Chloroplastic Aminoacid Biosynthesis (Arabidopsis thaliana)

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branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase 2branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase 3branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase 5acetolactate synthase LSUacetolactate synthase SSU 1acetolactate synthase SSU 2Chloroplastcystathionine gamma-lyaseCO2Cysteinediaminopimelate decarboxylase 1glutamatecystathionine beta-lyaseO-acetyl-L-serineSerine2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerateH2Omethionine synthase 32,6-diaminopimelateHomocysteinemeso-2,6-diaminopimelateValineaspartate2-aceto-2-hydroxybutanoateserine acetyltransferase 1Isoleucineserine racemasediaminopimelate epimeraselysinedihydroxy-acid dehydrataseketol-acid reductoisomeraseCystathioninepyruvate2-Acetolactate2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylvalerate2-oxo-3-methylvalerate2-oxo-isovalerateValine and IsoleucineBiosynthesisMethioninecysteine synthaseCysteine and MethionineBiosynthesisLysineBiosynthesisGlycolysis2-oxobutanoateNH3acetateHSAcetyl-CoACoApyruvateNH3tetrahydropteroyltri glutamate5-methyltetrahydropteroyltri glutamate2-oxobutanoateH+CO2CO2NADPHNADP+NADPHNADP+H2O2-oxoglutarateglutamate2-oxoglutaratediaminopimelate decarboxylase 2


Description

Unlike animals, plants are able to de novo synthesize these amino acids from pyruvate, 2-oxobutanoate and acetyl-CoA. In plants, biosynthesis follows the typical reaction pathways established for the formation of these amino acids in microorganisms. Val and Ile are synthesized in two parallel pathways using a single set of enzymes. The pathway to Leu branches of from the final intermediate of Val biosynthesis. The formation of this amino acid requires a three-step pathway generating a 2-oxoacid elongated by a methylene group. In Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae, a homologous three-step pathway is also involved in Met chain elongation required for the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates, an important class of specialized metabolites.

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Bibliography

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History

View all...
CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
105899view11:36, 16 August 2019MkutmonHMDB identifier normalization
97781view13:52, 7 June 2018TeacupModified description
82872view16:29, 10 November 2015JmeliusCorrect outdated id
79787view15:55, 16 April 2015Mkutmonfixed unconnected line
78388view10:22, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
76222view12:58, 18 June 2014AnweshaAdding missing reactome URL
76221view12:55, 18 June 2014AnweshaReverted to version '13:49, 19 May 2014' by Anwesha
76220view12:53, 18 June 2014ReactomeTeamAdding missing reactome URL
75329view13:49, 19 May 2014SbohlerAdded cell border and label for Chloroplast.
74131view05:24, 1 April 2014EgonwRemoved HMDB data sources where no ID was given.
73879view21:52, 26 February 2014MaintBotOntology Term : 'amino acid biosynthetic pathway' added !
73876view21:44, 26 February 2014MaintBotTried fixing odd scaling issue
73604view13:22, 4 February 2014AnweshaNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylvalerateMetaboliteHMDB0012140 (HMDB)
2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerateMetaboliteHMDB0012141 (HMDB)
2,6-diaminopimelateMetabolite
2-AcetolactateMetaboliteHMDB0006855 (HMDB)
2-aceto-2-hydroxybutanoateMetabolite
2-oxo-3-methylvalerateMetabolite
2-oxo-isovalerateMetabolite
2-oxobutanoateMetabolite
2-oxoglutarateMetabolite
5-methyltetrahydropteroyltri glutamateMetabolite
Acetyl-CoAMetabolite
CO2Metabolite
CoAMetabolite
CystathionineMetaboliteHMDB0000099 (HMDB)
Cysteine and Methionine BiosynthesisPathway
CysteineMetaboliteHMDB0000574 (HMDB)
GlycolysisPathway
H+Metabolite
H2OMetabolite
HSMetabolite
HomocysteineMetaboliteHMDB0000742 (HMDB)
IsoleucineMetaboliteHMDB0000172 (HMDB)
Lysine BiosynthesisPathway
MethionineMetaboliteHMDB0000696 (HMDB)
NADP+MetaboliteHMDB0000217 (HMDB)
NADPHMetaboliteHMDB0000221 (HMDB)
NH3Metabolite
O-acetyl-L-serineMetabolite
SerineMetaboliteHMDB0000187 (HMDB)
Valine and Isoleucine BiosynthesisPathway
ValineMetaboliteHMDB0000883 (HMDB)
acetateMetabolite
acetolactate synthase LSUProteinP17597 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
acetolactate synthase SSU 1ProteinQ9FFF4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
acetolactate synthase SSU 2ProteinQ93YZ7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
aspartateMetabolite
branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase 2ProteinQ9M439 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase 3ProteinQ9M401 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase 5ProteinQ9FYA6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
cystathionine beta-lyaseProteinP53780 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
cystathionine gamma-lyaseProteinF4K5T2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
cysteine synthaseProteinP47999 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
diaminopimelate decarboxylase 1ProteinQ949X7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
diaminopimelate decarboxylase 2ProteinQ94A94 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
diaminopimelate epimeraseProteinQ9LFG2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
dihydroxy-acid dehydrataseProteinAT3G23940 (Ensembl)
glutamateMetabolite
ketol-acid reductoisomeraseProteinQ05758 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
lysineMetaboliteHMDB0000182 (HMDB)
meso-2,6-diaminopimelateMetabolite
methionine synthase 3ProteinQ0WNZ5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
pyruvateMetabolite
serine acetyltransferase 1ProteinQ42588 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
serine racemaseProteinQ2PGG3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
tetrahydropteroyltri glutamateMetabolite

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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