Leucine Degradation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

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While Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use most amino acids as their sole nitrogen source, they can only use a few amino acids as a carbon source to support growth (CITS:[Large86][Cooper82]). This is in contrast to most eukaryotes and some fungi, which can metabolize amino acids completely, utilizing them as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen (CITS:[Stryer88][Large 86]). S. cerevisiae degrade the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, iso-leucine, and valine) and the aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine) via the Ehrlich pathway (CITS:[Sentheshanmuganathan60][10989420]). This pathway is comprised of the following steps: 1) deamination of the amino acid to the corresponding alpha-keto acid; 2) decarboxylation of the resulting alpha-keto acid to the respective aldehyde; and, 3) reduction of the aldehyde to form the corresponding long chain or complex alcohol, known as a fusel alcohol or fusel oil (CITS:[10989420][Large 86]). Fusel alcohols are important flavor and aroma compounds in yeast-fermented food products and beverages (as reported in (CITS:[9546164]). Each of the three steps in branched-chain amino acid degradation can be catalyzed by more than one isozyme; which enzyme is used appears to depend on the amino acid, the carbon source and the stage of growth of the culture (CITS:[12499363]). In leucine degradation, Thi3p is believed to be the major decarboxylase (CITS: [12499363]). SOURCE: SGD pathways, http://pathway.yeastgenome.org/server.html


GenMAPP remarks 
Based on http://pathway.yeastgenome.org/biocyc/

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  1. ter Schure EG, Flikweert MT, van Dijken JP, Pronk JT, Verrips CT; ''Pyruvate decarboxylase catalyzes decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids but is not essential for fusel alcohol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.''; Appl Environ Microbiol, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Vuralhan Z, Luttik MA, Tai SL, Boer VM, Morais MA, Schipper D, Almering MJ, Kötter P, Dickinson JR, Daran JM, Pronk JT; ''Physiological characterization of the ARO10-dependent, broad-substrate-specificity 2-oxo acid decarboxylase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.''; Appl Environ Microbiol, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Dickinson JR, Harrison SJ, Hewlins MJ; ''An investigation of the metabolism of valine to isobutyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.''; J Biol Chem, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Dickinson JR, Lanterman MM, Danner DJ, Pearson BM, Sanz P, Harrison SJ, Hewlins MJ; ''A 13C nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the metabolism of leucine to isoamyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.''; J Biol Chem, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Prohl C, Kispal G, Lill R; ''Branched-chain-amino-acid transaminases of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.''; Methods Enzymol, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. Dickinson JR, Salgado LE, Hewlins MJ; ''The catabolism of amino acids to long chain and complex alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.''; J Biol Chem, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. Eden A, Simchen G, Benvenisty N; ''Two yeast homologs of ECA39, a target for c-Myc regulation, code for cytosolic and mitochondrial branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases.''; J Biol Chem, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. Kispal G, Steiner H, Court DA, Rolinski B, Lill R; ''Mitochondrial and cytosolic branched-chain amino acid transaminases from yeast, homologs of the myc oncogene-regulated Eca39 protein.''; J Biol Chem, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. Dickinson JR; ''Pathways of leucine and valine catabolism in yeast.''; Methods Enzymol, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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70265view21:47, 15 July 2013MaintBotupdated to 2013 schema
69860view17:23, 11 July 2013EgonwMarked a few DataNodes with CAS registry numbers as metabolites.
67433view11:01, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'leucine degradation pathway ' added !
41872view04:52, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
36666view23:07, 9 April 2010MaintBot
36642view22:37, 9 April 2010MaintBotDescription and bibliography added from SGD
21421view11:31, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Saccharomyces cerevisiae:Leucine Degradation]] moved to [[Pathway:WP354]]: Moved to stable identifier
12766view08:01, 17 May 2008MaintBotautomated metabolite conversion
8810view14:09, 7 January 2008MaintBotAdded to category $category
8808view14:09, 7 January 2008J.HeckmanUploaded new pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ARO10GeneProductS000002788 (SGD)
BAT1GeneProductS000001251 (SGD)
BAT2GeneProductS000003909 (SGD)
L-glutamateMetabolite56-86-0 (CAS)
L-leucineMetabolite61-90-5 (CAS)
THI3GeneProductS000002238 (SGD)

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