NAD biosynthesis I (from aspartate) (Escherichia coli)

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nadAL-GlutaminenadE:NH3-dependentnadBAdenosinetriphosphateDihydroxyacetonephosphateL-Aspartic acidHydrogen peroxideWaterIminoaspartic acidL-Glutamic acidAmmoniaPhosphoribosylpyrophosphateNicotinic acidadeninedinucleotideHydrogen IonCarbon dioxidenadCPhosphatenadDOxygenNADPyrophosphateAdenosinemonophosphateQuinolinic acidNicotinic acidmononucleotideWaterHydrogen IonHydrogen IonHydrogen IonPyrophosphateWaterAdenosinetriphosphateHydrogen IonPyrophosphateAdenosinemonophosphatePyrophosphateAdenosinetriphosphatenadE:glutamine-dependent


As a general rule, most prokaryotes utilize the aspartate de novo pathway, in which the nicotinate moiety of NAD is synthesized from aspartate [Begley01], while in eukaryotes, the de novo pathway starts with tryptophan [Panozzo02] (NAD biosynthesis II (from tryptophan)). The first attempt to elucidate a prokaryotic pathway to NAD was reported by Ortega and Brown in 1960 [Ortega60]. They implicated (incorrectly) glycerol and a dicarboxylic acid as precursors in the synthesis of the pyridine ring of NAD in E. coli. Subsequent work by Chandler et al. [Chandler70] established that L-aspartate is the dicarboxylic acid precursor. Suzuki et al., in 1973, established that the three carbon precursor is dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and not glycerol [Suzuki73]. In addition, Andreoli et al. demonstrated that quinolinate was a key intermediate in this pathway [Andreoli63]. Eventually it became clear that quinolinate is indeed a precursor, not only in this pathway, but in all known NAD biosynthetic pathways.

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80402view14:16, 15 June 2015Mkutmonupdated ensembl identifiers
62863view10:25, 3 May 2013CizarModified description
62272view22:25, 26 April 2013AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'NAD biosynthetic pathway' added !
62271view22:25, 26 April 2013AlexanderPicoModified categories
61950view07:19, 22 April 2013CizarAligned data nodes
61949view07:15, 22 April 2013CizarGrouped metabolites
61806view11:08, 19 April 2013Cizaradded references
61805view11:00, 19 April 2013CizarModified description
61793view09:49, 19 April 2013CizarNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
Adenosine monophosphateMetaboliteHMDB00045 (HMDB)
Adenosine triphosphateMetaboliteHMDB00538 (HMDB)
AmmoniaMetaboliteHMDB00051 (HMDB)
Carbon dioxideMetaboliteHMDB01967 (HMDB)
Dihydroxyacetone phosphateMetaboliteHMDB01473 (HMDB)
Hydrogen IonMetaboliteHMDB59597 (HMDB)
Hydrogen peroxideMetaboliteHMDB03125 (HMDB)
Iminoaspartic acidMetaboliteHMDB01131 (HMDB)
L-Aspartic acidMetaboliteHMDB00191 (HMDB)
L-Glutamic acidMetaboliteHMDB00148 (HMDB)
L-GlutamineMetaboliteHMDB00641 (HMDB)
NADMetaboliteHMDB00902 (HMDB)
Nicotinic acid


MetaboliteHMDB01179 (HMDB)
Nicotinic acid mononucleotideMetaboliteHMDB01132 (HMDB)
OxygenMetaboliteHMDB01377 (HMDB)
PhosphateMetaboliteHMDB01429 (HMDB)
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphateMetaboliteHMDB00280 (HMDB)
PyrophosphateMetaboliteHMDB00250 (HMDB)
Quinolinic acidMetaboliteHMDB00232 (HMDB)
WaterMetaboliteHMDB02111 (HMDB)
nadAGeneProductb0750 (Ensembl)
nadBGeneProductb2574 (Ensembl)
nadCGeneProductb0109 (Ensembl)
nadDGeneProductb0639 (Ensembl)
nadE: NH3-dependentGeneProductb1740 (Ensembl)


GeneProductb1740 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

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