Glycogen Metabolism (Mus musculus)

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SynthesisDegradationPhosphorylase KinaseSer/Thr Protein Phosphatase 2AGlycogen (n+1)Glucose 1-phosphatePpp2r2bGygGlucose 6-phosphateUgp2Ppp2r5dCalm2PygbPpp2caCalm1Phkg2Ppp2r4PhkbGys2Ppp2cbPpp2r1bPpp2r1aGys1Calm3cAMPGlucoseGlycogenPpp2r5aPhka1Ppp2r5eGYG2GlycogenPpp2r2cGsk3bPygmPgm2Phka2PPP2R3BGsk3aPygl3222402P14RikPhkg1Glycogen (n+1)Gbe1GlycolysisPpp2r5bPpp2r2aGlucose 1-phosphateUgp2UDP-glucoseAglPpp2r5c


Description

Glycogen is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues. Within skeletal muscle and liver glucose is stored as glycogen. In the liver, glycogen synthesis and degradation are regulated to maintain blood-glucose levels as required to meet the needs of the organism as a whole. In contrast, in muscle, these processes are regulated to meet the energy needs of the muscle itself.

Glycogen synthesis is, unlike its breakdown, endergonic. This means that glycogen synthesis requires the input of energy. Energy for glycogen synthesis comes from UTP, which reacts with glucose-1-phosphate, forming UDP-glucose, in reaction catalyzed by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Glycogen is synthesized from monomers of UDP-glucose by the enzyme glycogen synthase, which progressively lengthens the glycogen chain with (a1->4) bonded glucose. As glycogen synthase can only lengthen an existing chain, the protein glycogenin is needed to initiate the synthesis of glycogen. The glycogen-branching enzyme, amylo (a1->4) to (a1->6) transglycosylase, catalyzes the transfer of a terminal fragment of 6-7 glucose residues from a nonreducing end to the C-6 hydroxyl group of a glucose residue deeper into the interior of the glycogen molecule. The branching enzyme can act upon only a branch having at least 11 residues, and the enzyme may transfer to the same glucose chain or adjacent glucose chains.

Glycogen degradation consists of three steps: (1) the release of glucose 1-phosphate from glycogen, (2) the remodeling of the glycogen substrate to permit further degradation, and (3) the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate into glucose 6-phosphate for further metabolism.

Information partly derived from "Biochemistry" by Stryer and Wikipedia.

Comments

HomologyConvert 
This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP500(r21730) with a 72% conversion rate.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms

 

Bibliography

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History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
106876view13:35, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
89956view18:06, 6 October 2016Mkutmonfixed unconnected lines
89809view11:47, 6 October 2016Mkutmonfixed description
70007view23:35, 11 July 2013MaintBotupdated to 2013 schema
67306view10:34, 26 June 2013Christine ChichesterOntology Term : 'glycogen metabolic pathway' added !
43575view15:05, 1 July 2011AdrienDefayadd database ID for Glycolysis
41356view00:27, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35726view23:39, 12 February 2010AlexanderPico
34412view23:10, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
32964view22:08, 28 September 2009MaintBotadded xrefs
32046view13:30, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
30904view00:25, 30 July 2009MaintBotConverted from Homo sapiens
21347view11:31, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Mus musculus:Glycogen Metabolism]] moved to [[Pathway:WP317]]: Moved to stable identifier
8092view13:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Mouse:Glycogen Metabolism]] moved to [[Pathway:Mus musculus:Glycogen Metabolism]]: Renaming species
7668view16:08, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
7367view12:42, 4 November 2007MaintBotAdded categories to GPML
19477view22:19, 22 May 2007M.Braymergpml file for [[Mouse:Glycogen_Metabolism]]
6452view22:19, 22 May 2007Kdahlquistgpml file for [[Mouse:Glycogen_Metabolism]]

External references

DataNodes

View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
3222402P14RikGeneProduct235542 (Entrez Gene)
AglGeneProduct77559 (Entrez Gene)
Calm1GeneProduct12313 (Entrez Gene)
Calm2GeneProduct12314 (Entrez Gene)
Calm3GeneProduct12315 (Entrez Gene)
GYG2GeneProduct
Gbe1GeneProduct74185 (Entrez Gene)
Glucose 1-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001586 (HMDB)
Glucose 6-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001401 (HMDB)
GlucoseMetaboliteHMDB0000122 (HMDB)
Glycogen (n+1)MetaboliteHMDB0000757 (HMDB)
GlycogenMetaboliteHMDB0000757 (HMDB)
GlycolysisPathwayWP157 (WikiPathways)
Gsk3aGeneProduct606496 (Entrez Gene)
Gsk3bGeneProduct56637 (Entrez Gene)
GygGeneProduct27357 (Entrez Gene)
Gys1GeneProduct14936 (Entrez Gene)
Gys2GeneProduct232493 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R3BGeneProduct
Pgm2GeneProduct72157 (Entrez Gene)
Phka1GeneProduct18679 (Entrez Gene)
Phka2GeneProduct110094 (Entrez Gene)
PhkbGeneProduct102093 (Entrez Gene)
Phkg1GeneProduct18682 (Entrez Gene)
Phkg2GeneProduct68961 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2caGeneProduct19052 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2cbGeneProduct19053 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r1aGeneProduct51792 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r1bGeneProduct73699 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r2aGeneProduct71978 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r2bGeneProduct72930 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r2cGeneProduct269643 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r4GeneProduct110854 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r5aGeneProduct226849 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r5bGeneProduct225849 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r5cGeneProduct26931 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r5dGeneProduct21770 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r5eGeneProduct26932 (Entrez Gene)
PygbGeneProduct110078 (Entrez Gene)
PyglGeneProduct110095 (Entrez Gene)
PygmGeneProduct19309 (Entrez Gene)
UDP-glucoseMetaboliteHMDB0000286 (HMDB)
Ugp2GeneProduct216558 (Entrez Gene)
cAMPMetaboliteHMDB0000058 (HMDB)

Annotated Interactions

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