NAD biosynthesis I (from aspartate) (Escherichia coli)

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Nicotinic acidmononucleotideNicotinic acidadeninedinucleotideL-Aspartic acidOxygennadCAdenosinetriphosphateL-GlutaminenadDQuinolinic acidDihydroxyacetonephosphatenadAAdenosinemonophosphateIminoaspartic acidnadE:NH3-dependentnadBHydrogen IonAmmoniaNADL-Glutamic acidPhosphoribosylpyrophosphateCarbon dioxidePyrophosphateHydrogen peroxideWaterPhosphateWaterHydrogen IonHydrogen IonHydrogen IonPyrophosphateWaterAdenosinetriphosphateHydrogen IonPyrophosphateAdenosinemonophosphatePyrophosphateAdenosinetriphosphatenadE:glutamine-dependent


As a general rule, most prokaryotes utilize the aspartate de novo pathway, in which the nicotinate moiety of NAD is synthesized from aspartate [Begley01], while in eukaryotes, the de novo pathway starts with tryptophan [Panozzo02] (NAD biosynthesis II (from tryptophan)). The first attempt to elucidate a prokaryotic pathway to NAD was reported by Ortega and Brown in 1960 [Ortega60]. They implicated (incorrectly) glycerol and a dicarboxylic acid as precursors in the synthesis of the pyridine ring of NAD in E. coli. Subsequent work by Chandler et al. [Chandler70] established that L-aspartate is the dicarboxylic acid precursor. Suzuki et al., in 1973, established that the three carbon precursor is dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and not glycerol [Suzuki73]. In addition, Andreoli et al. demonstrated that quinolinate was a key intermediate in this pathway [Andreoli63]. Eventually it became clear that quinolinate is indeed a precursor, not only in this pathway, but in all known NAD biosynthetic pathways.

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106098view12:00, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
80402view14:16, 15 June 2015Mkutmonupdated ensembl identifiers
62863view10:25, 3 May 2013CizarModified description
62272view22:25, 26 April 2013AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'NAD biosynthetic pathway' added !
62271view22:25, 26 April 2013AlexanderPicoModified categories
61950view07:19, 22 April 2013CizarAligned data nodes
61949view07:15, 22 April 2013CizarGrouped metabolites
61806view11:08, 19 April 2013Cizaradded references
61805view11:00, 19 April 2013CizarModified description
61793view09:49, 19 April 2013CizarNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
Adenosine monophosphateMetaboliteHMDB0000045 (HMDB)
Adenosine triphosphateMetaboliteHMDB0000538 (HMDB)
AmmoniaMetaboliteHMDB0000051 (HMDB)
Carbon dioxideMetaboliteHMDB0001967 (HMDB)
Dihydroxyacetone phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001473 (HMDB)
Hydrogen IonMetaboliteHMDB0059597 (HMDB)
Hydrogen peroxideMetaboliteHMDB0003125 (HMDB)
Iminoaspartic acidMetaboliteHMDB0001131 (HMDB)
L-Aspartic acidMetaboliteHMDB0000191 (HMDB)
L-Glutamic acidMetaboliteHMDB0000148 (HMDB)
L-GlutamineMetaboliteHMDB0000641 (HMDB)
NADMetaboliteHMDB0000902 (HMDB)
Nicotinic acid


MetaboliteHMDB0001179 (HMDB)
Nicotinic acid mononucleotideMetaboliteHMDB0001132 (HMDB)
OxygenMetaboliteHMDB0001377 (HMDB)
PhosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001429 (HMDB)
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphateMetaboliteHMDB0000280 (HMDB)
PyrophosphateMetaboliteHMDB0000250 (HMDB)
Quinolinic acidMetaboliteHMDB0000232 (HMDB)
WaterMetaboliteHMDB0002111 (HMDB)
nadAGeneProductb0750 (Ensembl)
nadBGeneProductb2574 (Ensembl)
nadCGeneProductb0109 (Ensembl)
nadDGeneProductb0639 (Ensembl)
nadE: NH3-dependentGeneProductb1740 (Ensembl)


GeneProductb1740 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

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