NAD salvage pathway III (Escherichia coli)

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1-9nadRAdenosinetriphosphateNicotinamideribosideNicotinamide ribotideHydrogen IonADPHydrogen IonAdenosinetriphosphatePyrophosphatenadRNAD


Description

In addition to de novo synthesis of NAD (NAD biosynthesis II (from tryptophan)) and regeneration from nicotinamide degradation products and extracellular nicotinate (NAD salvage pathway I), yeast posseses an additional route for synthesizing NAD, called the nicotinamide riboside salvage pathway [Bieganowsk04]. In this pathway 1-(β-D ribofuranosyl)nicotinamide is converted to β-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide and subsequently to NAD+, in reactions catalyzed by the enzymes nicotinamide riboside kinase and nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase [Bieganowsk04]. Bacteria that lack the enzymes for de novo NAD biosynthesis are able to convert extracellular NAD to less polar degradation products, which are then imported into the cell and processed back to NAD via 1-(β-D ribofuranosyl)nicotinamide (see NAD salvage pathway II) [Bieganowsk04]. However, the genes that those bacteria utilize to convert the extracellular NAD into 1-(β-D ribofuranosyl)nicotinamide have not been identified in fungi or animals, which may have only the later part of the pathway, as described here [Bieganowsk04].

Comments

 
source: http://biocyc.org/ECOLI/NEW-IMAGE?type=PATHWAY&object=PWY3O-4106&detail-level=3

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Ontology Terms

 

Bibliography

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  1. Sánchez-Alcón MD, Pérez Garrigues H, Vílchez J, Casanova B, Morera C; ''[The study of deafness in patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy].''; Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Bieganowski P, Brenner C; ''Discoveries of nicotinamide riboside as a nutrient and conserved NRK genes establish a Preiss-Handler independent route to NAD+ in fungi and humans.''; Cell, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Lin SJ, Guarente L; ''Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a metabolic regulator of transcription, longevity and disease.''; Curr Opin Cell Biol, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Kurnasov OV, Polanuyer BM, Ananta S, Sloutsky R, Tam A, Gerdes SY, Osterman AL; ''Ribosylnicotinamide kinase domain of NadR protein: identification and implications in NAD biosynthesis.''; J Bacteriol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC
  5. Ostrowski EA, Woods RJ, Lenski RE; ''The genetic basis of parallel and divergent phenotypic responses in evolving populations of Escherichia coli.''; Proc Biol Sci, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC
  6. Gerasimova AV, Gelfand MS; ''Evolution of the NadR regulon in Enterobacteriaceae.''; J Bioinform Comput Biol, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Raffaelli N, Lorenzi T, Mariani PL, Emanuelli M, Amici A, Ruggieri S, Magni G; ''The Escherichia coli NadR regulator is endowed with nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase activity.''; J Bacteriol, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Lin SJ, Ford E, Haigis M, Liszt G, Guarente L; ''Calorie restriction extends yeast life span by lowering the level of NADH.''; Genes Dev, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC
  9. Tritz GJ, Chandler JL; ''Recognition of a gene involved in the regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis.''; J Bacteriol, 1973 PubMed Europe PMC

History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
106101view12:01, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
62866view10:30, 3 May 2013CizarModified description
62268view22:22, 26 April 2013AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'pyridine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway' added !
62257view21:57, 26 April 2013AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'NAD biosynthetic pathway' added !
62256view21:57, 26 April 2013AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'purine salvage pathway' added !
62253view21:53, 26 April 2013AlexanderPicoModified categories
61954view07:43, 22 April 2013Cizargrouped and aligned the metabolites
61799view10:00, 19 April 2013CizarModified description
61798view09:55, 19 April 2013Cizaradded references
61797view09:51, 19 April 2013CizarNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ADPMetaboliteHMDB0001341 (HMDB)
Adenosine triphosphateMetaboliteHMDB0000538 (HMDB)
Hydrogen IonMetaboliteHMDB0059597 (HMDB)
NADMetaboliteHMDB0000902 (HMDB)
Nicotinamide ribosideMetaboliteHMDB0000855 (HMDB)
Nicotinamide ribotideMetaboliteHMDB0000229 (HMDB)
PyrophosphateMetaboliteHMDB0000250 (HMDB)
nadRGeneProductEBESCG00000001171 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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