Y, Ikeda S, Sakurakawa T, Kakazu Y, Ishikawa T, Robert M, Nishioka T, Tomita M; ''Differential metabolomics reveals ophthalmic acid as an oxidative stress biomarker indicating hepatic glutathione consumption.''; J Biol Chem, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Huang CS, Moore WR, Meister A; ''On the active site thiol of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase: relationships to catalysis, inhibition, and regulation.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC


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102376view13:07, 21 December 2018MkutmonLayout
102363view20:58, 20 December 2018EgonwFixed a data source.
102355view19:20, 20 December 2018DeSlOntology Term : 'glutathione metabolic pathway' added !
102354view19:19, 20 December 2018DeSlOntology Term : 'hepatocyte' added !
102353view19:18, 20 December 2018DeSlModified description
102352view19:15, 20 December 2018DeSlNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
2ABMetaboliteQ27104317 (Wikidata) aka 2-aminobutyrate
CysMetaboliteQ186474 (Wikidata)
GCSProtein6.3.2.2 (Enzyme Nomenclature) aka Glutamate Cysteine Ligase (GCL) (EC, previously known as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS)
GSProtein6.3.2.3 (Enzyme Nomenclature) aka Glutathione synthetase (GSS)
GSHMetaboliteQ116907 (Wikidata) aka glutathione
gamma-Glu-2ABMetabolite78437958 (PubChem-compound) aka gamma-Glutamyl-2-aminobutyrate
gamma-Glu-CysMetaboliteQ288236 (Wikidata)
ophthalmateMetaboliteQ7098084 (TTD Drug) aka ophthalmic acid
ophthalmateMetaboliteQ7098084 (Wikidata) aka ophthalmic acid

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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