Peptide hormone biosynthesis (Homo sapiens)

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23, 871, 954, 6cytosolsecretory granule lumenCGB3GonadotropinLHBINHBE INHIBLHB CGAINHBB FollitropinFSHB glyco-LutropinINHBA FSHBCGA PC1:calcium cofactorCGA INHBC TSHBPOMC(1-241)Ca2+ CGA PCSK1 CGA INHBC INHBB INHA CGB3 ACTIVININHBA TSHB POMC(138-176)INHBE homoINHB Thyrotropin


Description

Peptide hormones are peptides that are secreted directly into the blood stream (endocrine hormones). They are synthesized as precursors that require proteolytic processing (not discussed here) to generate the biologically active peptides that mediate neurotransmission and hormonal action. Glycoprotein hormones (those which include carbohydrate side-chains) and the processing of corticotropin are annotated here. View original pathway at:Reactome.

Comments

Reactome-Converter 
Pathway is converted from Reactome ID: 209952
Reactome-version 
Reactome version: 66
Reactome Author 
Reactome Author: Jassal, Bijay

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms

 

Bibliography

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  1. Rull K, Laan M.; ''Expression of beta-subunit of HCG genes during normal and failed pregnancy.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Tager HS, Steiner DF.; ''Peptide hormones.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  3. LEE TH, LERNER AB, BUETTNER-JANUSCH V.; ''On the structure of human corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone).''; PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Fares F.; ''The role of O-linked and N-linked oligosaccharides on the structure-function of glycoprotein hormones: development of agonists and antagonists.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  5. Chin WW, Habener JF.; ''Thyroid-stimulating hormone subunits: evidence from endoglycosidase-H cleavage for late presecretory glycosylation.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  6. Sairam MR, Li CH.; ''Human pituitary lutropin. Isolation, properties, and the complete amino acid sequence of the beta-subunit.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Fujiki Y, Rathnam P, Saxena BB.; ''Studies on the disulfide bonds in human pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Jackson RS, Creemers JW, Ohagi S, Raffin-Sanson ML, Sanders L, Montague CT, Hutton JC, O'Rahilly S.; ''Obesity and impaired prohormone processing associated with mutations in the human prohormone convertase 1 gene.''; PubMed Europe PMC
  9. Beebe JS, Mountjoy K, Krzesicki RF, Perini F, Ruddon RW.; ''Role of disulfide bond formation in the folding of human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit into an alpha beta dimer assembly-competent form.''; PubMed Europe PMC

History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
101294view11:18, 1 November 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 66
100831view20:49, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 65
100372view19:23, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 64
99919view16:07, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 63
99474view14:39, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62 (2nd attempt)
99128view12:40, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62
93980view13:49, 16 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
93582view11:28, 9 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
88088view09:16, 26 July 2016RyanmillerOntology Term : 'peptide and protein hormone metabolic process' added !
88087view09:15, 26 July 2016RyanmillerOntology Term : 'classic metabolic pathway' added !
86688view09:24, 11 July 2016ReactomeTeamreactome version 56
83289view10:39, 18 November 2015ReactomeTeamVersion54
81421view12:57, 21 August 2015ReactomeTeamVersion53
76894view08:16, 17 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
76599view11:57, 16 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
75929view09:58, 11 June 2014ReactomeTeamRe-fixing comment source
75632view10:50, 10 June 2014ReactomeTeamReactome 48 Update
74987view13:50, 8 May 2014AnweshaFixing comment source for displaying WikiPathways description
74631view08:41, 30 April 2014ReactomeTeamNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACTIVINComplexR-HSA-1449689 (Reactome)
CGA ProteinP01215 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CGAProteinP01215 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CGB3 ProteinP0DN86 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CGB3ProteinP0DN86 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Ca2+ MetaboliteCHEBI:29108 (ChEBI)
FSHB ProteinP01225 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
FSHBProteinP01225 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
FollitropinComplexR-HSA-378947 (Reactome)
GonadotropinComplexR-HSA-378941 (Reactome)
INHA ProteinP05111 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
INHBA ProteinP08476 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
INHBB ProteinP09529 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
INHBC ProteinP55103 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
INHBE ProteinP58166 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
INHIBComplexR-HSA-1449688 (Reactome)
LHB ProteinP01229 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LHBProteinP01229 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PC1:calcium cofactorComplexR-HSA-378974 (Reactome)
PCSK1 ProteinP29120 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
POMC(1-241)ProteinP01189 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
POMC(138-176)ProteinP01189 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TSHB ProteinP01222 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TSHBProteinP01222 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ThyrotropinComplexR-HSA-378994 (Reactome)
glyco-LutropinComplexR-HSA-378969 (Reactome)
homoINHB R-HSA-1449699 (Reactome)

Annotated Interactions

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SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACTIVINArrowR-HSA-378975 (Reactome)
CGAR-HSA-378952 (Reactome)
CGAR-HSA-378956 (Reactome)
CGAR-HSA-378975 (Reactome)
CGAR-HSA-378978 (Reactome)
CGB3R-HSA-378978 (Reactome)
FSHBR-HSA-378975 (Reactome)
FollitropinArrowR-HSA-378975 (Reactome)
GonadotropinArrowR-HSA-378978 (Reactome)
INHIBTBarR-HSA-378975 (Reactome)
LHBR-HSA-378956 (Reactome)
PC1:calcium cofactormim-catalysisR-HSA-265301 (Reactome)
POMC(1-241)R-HSA-265301 (Reactome)
POMC(138-176)ArrowR-HSA-265301 (Reactome)
R-HSA-265301 (Reactome) Corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone, ACTH) is a 39-amino acid polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. It is often produced in response to biological stress (along with corticotropin-releasing hormone). Its principal effects are increased production of androgens and cortisol. Corticotropin is processed from the precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). The enzyme that performs the cleavage of POMC to corticotropin is prohormone convertase 1 (PC1). In addition to corticotropin, POMC is processed into other small, biologically active fragments. These include lipotropins, melanocyte-stimulating hormone and endorphins.
R-HSA-378952 (Reactome) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin) is a glycopeptide hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. Like other glycoprotein hormones, TSH consists of a common alpha subunit and a beta subunit unique to TSH which determines its specificty. TSH binds to TSH receptor to stimulate the release of the hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) (Chin and Habener 1981).
R-HSA-378956 (Reactome) Luteinizing hormone (LH, lutropin) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland. In females it can trigger ovulation whereas in males it stimulates testosterone production. Like other glycoproteins, lutropin is composed of a common alpha subunit bound to a unique beta subunit (Sairam MR and Li CH, 1975). The beta subunit is responsible for lutropin's interaction with the LH receptor. N-Linked oligosaccharides terminating with the sequence SO(4)-4-GalNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha are present on the pituitary hormones LH, thyrotropin, and pro-opiomelanocortin. These sulfated structures are essential for their biologic function (Fares 2006).
R-HSA-378975 (Reactome) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, follitropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. FSH regulates the reproductive processes of the human body. FSH and Luteinizing hormone (LH) act synergistically in reproduction. In the female ovary, FSH stimulates the growth of immature Graafian follicles to maturation. In males, FSH enhances the production of androgen-binding protein, required for spermatogenesis. Like the other glycoprotein hormones, FSH consists of a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit.
Inhibins and activins are two closely related complexes which inhibit and activate respectively, FSH synthesis and secretion (Bilezikjian et al, 2006).
R-HSA-378978 (Reactome) Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein hormone produced in pregnancy. Its role is to maintain progesterone production by preventing the disintegration of the corpus luteum of the ovary and thus sustain the growing foetus (Rull & Laan 2005). Gonadotropin comprises an alpha subunit (CGA), common to the pituitary gonadotropin hormones (LH, FSH and TSH) and a distinct beta subunit (CGB3), unique for each hormone which confers receptor and biological specificity. The subunits are bound by six intrachain disulfide bonds, required for dimer formation (Beebe et al. 1990)
TSHBR-HSA-378952 (Reactome)
ThyrotropinArrowR-HSA-378952 (Reactome)
glyco-LutropinArrowR-HSA-378956 (Reactome)
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