Energy dependent regulation of mTOR by LKB1-AMPK (Homo sapiens)

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3, 6, 92, 5, 7, 8, 13...1112, 141015, 171, 415, 17cytosolHigh ATP concentrationActive mTORC1complexPPM1AH2OPRKAG1 CAB39L PRKAG1 PRKAG2 LAMTOR3 PiLAMTOR1 STK11 GTP RRAGA RRAGB LAMTOR5 RRAGB AMPK heterotrimerPRKAB2 LAMTOR5 p-S1387-TSC2 PRKAG1 GDP MLST8 Pip-AMPK heterotrimerp-T172-PRKAA2 PRKAA2 MTOR STK11STRADADPPRKAG3 PRKAB2 LAMTOR4 RRAGC RPTOR LAMTOR4 TSC1:TSC2GDP PRKAB1 SLC38A9 CAB39L ATPPRKAG3 ADPmTORC1:Ragulator:Rag:GNP:RHEB:GDPTSC1:p-S1387-TSC2RHEB MO25PRKAG2 PRKAA2 AMPK heterotrimerLAMTOR2 CAB39 PRKAB1 p-T172-PRKAA2 MTOR SLC38A9 MLST8 LAMTOR2 PRKAB1 LKB1:STRAD:MO25TSC2 PRKAB2 STRADB MLST8 LAMTOR2 mTORC1withp-S722,S792-RPTOR:Ragulator:Rag:GNP:RHEB:GTPCAB39 LAMTOR3 PRKAB1 LAMTOR1 RRAGD RRAGD MTOR ATPAMPp-S722,S792-RPTOR p-AMPKheterotrimer:AMPPRKAG2 PRKAG1 LAMTOR5 PRKAA1 PRKAG2 p-T174-PRKAA1 TSC1 STRADA PRKAB2 p-T174-PRKAA1 STRADA GTP PRKAG3 RRAGA RRAGC RRAGC RRAGA GTP RPTOR LAMTOR3 RHEB ADPRRAGB ATPPRKAA1 TSC1 GDP RHEB PRKAG3 STRADB RRAGD AMP LAMTOR1 SLC38A9 LAMTOR4


Description

Upon formation of a trimeric LKB1:STRAD:MO25 complex, LKB1 phosphorylates and activates AMPK. This phosphorylation is immediately removed in basal conditions by PP2C, but if the cellular AMP:ATP ratio rises, this activation is maintained, as AMP binding by AMPK inhibits the dephosphorylation. AMPK then activates the TSC complex by phosphorylating TSC2. Active TSC activates the intrinsic GTPase activity of Rheb, resulting in GDP-loaded Rheb and inhibition of mTOR pathway. View original pathway at:Reactome.

Comments

Reactome-Converter 
Pathway is converted from Reactome ID: 380972
Reactome-version 
Reactome version: 66
Reactome Author 
Reactome Author: Katajisto, P, Makela, T, Wu, J

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Ontology Terms

 

Bibliography

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  1. Inoki K, Li Y, Xu T, Guan KL.; ''Rheb GTPase is a direct target of TSC2 GAP activity and regulates mTOR signaling.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Wojtaszewski JF, Nielsen P, Hansen BF, Richter EA, Kiens B.; ''Isoform-specific and exercise intensity-dependent activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase in human skeletal muscle.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Hardie DG.; ''AMP-activated/SNF1 protein kinases: conserved guardians of cellular energy.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Tee AR, Manning BD, Roux PP, Cantley LC, Blenis J.; ''Tuberous sclerosis complex gene products, Tuberin and Hamartin, control mTOR signaling by acting as a GTPase-activating protein complex toward Rheb.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  5. Woods A, Johnstone SR, Dickerson K, Leiper FC, Fryer LG, Neumann D, Schlattner U, Wallimann T, Carlson M, Carling D.; ''LKB1 is the upstream kinase in the AMP-activated protein kinase cascade.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  6. Katajisto P, Vallenius T, Vaahtomeri K, Ekman N, Udd L, Tiainen M, Mäkelä TP.; ''The LKB1 tumor suppressor kinase in human disease.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Hawley SA, Boudeau J, Reid JL, Mustard KJ, Udd L, Mäkelä TP, Alessi DR, Hardie DG.; ''Complexes between the LKB1 tumor suppressor, STRAD alpha/beta and MO25 alpha/beta are upstream kinases in the AMP-activated protein kinase cascade.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Shaw RJ, Kosmatka M, Bardeesy N, Hurley RL, Witters LA, DePinho RA, Cantley LC.; ''The tumor suppressor LKB1 kinase directly activates AMP-activated kinase and regulates apoptosis in response to energy stress.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  9. Guertin DA, Sabatini DM.; ''Defining the role of mTOR in cancer.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  10. Inoki K, Zhu T, Guan KL.; ''TSC2 mediates cellular energy response to control cell growth and survival.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  11. Gwinn DM, Shackelford DB, Egan DF, Mihaylova MM, Mery A, Vasquez DS, Turk BE, Shaw RJ.; ''AMPK phosphorylation of raptor mediates a metabolic checkpoint.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  12. Boudeau J, Baas AF, Deak M, Morrice NA, Kieloch A, Schutkowski M, Prescott AR, Clevers HC, Alessi DR.; ''MO25alpha/beta interact with STRADalpha/beta enhancing their ability to bind, activate and localize LKB1 in the cytoplasm.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  13. Rubink DS, Winder WW.; ''Effect of phosphorylation by AMP-activated protein kinase on palmitoyl-CoA inhibition of skeletal muscle acetyl-CoA carboxylase.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  14. Baas AF, Boudeau J, Sapkota GP, Smit L, Medema R, Morrice NA, Alessi DR, Clevers HC.; ''Activation of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 by the STE20-like pseudokinase STRAD.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  15. Suter M, Riek U, Tuerk R, Schlattner U, Wallimann T, Neumann D.; ''Dissecting the role of 5'-AMP for allosteric stimulation, activation, and deactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  16. Winder WW, Hardie DG.; ''Inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in muscle during exercise.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  17. Davies SP, Helps NR, Cohen PT, Hardie DG.; ''5'-AMP inhibits dephosphorylation, as well as promoting phosphorylation, of the AMP-activated protein kinase. Studies using bacterially expressed human protein phosphatase-2C alpha and native bovine protein phosphatase-2AC.''; PubMed Europe PMC

History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
101272view11:16, 1 November 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 66
100810view20:46, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 65
100351view19:21, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 64
99896view16:04, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 63
99453view14:38, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62 (2nd attempt)
99117view12:40, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62
93976view13:49, 16 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
93577view11:27, 9 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
87439view13:38, 22 July 2016MkutmonOntology Term : 'mTOR signaling pathway' added !
87438view13:38, 22 July 2016MkutmonOntology Term : 'signaling pathway' added !
86682view09:24, 11 July 2016ReactomeTeamreactome version 56
83161view10:14, 18 November 2015ReactomeTeamVersion54
81517view13:03, 21 August 2015ReactomeTeamVersion53
76988view08:28, 17 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
76693view12:06, 16 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
76019view10:08, 11 June 2014ReactomeTeamRe-fixing comment source
75728view11:20, 10 June 2014ReactomeTeamReactome 48 Update
75078view14:02, 8 May 2014AnweshaFixing comment source for displaying WikiPathways description
74725view08:48, 30 April 2014ReactomeTeamNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ADPMetaboliteCHEBI:16761 (ChEBI)
AMP MetaboliteCHEBI:16027 (ChEBI)
AMPMetaboliteCHEBI:16027 (ChEBI)
AMPK heterotrimerComplexR-HSA-380961 (Reactome)
ATPMetaboliteCHEBI:15422 (ChEBI)
Active mTORC1 complexComplexR-HSA-165678 (Reactome)
CAB39 ProteinQ9Y376 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CAB39L ProteinQ9H9S4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GDP MetaboliteCHEBI:17552 (ChEBI)
GTP MetaboliteCHEBI:15996 (ChEBI)
H2OMetaboliteCHEBI:15377 (ChEBI)
LAMTOR1 ProteinQ6IAA8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LAMTOR2 ProteinQ9Y2Q5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LAMTOR3 ProteinQ9UHA4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LAMTOR4 ProteinQ0VGL1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LAMTOR5 ProteinO43504 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LKB1:STRAD:MO25ComplexR-HSA-380967 (Reactome)
MLST8 ProteinQ9BVC4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
MO25ComplexR-HSA-380975 (Reactome)
MTOR ProteinP42345 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PPM1AProteinP35813 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PRKAA1 ProteinQ13131 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PRKAA2 ProteinP54646 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PRKAB1 ProteinQ9Y478 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PRKAB2 ProteinO43741 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PRKAG1 ProteinP54619 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PRKAG2 ProteinQ9UGJ0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PRKAG3 ProteinQ9UGI9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PiMetaboliteCHEBI:18367 (ChEBI)
RHEB ProteinQ15382 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
RPTOR ProteinQ8N122 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
RRAGA ProteinQ7L523 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
RRAGB ProteinQ5VZM2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
RRAGC ProteinQ9HB90 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
RRAGD ProteinQ9NQL2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC38A9 ProteinQ8NBW4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STK11 ProteinQ15831 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STK11ProteinQ15831 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STRADA ProteinQ7RTN6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STRADB ProteinQ9C0K7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STRADComplexR-HSA-380963 (Reactome)
TSC1 ProteinQ92574 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TSC1:TSC2ComplexR-HSA-165175 (Reactome)
TSC1:p-S1387-TSC2ComplexR-HSA-381855 (Reactome)
TSC2 ProteinP49815 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
mTORC1

with

p-S722,S792-RPTOR:Ragulator:Rag:GNP:RHEB:GTP
ComplexR-HSA-5693284 (Reactome)
mTORC1:Ragulator:Rag:GNP:RHEB:GDPComplexR-HSA-5693447 (Reactome)
p-AMPK heterotrimer:AMPComplexR-HSA-380931 (Reactome)
p-AMPK heterotrimerComplexR-HSA-380934 (Reactome)
p-S1387-TSC2 ProteinP49815 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
p-S722,S792-RPTOR ProteinQ8N122 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
p-T172-PRKAA2 ProteinP54646 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
p-T174-PRKAA1 ProteinQ13131 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)

Annotated Interactions

View all...
SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
ADPArrowR-HSA-200421 (Reactome)
ADPArrowR-HSA-380927 (Reactome)
ADPArrowR-HSA-447074 (Reactome)
AMPArrowR-HSA-200421 (Reactome)
AMPK heterotrimerArrowR-HSA-380949 (Reactome)
AMPK heterotrimerR-HSA-200421 (Reactome)
AMPR-HSA-380930 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-200421 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-380927 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-447074 (Reactome)
Active mTORC1 complexR-HSA-380979 (Reactome)
Active mTORC1 complexR-HSA-447074 (Reactome)
Active mTORC1 complexmim-catalysisR-HSA-380979 (Reactome)
H2OR-HSA-380949 (Reactome)
LKB1:STRAD:MO25ArrowR-HSA-380942 (Reactome)
LKB1:STRAD:MO25mim-catalysisR-HSA-200421 (Reactome)
MO25R-HSA-380942 (Reactome)
PPM1Amim-catalysisR-HSA-380949 (Reactome)
PiArrowR-HSA-380949 (Reactome)
PiArrowR-HSA-380979 (Reactome)
R-HSA-200421 (Reactome) The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric kinase complex composed of a catalytic (alpha) subunit and two regulatory (beta and gamma) subunits. AMPK is activated under conditions of energy stress, when intracellular ATP levels decline and intracellular AMP increases, such as during nutrient deprivation or hypoxia (Hardie 2007). Upon energy stress, AMP directly binds to tandem repeats of cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) domains in the AMPK gamma subunit. Binding of AMP is thought to prevent dephosphorylation of the critical activation loop threonine in the alpha subunit (Hardie 2007). The phosphorylation of the activation loop threonine is absolutely required for AMPK activation. Biochemical and genetic analyses in worms, flies, and mice have revealed that the serine/threonine kinase STK11 (LKB1) represents the major kinase phosphorylating the AMPK activation loop under conditions of energy stress across metazoans (Sakamoto et al. 2005, Lee et al. 2007). LKB1 phosphorylates AMPK on Thr174 of the alpha 1 subunit (or Thr172 on the alpha 2 subunit) leading to activation of AMPK if the cellular AMP/ATP ratio is sufficiently high (Hawley et al. 2003, Woods et al. 2003, Shaw et al. 2004). Signals leading to this phosphorylation event can be mediated by exercise, leptin and adiponectin, the hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and alpha adrenergic receptors, as demonstrated in studies of rat and human skeletal muscle (Minoksohi et al. 2002, Kahn et al. 2005).
R-HSA-380927 (Reactome) Activated AMPK (phosphorylated on the alpha subunit and with AMP bound) phosphorylates TSC2 (also known as tuberin) on Ser-1387, thereby activating the GTPase activating protein (GAP) activity of the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). The TSC tumor suppressor is a critical upstream inhibitor of the mTORC1 complex. TSC is a GTPase-activating protein that stimulates the intrinsic GTPase activity of the small G-protein Rheb. This inactivates Rheb by stimulating its GTPase activity. The GDP-bound form of Rheb looses the ability to activate the kinase activity of the mTORC1 complex (Sancak et al. 2007). Loss of TSC1 or TSC2 leads to hyperactivation of mTORC1.

Phosphorylation of TSC1 and TSC2 serves as an integration point for a wide variety of environmental signals that regulate mTORC1 (Sabatini 2006). Mitogen-activated kinases including Akt, Erk, and Rsk directly phosphorylate TSC2, leading to its inactivation by an unknown mechanism. Another Akt substrate, PRAS40, was recently shown to bind and inhibit the mTORC1 complex. Upon phosphorylation by Akt, PRAS40 no longer inhibits mTORC1 (Sancak et al. 2007; Vander Haar et al. 2007).
R-HSA-380930 (Reactome) If AMP:ATP ratio rises, AMP (instead of ATP) is bound by the AMPK-gamma subunit, which inhibits the dephosphorylation of the AMPK-alpha subunit resulting in activation of AMPK. It is not clear, as of yet, whether AMP binds to unphosphorylated AMPK.
R-HSA-380942 (Reactome) Upon complex formation with STRAD and MO25, LKB1 (also known as serine/threonine kinase 11, STK11) is mostly cytosolic. LKB1 attains 20x activity towards the substrates belonging to the subfamily of AMPK-like kinases (5'AMP-activated protein kinases).
R-HSA-380949 (Reactome) Normally under low AMP:ATP conditions, the active AMPK is dephosphorylated (possibly by PP2C), and thus inactivated.
R-HSA-380979 (Reactome) TSC2 (in the TSC complex) functions as a GTPase-activating protein and stimulates the intrinsic GTPase activity of the small G-protein Rheb. This results in the conversion of Rheb:GTP to Rheb:GDP. GDP-bound Rheb is unable to activate mTOR (Inoki et al. 2003, Tee et al. 2003). It is not demonstrated that RHEB hydrolyzes GTP when present in the mTORC1 complex; given the low affinity of RHEB for mTOR, it may dissociate from the mTORC1 complex before TSC2 stimulates hydrolysis of GTP; TSC2 may not have access to critical residues of RHEB when present inside mTORC1.
R-HSA-447074 (Reactome) Activated AMPK (phosphorylated on Thr172 or Thr174 and AMP bound) phosphorylates RPTOR (Raptor) on Ser722 and Ser792. These phosphorylations are required for inhibition of mTORC1 activity in response to energy stress (Gwinn et al. 2008).
STK11R-HSA-380942 (Reactome)
STRADR-HSA-380942 (Reactome)
TSC1:TSC2R-HSA-380927 (Reactome)
TSC1:p-S1387-TSC2ArrowR-HSA-380927 (Reactome)
TSC1:p-S1387-TSC2ArrowR-HSA-380979 (Reactome)
mTORC1

with

p-S722,S792-RPTOR:Ragulator:Rag:GNP:RHEB:GTP
ArrowR-HSA-447074 (Reactome)
mTORC1:Ragulator:Rag:GNP:RHEB:GDPArrowR-HSA-380979 (Reactome)
p-AMPK heterotrimer:AMPArrowR-HSA-380930 (Reactome)
p-AMPK heterotrimer:AMPmim-catalysisR-HSA-380927 (Reactome)
p-AMPK heterotrimer:AMPmim-catalysisR-HSA-447074 (Reactome)
p-AMPK heterotrimerArrowR-HSA-200421 (Reactome)
p-AMPK heterotrimerR-HSA-380930 (Reactome)
p-AMPK heterotrimerR-HSA-380949 (Reactome)
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