Somatroph axis (GH) and its relationship to dietary restriction and aging (Homo sapiens)

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1AgingDietary RestrictionSIRT1IGF and insuline signalingPI3K AMPKPGC-1 alphaFOXOPTENAKTMTORIGF-1GH


The somatotrophic axis in mammals comprises the growth hormone (GH), which is produced by the anterior pituitary, and its secondary mediator, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The intracellular signaling pathway of IGF-1 is the same as that elicited by insulin, which informs cells of the presence of glucose. For this reason, IGF-1 and insulin signaling are known as the insulin and IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway. Remarkably, the IIS pathway is the most conserved aging-controlling pathway in evolution, and among its multiple targets are the FOXO family of transcription factors and the mTOR complexes, which are also involved in aging and conserved through evolution. Genetic polymorphisms or mutations that reduce the functions of GH, IGF-1 receptor, insulin receptor, or downstream intracellular effectors such as AKT, mTOR, and FOXO have been linked to longevity. Molecules that favor aging are shown in orange, and molecules with anti-aging properties are shown in light green. Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the CPTAC Assay Portal.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Lopez C, Blasco MA, Partridge L, Serrano M, Kroemer G; ''The hallmarks of aging.''; Cell, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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105819view23:01, 15 August 2019KhanspersModified description
95479view09:12, 18 December 2017AndraConnected unconnected line
95400view14:46, 12 December 2017DeSlChanged MIM conversion to MIM stimulation for protein-protein interactions.
95393view19:42, 11 December 2017DeSlChanged ID for AMPK, spelling correction for lit. reference.
95392view19:36, 11 December 2017DeSlModified description
95391view19:35, 11 December 2017DeSlAdded literature reference, changed colors.
95390view19:26, 11 December 2017DeSlOntology Term : 'growth factor signaling pathway' added !
95389view19:24, 11 December 2017DeSlOntology Term : 'aging pathway' added !
95388view11:31, 11 December 2017Rik LahaijeModified description
95387view11:26, 11 December 2017Rik LahaijeNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AKTGeneProductENSG00000142208 (Ensembl)
AMPKProtein2.7.11.31 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
FOXOGeneProductENSG00000150907 (Ensembl)
GHMetaboliteCHEBI:37845 (ChEBI)
IGF and insuline signalingPathwayWP2799 (WikiPathways)
IGF-1GeneProductENSG00000140443 (Ensembl)
MTORGeneProductENSG00000198793 (Ensembl)
PGC-1 alphaProteinQ01711 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PI3K ProteinNP_006209.2 (NCBI Protein)
PTENProteinENSG00000171862 (Ensembl)
SIRT1GeneProductENSG00000096717 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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