Valproic acid pathway (Homo sapiens)

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1-11re-uptake of GABAmode of actionincreased levelsmetabolismCYP2A64-Hydroxyvalproic acid5-Hydroxyvalproic acidValproic acid CoA3-oxo-Valproic acid CoA2,3-diene-Valproic acid-CoAUridine diphosphate glucuronic acidPropionyl-CoAGABAValproic acid4-ene-Valproic acidUridine 5'-diphosphateValproic acid glucuronideHADHA3-ene-Valproic acid CoAIVD2-ene-Valproic acid CoAABATCYP2B6HSD17B10ACADSB2-n-Propyl-4-oxopentanoic acid2-Propyl-2,4-pentadienoic acid2,3-diene-Valproic acid-CoA2-Propylglutaric acid3-ene-Valproic acid CoA4-ene-Valproic acid CoAEHHADHPentanoyl-CoAHDAC1UGT1A3ACSM1HADHB3-Hydroxyvalproic acid3-Hydroxyvalproic acid CoACYP2C93-Oxovalproic acidACADSBCYP2A6CYP2B6CYP2C9CYP2A6


Valproic acid is a drug used for treatment and management of seizure disorders, mania and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache. In epileptics, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, and the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Valproic Acid dissociates to the valproate ion in the gastrointestinal tract and then binds to and inhibits GABA transaminase. The drug's anticonvulsant activity may be related to increased brain concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, by inhibiting enzymes that catabolize GABA or block the reuptake of GABA into glia and nerve endings. Valproic Acid may also work by suppressing repetitive neuronal firing through inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. It is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Valproic acid has also been shown to be an inhibitor of an enzyme called histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). HDAC1 is needed for HIV to remain in infected cells. A study published in August 2005 revealed that patients treated with valproic acid in addition to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed a 75% reduction in latent HIV infection. Source: description from Metabolic pathway from:

Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the CPTAC Assay Portal.

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  1. Li J, Norwood DL, Mao LF, Schulz H; ''Mitochondrial metabolism of valproic acid.''; Biochemistry, 1991 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Ho PC, Abbott FS, Zanger UM, Chang TK; ''Influence of CYP2C9 genotypes on the formation of a hepatotoxic metabolite of valproic acid in human liver microsomes.''; Pharmacogenomics J, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Ito M, Ikeda Y, Arnez JG, Finocchiaro G, Tanaka K; ''The enzymatic basis for the metabolism and inhibitory effects of valproic acid: dehydrogenation of valproyl-CoA by 2-methyl-branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.''; Biochim Biophys Acta, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ; ''Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects.''; Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  5. Kiang TK, Ho PC, Anari MR, Tong V, Abbott FS, Chang TK; ''Contribution of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, and CYP2B6 to valproic acid metabolism in hepatic microsomes from individuals with the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotype.''; Toxicol Sci, 2006 PubMed Europe PMC
  6. Sadeque AJ, Fisher MB, Korzekwa KR, Gonzalez FJ, Rettie AE; ''Human CYP2C9 and CYP2A6 mediate formation of the hepatotoxin 4-ene-valproic acid.''; J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Argikar UA, Remmel RP; ''Effect of aging on glucuronidation of valproic acid in human liver microsomes and the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A4, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10.''; Drug Metab Dispos, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Kassahun K, Hu P, Grillo MP, Davis MR, Jin L, Baillie TA; ''Metabolic activation of unsaturated derivatives of valproic acid. Identification of novel glutathione adducts formed through coenzyme A-dependent and -independent processes.''; Chem Biol Interact, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  9. Kassahun K, Farrell K, Abbott F; ''Identification and characterization of the glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates of (E)-2-propyl-2,4-pentadienoic acid, a toxic metabolite of valproic acid, in rats and humans.''; Drug Metab Dispos, 1991 PubMed Europe PMC
  10. ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC
  11. Luís PB, Ruiter JP, Ofman R, Ijlst L, Moedas M, Diogo L, Garcia P, de Almeida IT, Duran M, Wanders RJ, Silva MF; ''Valproic acid utilizes the isoleucine breakdown pathway for its complete β-oxidation.''; Biochem Pharmacol, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC


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106754view13:23, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
105851view23:16, 15 August 2019KhanspersModified description
94406view15:25, 6 September 2017DeSlOntology Term : 'xenobiotic metabolic pathway' added !
88572view09:53, 11 August 2016Fehrhartfixed weird lines
88571view09:50, 11 August 2016FehrhartModified description
88570view09:49, 11 August 2016FehrhartModified description
88569view09:49, 11 August 2016FehrhartModified description
88568view09:48, 11 August 2016FehrhartModified description
88567view09:47, 11 August 2016FehrhartModified description
88565view09:40, 11 August 2016FehrhartModified description
88564view09:32, 11 August 2016FehrhartOntology Term : 'epilepsy' added !
88563view09:32, 11 August 2016FehrhartOntology Term : 'hepatocyte' added !
88562view09:32, 11 August 2016FehrhartOntology Term : 'neuron' added !
88561view09:31, 11 August 2016FehrhartOntology Term : 'valproic acid drug pathway' added !
88560view09:31, 11 August 2016FehrhartModified description
88559view09:30, 11 August 2016FehrhartNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
2,3-diene-Valproic acid-CoAMetaboliteHMDB0060723 (HMDB)
2-Propyl-2,4-pentadienoic acidMetaboliteHMDB0060682 (HMDB)
2-Propylglutaric acidMetaboliteHMDB0060684 (HMDB)
2-ene-Valproic acid CoAMetaboliteHMDB0060714 (HMDB)
2-n-Propyl-4-oxopentanoic acidMetaboliteHMDB0060683 (HMDB)
3-Hydroxyvalproic acid CoAMetaboliteHMDB0060744 (HMDB)
3-Hydroxyvalproic acidMetaboliteHMDB0013899 (HMDB)
3-Oxovalproic acidMetaboliteHMDB0060685 (HMDB)
3-ene-Valproic acid CoAMetaboliteHMDB0060740 (HMDB)
3-oxo-Valproic acid CoAMetaboliteHMDB0060749 (HMDB)
4-Hydroxyvalproic acidMetaboliteHMDB0013900 (HMDB)
4-ene-Valproic acid CoAMetaboliteHMDB0060762 (HMDB)
4-ene-Valproic acidMetaboliteHMDB0013897 (HMDB)
5-Hydroxyvalproic acidMetaboliteHMDB0013898 (HMDB)
ABATGeneProductENSG00000183044 (Ensembl)
ACADSBGeneProductENSG00000196177 (Ensembl)
ACSM1GeneProductENSG00000166743 (Ensembl)
CYP2A6GeneProductENSG00000255974 (Ensembl)
CYP2B6GeneProductENSG00000197408 (Ensembl)
CYP2C9GeneProductENSG00000138109 (Ensembl)
EHHADHGeneProductENSG00000113790 (Ensembl)
GABAMetaboliteHMDB0000112 (HMDB)
HADHAGeneProductENSG00000084754 (Ensembl)
HADHBGeneProductENSG00000138029 (Ensembl)
HDAC1GeneProductENSG00000116478 (Ensembl)
HSD17B10GeneProductENSG00000072506 (Ensembl)
IVDGeneProductENSG00000128928 (Ensembl)
Pentanoyl-CoAMetaboliteHMDB0013037 (HMDB)
Propionyl-CoAMetaboliteHMDB0001275 (HMDB)
UGT1A3GeneProductENSG00000243135 (Ensembl)
Uridine 5'-diphosphateMetaboliteHMDB0000295 (HMDB)
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acidMetaboliteHMDB0000935 (HMDB)
Valproic acid CoAMetaboliteHMDB0060877 (HMDB)
Valproic acid glucuronideMetaboliteHMDB0000901 (HMDB)
Valproic acidMetaboliteHMDB0001877 (HMDB)

Annotated Interactions

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