Neurotoxicity of clostridium toxins (Homo sapiens)

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10, 11, 18, 29, 32...9, 11, 36, 4554339, 11, 3629, 30, 37, 4117, 3429, 31, 37, 406, 168, 28, 537, 29, 37, 39, 5229-31, 37, 41292912, 15, 482, 6, 383, 18, 25118, 29, 37, 511, 2629, 35, 37, 401129, 37, 5229, 37, 52299, 11, 36297, 29, 37, 39, 525, 24, 29, 552629299, 115, 29, 37, 5515, 21, 499, 11, 3618, 19, 252918, 25, 441113, 50cytosolendocytic vesiclesynaptic vesicle lumencytosolclathrin-coated endocytic vesiclesynaptic vesicle lumenNTNHA SYT1 NTNHA BoNT/C:GT1bSV2C BoNT/A HCZn2+ VAMP2(77-116)BoNT/B LC disulfide bonded BoNT/D HC disulfide bonded SYT2 VAMP1H+VAMP2(2-58)ha17 SV2A ha17 BoNT/D:SV2:GD2BoNT/D LC disulfide bonded Zn2+ SV2A SYT2 Zn2+ GM1aSV2A BoNT/F HC:LC dimerVAMP2(77-116)BoNT/E LC SV2A BoNT/C LC:Zn2+GT1b SV2B SV2A,B,CBoNT/E HC disulfide bonded BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bBoNT/B HC:LC dimerTeNT HC disulfide bonded VAMP1(1-61)SNAP25Zn2+ SNAP25(198-206)SV2B SV2B BoNT/D:SV2:GD2BoNT/E LC disulfide bonded BoNT/E HCBoNT/B HCSV2C TeNT LC disulfide bonded BoNT/A LC Zn2+ BoNT/F LC disulfide bonded SNAP25BoNT/F HC disulfide bonded GD2SV2B BoNT/B LC disulfide bonded SV2A,B,CBoNT/C LC disulfide bonded VAMP2(2-81)Zn2+ GT1bBoNT/G:SYT1:GT1bBoNT/F LC disulfide bonded GD3BoNT/B LC BoNT/A LC disulfide bonded BoNT/G LC disulfide bonded BoNT/A:NTNHA:HABoNT/B LC disulfide bonded SYT1 ha70 STX1A SV2A,B,CBoNT/B LC:Zn2+SNAP25BoNT/B:NTNHA:HATeNT HC disulfide bonded BoNT/F LC SNAP25(1-198)SV2B BoNT/G LC:Zn2+SV2B BoNT/A HC disulfide bonded BoNT/D HC disulfide bonded STX1(1-?)BoNT/A LC:Zn2+BoNT/E LC disulfide bonded SV2A,B,CVAMP2(82-116)BoNT/C LC BoNT/G LC disulfide bonded BoNT/C LC disulfide bonded VAMP2Zn2+ BoNT/G HC disulfide bonded VAMP2BoNT/F HC disulfide bonded Zn2+ SV2A,B,CBoNT/A HC disulfide bonded SV2C GD2Zn2+ Zn2+ H+SYT2 Zn2+ GD3 TeNT LC SV2B BoNT/G HC disulfide bonded H+VAMP1(1-60)ha33 Zn2+ SV2A GT1b SYT1 BoNT/C HC:LC dimerBoNT/E LC disulfide bonded GD3Zn2+ SV2A,BZn2+ BoNT/C HC disulfide bonded BoNT/G HC:LC dimerGD2 GT1b SV2A GT1bBoNT/B HC disulfide bonded GT1b GT1bSTX1B TeNT HC disulfide bonded VAMP2(2-76)SV2C BoNT/A HC disulfide bonded BoNT/F HC disulfide bonded H+BoNT/F HCNTNHA H+GD3 BoNT/A HC:LC dimerBoNT/E HC disulfide bonded BoNT/C HC disulfide bonded TeNT LC:Zn2+H+BoNT/C HCVAMP1(61-118)GM1a GD2 SV2C GT1bSV2C SV2B BoNT/B LC disulfide bonded Zn2+ Zn2+ GT1bSV2B BoNT/A HC disulfide bonded SV2B NTNHAZn2+ GM1a GT1b Zn2+ BoNT/E:NTNHAGT1b BoNT/D HC:LC dimerVAMP2SYT1TeNT HCBoNT/E HC disulfide bonded STX1(?-288)ha70TeNT LC disulfide bonded BoNT/D HC disulfide bonded GM1aGT1b SV2C SV2C SYT1BoNT/A LC disulfide bonded Zn2+ GT1bSV2A Zn2+ GT1b ha70 SV2B ha17TeNT LC disulfide bonded Zn2+ SNAP25(1-198)VAMP2(2-59)BoNT/G LC disulfide bonded SYT1,2SYT1,2VAMP1(62-118)BoNT/E:SV2:GT1bNTNHAGT1bBoNT/B HC disulfide bonded SV2A Zn2+ SV2A BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bSNAP25(1-197)Zn2+ H+GT1b STX1B(?-288) TeNT:gangliosidesSV2A SV2C BoNT/D LC:Zn2+Zn2+ BoNT/D LC disulfide bonded GT1bZn2+ STX1A(1-?) Zn2+ SV2B SV2A GT1b GM1a Zn2+ Zn2+ SV2A SYT1 GT1bSV2A GD3 BoNT/B HC disulfide bonded Zn2+ SV2C TeNT:gangliosidesTeNT HC disulfide bonded BoNT/E HC:LC dimerSTX1A(?-288) SYT2 Zn2+ VAMP2(60-116)BoNT/D HCSV2B VAMP2SV2A Zn2+ Zn2+ SV2B SV2A,BBoNT/A LC disulfide bonded TeNT HC:LC dimerBoNT/A LC disulfide bonded SNAP25(199-206)SV2A STX1B(1-?) GT1b VAMP1(84-118)VAMP2(2-76)BoNT/E:SV2:GT1bZn2+ SV2C BoNT/F:SV2:GT1bSV2B VAMP2(59-116)SYT1 BoNT/E LC:Zn2+BoNT/D LC BoNT/F:SV2:GT1bBoNT/B:SYT:GT1bBoNT/F LC:Zn2+SV2A,B,CTeNT:gangliosidesVAMP1(1-83)SYT1 ha33 BoNT/G HC disulfide bonded BoNT/F LC disulfide bonded Zn2+ SV2B BoNT/B HC disulfide bonded BoNT/E HC disulfide bonded SV2C STX1GT1b BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bha33SNAP25(199-206)Zn2+ BoNT/G LC BoNT/G HCGT1bTeNT LC disulfide bonded BoNT/E LC disulfide bonded BoNT/G:SYT1:GT1bBoNT/C LC disulfide bonded H+Zn2+ BoNT/D LC disulfide bonded BoNT/C HC disulfide bonded VAMP1BoNT/C:GT1bSV2A GT1b5, 55227, 284, 208, 5174, 20524727232315, 484, 202738, 42491230, 31234, 20224215, 2131272735, 4035, 4030, 3117, 342227238, 5142312234, 2022422227225, 5554422322274, 202216, 521114527, 5252233142314, 20521, 27, 2822234, 20444, 2042222342238, 512319541, 27, 28234242278, 5149425, 5528, 4723723127, 525, 5513, 503142221, 26-28


Clostridial neurotoxins, when taken up by human neurons, block synaptic transmission by cleaving proteins required for the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. They are remarkably efficient so that very small doses cause paralysis of an affected person (Lalli et al. 2003; Turton et al. 2002). All characterized clostridial neurotoxins are synthesized as products of chromosomal, plasmid or prophage-borne bacterial genes. The nascent toxin may be cleaved into light (LC) and heavy (HC) chain moieties that remain attached by noncovalent interactions and a disulfide bond (Turton et al. 2002).

Strains of Clostridium botulinum produce seven serologically distinct toxins, BoNT/A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. An eighth toxin, BoNT/H has recently been identified (Barash & Arnon 2014) but its molecular properties have not yet been described. Human poisoning most commonly result from ingestion of toxin contaminated food. More rarely, it is due to wound infection or clostridial colonization of the gut of an infant whose own gut flora have not yet developed or of an older individual whose flora have been suppressed. While all seven characterized toxins can cleave human target proteins, three, BoNT/A, B, and E, are most commonly associated with human disease (Hatheway 1995; Sakaguchi 1982). BoNT/F is also able to cause human botulism.<p>Once ingested, the botulinum toxin must be taken up from the gut lumen into the circulation, a process mediated by four accessory proteins. These proteins form a complex that mediates transcytosis of the toxin molecule across the gut epithelium, allowing its entry into the circulation. The accessory proteins produced by different C. botulinum strains differ in their affinities for polarized epithelia of different species (e.g., human versus canine), and may thus be a key factor in human susceptibility to the toxins of strains A, B, and E and resistance to the others (Simpson 2004).<p>Clostridium tetani produces TeNT toxin. Human poisoning is the result of toxin secretion by bacteria growing in an infected wound and the toxin is released directly into the circulation.<p>Circulating clostridial toxins are taken up by neurons at neuromuscular junctions. They bind to specific gangliosides (BoNT/C, TeNT) or to both gangliosides and synaptic vesicle proteins (BoNT/A, B, D G) exposed on the neuronal plasma membrane during vesicle exocytosis (Montal 2010). All seven characterized forms of BoNT are thought to be taken up into synaptic vesicles as these re-form at the neuromuscular junction. These vesicles remain close to the site of uptake and are rapidly re-loaded with neurotransmitter and acidified (Sudhoff 2004). TeNT, in contrast, is taken up into clathrin coated vesicles that reach the neuron cell body by retrograde transport and then possibly other neurons before undergoing acidification. Vesicle acidification causes a conformational change in the toxin, allowing its HC part to function as a channel through which its LC part is extruded into the neuronal cytosol. The HC - LC disulfide bond is cleaved and the cytosolic LC functions as a zinc metalloprotease to cleave specific bonds in proteins on the cytosolic faces of synaptic vesicles and plasma membranes that normally mediate exocytosis (Lalli et al. 2003; Montal 2010). View original pathway at:Reactome.</div>


Pathway is converted from Reactome ID: 168799
Reactome version: 66
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Reactome Author: Krupa, S, Gopinathrao, G

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101270view11:16, 1 November 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 66
100808view20:44, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 65
100349view19:21, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 64
99894view16:04, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 63
99451view14:38, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62 (2nd attempt)
99115view12:40, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62
93784view13:36, 16 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
93317view11:20, 9 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
87757view09:56, 25 July 2016RyanmillerOntology Term : 'disease pathway' added !
87755view09:56, 25 July 2016RyanmillerOntology Term : 'infectious disease pathway' added !
87752view09:53, 25 July 2016RyanmillerOntology Term : 'bacterial infectious disease' added !
86402view09:17, 11 July 2016ReactomeTeamreactome version 56
83321view10:46, 18 November 2015ReactomeTeamVersion54
81748view09:47, 26 August 2015ReactomeTeamVersion53
76848view08:07, 17 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
76552view11:53, 16 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
75885view09:54, 11 June 2014ReactomeTeamRe-fixing comment source
75585view10:42, 10 June 2014ReactomeTeamReactome 48 Update
74940view13:46, 8 May 2014AnweshaFixing comment source for displaying WikiPathways description
74584view08:37, 30 April 2014ReactomeTeamNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
BoNT/A HC disulfide bonded ProteinP0DPI0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/A HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5228590 (Reactome)
BoNT/A HCProteinP0DPI0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/A LC ProteinP0DPI0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/A LC disulfide bonded ProteinP0DPI0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/A LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190017 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:NTNHA:HAComplexR-CBO-5228604 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bComplexR-HSA-5244411 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bComplexR-HSA-5244507 (Reactome)
BoNT/B HC disulfide bonded ProteinP10844 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/B HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5228599 (Reactome)
BoNT/B HCProteinP10844 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/B LC ProteinP10844 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/B LC disulfide bonded ProteinP10844 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/B LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190016 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:NTNHA:HAComplexR-CBO-5228681 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bComplexR-HSA-5244408 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bComplexR-HSA-5244502 (Reactome)
BoNT/C HC disulfide bonded ProteinP18640 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/C HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5246516 (Reactome)
BoNT/C HCProteinP18640 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/C LC ProteinP18640 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/C LC disulfide bonded ProteinP18640 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/C LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190018 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5246508 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bComplexR-CBO-5246513 (Reactome)
BoNT/D HC disulfide bonded ProteinP19321 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/D HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5250523 (Reactome)
BoNT/D HCProteinP19321 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/D LC ProteinP19321 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/D LC disulfide bonded ProteinP19321 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/D LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190038 (Reactome)
BoNT/D:SV2:GD2ComplexR-HSA-5250603 (Reactome)
BoNT/D:SV2:GD2ComplexR-HSA-5250612 (Reactome)
BoNT/E HC disulfide bonded ProteinQ00496 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/E HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5228686 (Reactome)
BoNT/E HCProteinQ00496 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/E LC ProteinQ00496 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/E LC disulfide bonded ProteinQ00496 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/E LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190047 (Reactome)
BoNT/E:NTNHAComplexR-CBO-5228688 (Reactome)
BoNT/E:SV2:GT1bComplexR-HSA-5244509 (Reactome)
BoNT/E:SV2:GT1bComplexR-HSA-5244512 (Reactome)
BoNT/F HC disulfide bonded ProteinP30996 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/F HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5250693 (Reactome)
BoNT/F HCProteinP30996 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/F LC ProteinP30996 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/F LC disulfide bonded ProteinP30996 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/F LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190042 (Reactome)
BoNT/F:SV2:GT1bComplexR-HSA-5250879 (Reactome)
BoNT/F:SV2:GT1bComplexR-HSA-5250883 (Reactome)
BoNT/G HC disulfide bonded ProteinQ60393 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/G HC:LC dimerComplexR-CBO-5250691 (Reactome)
BoNT/G HCProteinQ60393 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/G LC ProteinQ60393 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/G LC disulfide bonded ProteinQ60393 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
BoNT/G LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CBO-190032 (Reactome)
BoNT/G:SYT1:GT1bComplexR-HSA-5250975 (Reactome)
BoNT/G:SYT1:GT1bComplexR-HSA-5250976 (Reactome)
GD2 MetaboliteCHEBI:28648 (ChEBI)
GD2MetaboliteCHEBI:28648 (ChEBI)
GD3 MetaboliteCHEBI:28424 (ChEBI)
GD3MetaboliteCHEBI:28424 (ChEBI)
GM1a MetaboliteCHEBI:18216 (ChEBI)
GM1aMetaboliteCHEBI:18216 (ChEBI)
GT1b MetaboliteCHEBI:60913 (ChEBI)
GT1bMetaboliteCHEBI:60913 (ChEBI)
H+MetaboliteCHEBI:15378 (ChEBI)
NTNHA ProteinQ9LBS8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
NTNHAProteinQ9LBS8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SNAP25(1-197)ProteinP60880 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SNAP25(1-198)ProteinP60880 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SNAP25(198-206)ProteinP60880 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SNAP25(199-206)ProteinP60880 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SNAP25ProteinP60880 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1(1-?)ComplexR-HSA-5250515 (Reactome)
STX1(?-288)ComplexR-HSA-5250513 (Reactome)
STX1A ProteinQ16623 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1A(1-?) ProteinQ16623 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1A(?-288) ProteinQ16623 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1B ProteinP61266 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1B(1-?) ProteinP61266 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1B(?-288) ProteinP61266 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
STX1ComplexR-HSA-5250514 (Reactome)
SV2A ProteinQ7L0J3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SV2A,B,CComplexR-HSA-5324682 (Reactome)
SV2A,B,CComplexR-HSA-5324684 (Reactome)
SV2A,BComplexR-HSA-5324689 (Reactome)
SV2A,BComplexR-HSA-5324690 (Reactome)
SV2B ProteinQ7L1I2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SV2C ProteinQ496J9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SYT1 ProteinP21579 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SYT1,2ComplexR-HSA-5324683 (Reactome)
SYT1,2ComplexR-HSA-5324686 (Reactome)
SYT1ProteinP21579 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SYT2 ProteinQ8N9I0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TeNT HC disulfide bonded ProteinP04958 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TeNT HC:LC dimerComplexR-CTE-5228372 (Reactome)
TeNT HCProteinP04958 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TeNT LC ProteinP04958 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TeNT LC disulfide bonded ProteinP04958 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TeNT LC:Zn2+ComplexR-CTE-5228371 (Reactome)
TeNT:gangliosidesComplexR-CTE-5228368 (Reactome)
TeNT:gangliosidesComplexR-CTE-5228374 (Reactome)
TeNT:gangliosidesComplexR-CTE-5228403 (Reactome)
VAMP1(1-60)ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP1(1-61)ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP1(1-83)ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP1(61-118)ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP1(62-118)ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP1(84-118)ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP1ProteinP23763 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(2-58)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(2-59)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(2-76)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(2-81)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(59-116)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(60-116)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(77-116)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2(82-116)ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VAMP2ProteinP63027 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Zn2+ MetaboliteCHEBI:29105 (ChEBI)
ha17 ProteinQ45878 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ha17ProteinQ45878 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ha33 ProteinQ57230 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ha33ProteinQ57230 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ha70 ProteinQ45877 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ha70ProteinQ45877 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)

Annotated Interactions

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SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
BoNT/A HC:LC dimerArrowR-HSA-5228943 (Reactome)
BoNT/A HC:LC dimerR-HSA-5244415 (Reactome)
BoNT/A HCArrowR-HSA-5244428 (Reactome)
BoNT/A LC:Zn2+ArrowR-HSA-5244428 (Reactome)
BoNT/A LC:Zn2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-194818 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:NTNHA:HAR-HSA-5228943 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bArrowR-HSA-5244415 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bArrowR-HSA-5244424 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bR-HSA-5244424 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bR-HSA-5244428 (Reactome)
BoNT/A:SV2:GT1bmim-catalysisR-HSA-5244428 (Reactome)
BoNT/B HC:LC dimerArrowR-HSA-5228940 (Reactome)
BoNT/B HC:LC dimerR-HSA-5244397 (Reactome)
BoNT/B HCArrowR-HSA-5244404 (Reactome)
BoNT/B LC:Zn2+ArrowR-HSA-5244404 (Reactome)
BoNT/B LC:Zn2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-194796 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:NTNHA:HAR-HSA-5228940 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bArrowR-HSA-5244397 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bArrowR-HSA-5244402 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bR-HSA-5244402 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bR-HSA-5244404 (Reactome)
BoNT/B:SYT:GT1bmim-catalysisR-HSA-5244404 (Reactome)
BoNT/C HC:LC dimerR-HSA-5246506 (Reactome)
BoNT/C HCArrowR-HSA-5246514 (Reactome)
BoNT/C LC:Zn2+ArrowR-HSA-5246514 (Reactome)
BoNT/C LC:Zn2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-181567 (Reactome)
BoNT/C LC:Zn2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-194793 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bArrowR-HSA-5246506 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bArrowR-HSA-5246509 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bR-HSA-5246509 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bR-HSA-5246514 (Reactome)
BoNT/C:GT1bmim-catalysisR-HSA-5246514 (Reactome)
BoNT/D HC:LC dimerR-HSA-5250607 (Reactome)
BoNT/D HCArrowR-HSA-5250616 (Reactome)
BoNT/D LC:Zn2+ArrowR-HSA-5250616 (Reactome)
BoNT/D LC:Zn2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-194809 (Reactome)
BoNT/D LC:Zn2+mim-catalysisR-HSA-5250606 (Reactome)
BoNT/D:SV2:GD2ArrowR-HSA-5250600 (Reactome)