GHB metabolic pathway (Homo sapiens)

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1GABA transaminase Serum paraoxonase/lactonase 3 (a)ALDHsuccinic semialdehyde 4-hydroxybutaldehyde gamma-butyrolactoneSSADH4,5-dihydroxyhexanoic acidGHB dehydrogenaseTCA cycleADHglycolic acid3-oxo-4-hydroxybutyric acid d-2-hydroxyglutarate transhydrogenasegamma-hydroxybutanoic acid (GHB)fatty acid beta-oxidation spiralSSA reductaseSerum paraoxonase/lactonase 3 (c) 3,4-dihydrobutyric acid succinic acidgamma-aminobutanoic acid (GABA)succinic semialdehyde lactamaseSerum paraoxonase/lactonase 3 (b)1,4-butanediol ADHALDH


Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug. This compound is a precursor to GABA, glutamate, and glycine in certain brain areas, acts on the GHB receptor and is a weak agonist at the GABAB receptor.

GHB has been used in a medical setting as a general anesthetic and as a treatment for cataplexy, narcolepsy, and alcoholism. It is also used illegally as an intoxicant, to try to increase athletic performance, and as a date rape drug. GHB is also produced as a result of fermentation, and is found in small quantities in some beers and wines, beef and small citrus fruits. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is a disease that causes GHB to accumulate in the blood.

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  1. Struys EA, Verhoeven NM, Jansen EE, Ten Brink HJ, Gupta M, Burlingame TG, Quang LS, Maher T, Rinaldo P, Snead OC, Goodwin AK, Weerts EM, Brown PR, Murphy TC, Picklo MJ, Jakobs C, Gibson KM; ''Metabolism of gamma-hydroxybutyrate to d-2-hydroxyglutarate in mammals: further evidence for d-2-hydroxyglutarate transhydrogenase.''; Metabolism, 2006 PubMed


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102675view09:15, 17 January 2019DeSlModified description
102674view09:13, 17 January 2019DeSlChanged weird characters in comment of 4-hydroxybutaldehyde
102673view09:10, 17 January 2019DeSlChanged layout of disease node
94898view13:55, 12 October 2017DeSlModified description
94882view10:05, 11 October 2017DeSlOntology Term : 'gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolic pathway' added !
94881view10:04, 11 October 2017DeSlOntology Term : 'succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency' added !
94880view10:04, 11 October 2017DeSlOntology Term : 'neurotransmitter metabolic pathway' added !
94879view10:03, 11 October 2017DeSlAdded wikidata as database source where applicable
94878view10:02, 11 October 2017DeSlAdded ID for succinic semialdehyde, removed unused metabolite node.
94877view10:00, 11 October 2017DeSlAdded wikidata as database source where applicable
94876view09:58, 11 October 2017DeSlAdded literature ref, added content to the PW from this ref.
94875view09:22, 11 October 2017DeSlOntology Term : 'xenobiotic metabolic pathway' added !
94874view09:18, 11 October 2017DeSlAdded wikidata as database source where applicable
94873view09:16, 11 October 2017DeSlModified description
94872view09:14, 11 October 2017DeSlNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
d-2-hydroxyglutarate transhydrogenaseProtein1.1.99.24 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
1,4-butanediol MetaboliteQ161521 (Wikidata)
3,4-dihydrobutyric acid Metabolite150929 (PubChem-compound)
3-oxo-4-hydroxybutyric acidMetabolite19793911 (PubChem-compound)
4,5-dihydroxyhexanoic acidMetaboliteQ27161948 (Wikidata)
4-hydroxybutaldehyde Metabolite93093 (PubChem-compound) a.k.a. gamma-Hydroxybutyraldehyde
ADHProteinQ410754 (Wikidata) alcohol dehydrogenase
ALDHProtein1.2.1.3 (Enzyme Nomenclature) aldehyde dehydrogenase
GABA transaminase ProteinQ21118182 (Wikidata)
GHB dehydrogenaseProtein1.1.1.61 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
SSA reductaseProteinQ21097418 (Wikidata)
SSADHQ2823333 (Wikidata) DISEASE: succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
Serum paraoxonase/lactonase 3 (a)Protein3.1.8.1 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
Serum paraoxonase/lactonase 3 (b)Protein3.1.1.81 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
Serum paraoxonase/lactonase 3 (c) Protein3.1.1.2 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
TCA cyclePathwayWP78 (WikiPathways)
fatty acid beta-oxidation spiralPathwayWP143 (WikiPathways)
gamma-aminobutanoic acid (GABA)MetaboliteQ210021 (Wikidata) a.k.a. gamma-Aminobutyric acid
gamma-butyrolactoneMetaboliteQ79739 (Wikidata)
gamma-hydroxybutanoic acid (GHB)MetaboliteQ207920 (Wikidata) a.k.a. gamma-hydroxybutanoic acid
glycolic acidMetaboliteQ409373 (Wikidata)
lactamaseProtein3.5.2.6 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
succinic acidMetaboliteQ213050 (Wikidata)
succinic semialdehyde MetaboliteQ4602542 (Wikidata)

Annotated Interactions

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