Non-homologous end joining (Homo sapiens)

From WikiPathways

Jump to: navigation, search
1-3Alt 1: Processing with ArtemisEnd bindingWRNPRKDCPXRCC5XRCC6Auto-phosphorylation and end processingGap fillingXRCC5XRCC6PRKDCPXRCC5XRCC6PRKDCPLIG4XRCC4NHEJ1LigationPOLLPOLMDCLRE1CXRCC5XRCC6Double-strand breakXRCC5XRCC6PRKDCPXRCC5XRCC6PRKDCPAlt 2: Processing with polymerase muAlt 3: Processing with polymerase lambdaWRNWRNWRNWRNWRN


Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a pathway that repairs double-strand breaks in DNA. NHEJ is referred to as "non-homologous" because the break ends are directly ligated without the need for a homologous template, in contrast to homologous recombination, which requires a homologous sequence to guide repair. NHEJ involves binding of the KU heterodimer to double-stranded DNA ends, recruitment of DNA-PKcs (MRX complex in yeast), processing of ends, and recruitment of the DNA ligase IV (LIG4)-XRCC4 complex, which brings about ligation.

NHEJ typically utilizes short homologous DNA sequences called microhomologies to guide repair. These microhomologies are often present in single-stranded overhangs on the ends of double-strand breaks. When the overhangs are perfectly compatible, NHEJ usually repairs the break accurately. Imprecise repair leading to loss of nucleotides can also occur, but is much more common when the overhangs are not compatible. Inappropriate NHEJ can lead to translocations and telomere fusion, hallmarks of tumor cells. NHEJ is evolutionarily conserved throughout all kingdoms of life and is the predominant double-strand break repair pathway in mammalian cells.

Adapted from Wikipedia, KEGG and REPAIRtoire.

This pathway is part the CPTAC Assay Portal.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



  1. Wyman C, Kanaar R; ''DNA double-strand break repair: all's well that ends well.''; Annu Rev Genet, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. ''KEGG'';,
  3. ''REPAIRtoire'';,


View all...
119305view13:08, 23 June 2021Finterlyadded KEGG biopax information
108414view00:07, 18 December 2019KhanspersAdded WRN and removed DNTT
108413view23:29, 17 December 2019Khanspersadded alternative processing steps based on REPAIRtoire
108412view23:12, 17 December 2019Khansperschanged complex and label
108052view00:48, 27 November 2019Khanspersadded references
108051view00:46, 27 November 2019KhanspersModified description
108045view20:22, 26 November 2019KhanspersOntology Term : 'DNA repair pathway' added !
108042view20:21, 26 November 2019Khansperschanged style and graphics
108035view16:09, 25 November 2019Khanspersremoved HR part
108033view07:13, 25 November 2019Khanspersoverhaul in progress
107721view12:24, 31 October 2019DeSlAdded steps to the left, added lit. ref.
107720view12:16, 31 October 2019DeSlChanged blue+black lines to graphical interactions.
107719view12:10, 31 October 2019DeSlChanged unconnected arrows to graphical lines.
107554view23:46, 19 October 2019AlexanderPicoModified description
105501view05:54, 8 August 2019KhanspersModified description
80022view20:57, 30 April 2015ZariCorrected Ensembl ID for DNA-PKcs
68977view17:41, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
59183view18:51, 22 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
45348view20:25, 7 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'DOID:0014667' removed !
45346view20:25, 7 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'non-homologous end joining pathway of double-strand break repair' added !
41150view23:40, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
39394view19:04, 20 November 2010Chetan1Ontology Term : 'disease of metabolism' added !
35395view09:48, 12 February 2010MartijnVanIerselModified description
32098view13:44, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
29612view12:10, 23 May 2009MartijnVanIerselUpdated ensembl references
22671view14:58, 14 November 2008Thomascapitalized title
21602view11:32, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:non-homologous end joining]] moved to [[Pathway:WP438]]: Moved to stable identifier
15846view19:46, 5 June 2008KhanspersAdded gene IDs
14981view19:57, 24 May 2008AlexanderPicoGrouped and connected
9596view11:40, 9 January 2008Thomasadded to cellular process category
9588view10:18, 9 January 2008Thomasadded gene identifiers
9583view09:46, 9 January 2008Thomasmade a start with NHEJ pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
DCLRE1CGeneProductENSG00000152457 (Ensembl)
LIG4GeneProductENSG00000174405 (Ensembl)
NHEJ1GeneProductENSG00000187736 (Ensembl)
POLLGeneProductENSG00000166169 (Ensembl)
POLMGeneProductENSG00000122678 (Ensembl)
PRKDCGeneProductENSG00000253729 (Ensembl)
WRNGeneProductENSG00000165392 (Ensembl)
XRCC4GeneProductENSG00000152422 (Ensembl)
XRCC5GeneProductENSG00000079246 (Ensembl)
XRCC6GeneProductENSG00000196419 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

Personal tools