Tryptophan Degradation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

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1-4ARO10IndoleacetaldehydeL-glutamateIndolepyruvateADH1ADH5PhenylpyruvateNADHL-phenylalanineIndole-3-ethanolARO8PDC52-oxoglutarateARO9CO2ADH4ADH3PDC6ADH2PDC1SFA1NADL-tryptophan


Description

While Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use most amino acids as their sole nitrogen source, they can only use a few amino acids as a carbon source to support growth (CITS:[Large86][Cooper82]). This is in contrast to most eukaryotes and some fungi, which can metabolize amino acids completely, utilizing them as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen (CITS:[Stryer88][Large 86]). S. cerevisiae degrade the aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine) and the branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and iso-leucine) via the Ehrlich pathway (CITS:[Sentheshanmuganathan60][10989420]). This pathway is comprised of the following steps: 1) deamination of the amino acid to the corresponding alpha-keto acid; 2) decarboxylation of the resulting alpha-keto acid to the respective aldehyde; and, 3) reduction of the aldehyde to form the corresponding long chain or complex alcohol, known as a fusel alcohol or fusel oil (CITS:[10989420][Large 86]). Fusel alcohols are important flavor and aroma compounds in yeast-fermented food products and beverages (as reported in (CITS:[9546164]). The primary aminotransferase in tryptophan degradation is postulated to be Aro9p (CITS:[6763508]). In vitro studies demonstrated that Aro9p is active with phenylpyruvate, pyruvate, or p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, but not 2-oxoglutarate as the amino acceptor (CITS:[6763508]). Aro9p is induced by aromatic amino acids and is subject to nitrogen regulation (CITS:[6763508][10207060]). The decarboxylase encoding gene ARO10 appears to be transcriptionally regulated in a similar fashion(CITS:[10207060]). Gap1p, a general amino acid permease, and Wap1p, an inducible amino acid permease with wide substrate specificity, appear to be the main uptake systems for utilizing aromatic amino acids (CITS:[10207060]). SOURCE: SGD pathways, http://pathway.yeastgenome.org/server.html

Comments

GenMAPP remarks 

Based on http://pathway.yeastgenome.org/biocyc/

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms

 

Bibliography

  1. Urrestarazu A, Vissers S, Iraqui I, Grenson M; ''Phenylalanine- and tyrosine-auxotrophic mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae impaired in transamination.''; Mol Gen Genet, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Dickinson JR, Salgado LE, Hewlins MJ; ''The catabolism of amino acids to long chain and complex alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.''; J Biol Chem, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Kradolfer P, Niederberger P, Hütter R; ''Tryptophan degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: characterization of two aromatic aminotransferases.''; Arch Microbiol, 1982 PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Iraqui I, Vissers S, Cartiaux M, Urrestarazu A; ''Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 and ARO9 genes encoding aromatic aminotransferases I and II reveals a new aminotransferase subfamily.''; Mol Gen Genet, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC

History

View all...
CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
107018view13:47, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
104894view15:25, 23 June 2019EgonwReplaced secondary ChEBI identifiers with a primary identifiers.
104825view13:05, 19 June 2019FehrhartAdded IDs for metabolites
104824view13:01, 19 June 2019FehrhartConnected line
67723view11:54, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'tryptophan degradation pathway' added !
62553view23:48, 29 April 2013AlexanderPicoUpdated metabolites, interactions, groups, and removed phantom object
62328view16:06, 27 April 2013EgonwChanged CO2 to a Metabolite DataNode and moved the Title/Organism header.
62327view16:02, 27 April 2013EgonwConverted a few DataNode's to type Metabolite.
58982view19:32, 21 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl data source
41797view04:48, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
36658view22:48, 9 April 2010MaintBot
36617view22:31, 9 April 2010MaintBotDescription and bibliography added from SGD
29893view11:18, 9 June 2009Thomasupdated ensembl references
21313view11:31, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Saccharomyces cerevisiae:Tryptophan Degradation]] moved to [[Pathway:WP301]]: Moved to stable identifier
12883view08:07, 17 May 2008MaintBotautomated metabolite conversion
11000view20:22, 2 March 2008MaintBotyeast id converter
8984view14:14, 7 January 2008MaintBotAdded to category $category
8982view14:13, 7 January 2008M.BraymerUploaded new pathway

External references

DataNodes

View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
2-oxoglutarateMetaboliteCHEBI:16810 (ChEBI)
ADH1GeneProductS000005446 (SGD)
ADH2GeneProductS000004918 (SGD)
ADH3GeneProductS000004688 (SGD)
ADH4GeneProductS000003225 (SGD)
ADH5GeneProductS000000349 (SGD)
ARO10GeneProductS000002788 (SGD)
ARO8GeneProductYGL202W (Ensembl)
ARO9GeneProductYHR137W (Ensembl)
CO2MetaboliteCHEBI:16526 (ChEBI)
Indole-3-ethanolMetaboliteCHEBI:17890 (ChEBI)
IndoleacetaldehydeMetaboliteCHEBI:18086 (ChEBI)
IndolepyruvateMetaboliteHMDB0060484 (HMDB)
L-glutamateMetabolite56-86-0 (CAS)
L-phenylalanineMetabolite63-91-2 (CAS)
L-tryptophanMetabolite73-22-3 (CAS)
NADHMetabolite53-84-9 (CAS)
NADMetaboliteHMDB0000902 (HMDB)
PDC1GeneProductS000004034 (SGD)
PDC5GeneProductS000004124 (SGD)
PDC6GeneProductS000003319 (SGD)
PhenylpyruvateMetaboliteCHEBI:30851 (ChEBI)
SFA1GeneProductS000002327 (SGD)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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