Spinal cord injury (Homo sapiens)

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14CDC42LTB4RCD47CSPG4PLXNA2FECHP1NGFRAIF1NOLGALS3C1QBAPEX1LEPPDYNTNFSF13BLTB4LTBTNFSF13MIFAQP1PTPRZ13430123673045272426495318AstroctyeSpinal Cord InjuryTimePro-InflammatoryFactorsZFP36FCGR2APRB1PTPRAIL1BZFP36NOS2TNF20NR4A1IL4BTG2BTG2FBRCDK2NOS1IL2TNFIL6TLR4FOSIL1BTGFB1TLR4TNFEGR1FOSMMP12IFNGGlial ScarAstrocyte GliosisSwelling/EdemaMBPAntigens ReleasedRTN4C5CXCL1Neutrophil ChemoattractantsCXCL811, 46NeurtrophilsMonocytesAQP442TTLegendTT:Therapeutic Target (increase)TTTTTT:Therapeutic Target (decrease)T-CellsB-CellsB Cell Stimulating16Activated Microglia/Macrophages(Transient)RepairIL1BNOS2TNFARG1TOXIC FERROUSIRONFocal AdensionsEPHA429, 54TTEPHNB2TTTTTTTTCXCL10Neuro protectionAntibody ReleaseNeuronalInjuryResponseAstrocyteInjuryResponseG1-S Cell Cycle Re-entry (TT)28CCNG1MicrogliaMicrogliaActivationAxonal RetractionRecruitmentRecruitmentMMP950TTChondroitin Sulfate ProteoglycansNCAN44SLIT1Axon Retraction44SLIT2SLIT3NTN1RGMATTTTTTTTTTMMP9MMP950MMP950TT50TTTTCCR2IL1R146TTECM BreakdownECM BreakdownIL1ACXCL1Monocyte Chemoattractants11, 46CXCL2CCL2OligodendrocyteInjury ResponsePLA2G6PLA2G5PLA2G2AmelittinInflammationDemyelinationANXA19TTTTTTTTRed Blood CellsMyelinEndothelial LeukocyteAdehsion Factors51ICAM1SELPTTTTPlasticityKLK833TTMicrogliaActivated Microglia/MacrophagesActivated Microglia/MacrophagesGFAPTT50IntermediateFillament3CDK4TACR1E2F5RB1PRKCAE2F1MAPK1CCND1MYCGADD45AMAPK3TTTTTTAstroctyeNeuron & OligodendrocyteApoptosis/NecrosisMicrogliaProliferationTP53CytotoxicCytotoxicCHST11VCANCOL4A1XYLT1COL2A1ACANBCANGlial Scar FromationSOX9Axonal GrowthInhibition3IgG, IgMTP53TT14TTTTGRIN1VIM39TT19T Cell StimulatingFK5061613PPP3CATTFK506FK5062323GAP43TTFK506Axonal Regeneration23FKBP1AIL2C3 ToxinC1Q and Fc receptive cellsMAGRTN4RHOARHOCRHOBROCK2OMGRTN4RLILRB331MyelinInjury ResponseArachidonic acidPGH2PTGS243TT25ROSNOX4MIR23BOlomoucine8CDK1GDNF2TTSEMA6A12TTAxonal GrowthInhibitionGJA1ATP-Release41TTBDNFTTImmediate Response Genes2-Methoxyestradiol2824TTRAC1TTTTAstroctyeFOXO3TT10CDKN1BTT10N2 Glial Precursor21EGFRPD 16839315TT52CASP3TTTTMotor NeuronOligodendrocyte


This pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that involves the regulation of gene expression and signaling in motor neurons, oligodentrocytes, microglia, and astrocytes that trigger immediate immune responses lasting several weeks. Within 24 hours, chemoattractants and cytokines released from the site of injury activate neutrophils which further recruit B and T cells or recruit monocytes that ultimately result in infiltration and activation by microglia and macrophages. These immune responses result in inflammation, excitotoxicity, cell death, formation of glial scar, and suppression of axonal regeneration. An increase in the expression of cell cycle genes further results in proliferation of astrocytes and microglia that leads to apoptosis and necrosis of oligodentrocytes and neurons. An example therapy is the administration of the immunosuppressant FK506, also used in transplantation to offer neuroprotection. Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the CPTAC Assay Portal.

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120812view15:03, 11 January 2022SusanOntology Term : 'neurological disorder pathway' added !
117177view09:56, 18 May 2021EweitzModified title
106712view13:15, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
105820view23:01, 15 August 2019KhanspersModified description
104858view14:59, 20 June 2019DeSlRemoved weird signs in lit. ref (part 1)
104853view14:52, 20 June 2019DeSlUpdated empty lit. ref
104850view14:46, 20 June 2019DeSlCOnnected unconnected lines.
104843view14:33, 20 June 2019DeSlChanged lines for motor neuron to graphical lines.
101932view12:38, 18 November 2018EgonwRemoved whitespace in PubMed identifiers.
87678view08:55, 25 July 2016LindarieswijkOntology Term : 'disease pathway' added !
84650view22:21, 10 March 2016Khanspersupdated mmp12 xref
80343view18:15, 9 June 2015Khanspersupdated color and type for MIR23B
79963view13:55, 28 April 2015Zaricorected annotation PTGS2 from chimpanzee to human, annotated Ros
79931view12:14, 27 April 2015EveloRenamed IL8 with the new official HGNC name CXCL8
78556view10:31, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
76332view08:13, 2 July 2014MkutmonFixed annotation for C5
74098view22:56, 29 March 2014Ariuttaupdate arrowhead
69988view22:03, 11 July 2013MaintBotupdating to 2013 schema
59143view00:06, 22 February 2013DMicaelSpecify description
59080view21:55, 21 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl data source
58412view22:54, 12 February 2013NsalomonisSpecify description
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57006view14:04, 19 January 2013EgonwCorrected to the correct PubChem-compound data source.
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External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
2-MethoxyestradiolMetabolite66414 (PubChem-compound)
ACANGeneProductENSG00000157766 (Ensembl)
AIF1GeneProduct199 (Entrez Gene)
ANXA1GeneProductENSG00000135046 (Ensembl)
APEX1GeneProductENSG00000100823 (Ensembl)
AQP1GeneProductENSG00000240583 (Ensembl)
AQP4GeneProductENSG00000171885 (Ensembl)
ARG1GeneProductENSG00000118520 (Ensembl)
Arachidonic acidMetaboliteHMDB0001043 (HMDB)
BCANGeneProductENSG00000132692 (Ensembl)
BDNFGeneProductENSG00000176697 (Ensembl)
BTG2GeneProductENSG00000159388 (Ensembl)
C1QBGeneProductENSG00000173369 (Ensembl)
C5GeneProductENSG00000106804 (Ensembl)
CASP3GeneProductENSG00000164305 (Ensembl)
CCL2GeneProductENSG00000108691 (Ensembl)
CCND1GeneProductENSG00000110092 (Ensembl)
CCNG1GeneProductENSG00000113328 (Ensembl)
CCR2GeneProductENSG00000121807 (Ensembl)
CD47GeneProductENSG00000196776 (Ensembl)
CDC42GeneProductENSG00000070831 (Ensembl)
CDK1GeneProductENSG00000170312 (Ensembl)
CDK2GeneProductENSG00000123374 (Ensembl)
CDK4GeneProductENSG00000135446 (Ensembl)
CDKN1BGeneProductENSG00000111276 (Ensembl)
CHST11GeneProductENSG00000171310 (Ensembl)
COL2A1GeneProductENSG00000139219 (Ensembl)
COL4A1GeneProductENSG00000187498 (Ensembl)
CSPG4GeneProductENSG00000173546 (Ensembl)
CXCL10GeneProductENSG00000169245 (Ensembl)
CXCL1GeneProductENSG00000163739 (Ensembl)
CXCL2GeneProductENSG00000081041 (Ensembl)
CXCL8GeneProductENSG00000169429 (Ensembl)
E2F1GeneProductENSG00000101412 (Ensembl)
E2F5GeneProductENSG00000133740 (Ensembl)
EGFRGeneProductENSG00000146648 (Ensembl)
EGR1GeneProductENSG00000120738 (Ensembl)
EPHA4GeneProductENSG00000116106 (Ensembl)
EPHNB2GeneProductENSG00000125266 (Ensembl)
FCGR2AGeneProductENSG00000143226 (Ensembl)
FECHP1GeneProductENSG00000235534 (Ensembl)
FK506Metabolite104987-11-3 (CAS)
FKBP1AGeneProductENSG00000088832 (Ensembl)
FOSGeneProductENSG00000170345 (Ensembl)
FOXO3GeneProductENSG00000118689 (Ensembl)
GADD45AGeneProductENSG00000116717 (Ensembl)
GAP43GeneProductENSG00000172020 (Ensembl)
GDNFGeneProductENSG00000168621 (Ensembl)
GFAPGeneProductENSG00000131095 (Ensembl)
GJA1GeneProductENSG00000152661 (Ensembl)
GRIN1GeneProductENSG00000176884 (Ensembl)
ICAM1GeneProductENSG00000090339 (Ensembl)
IFNGGeneProductENSG00000111537 (Ensembl)
IL1AGeneProduct3552 (Entrez Gene)
IL1BGeneProductENSG00000125538 (Ensembl)
IL1R1GeneProductENSG00000115594 (Ensembl)
IL2GeneProductENSG00000109471 (Ensembl)
IL4GeneProductENSG00000113520 (Ensembl)
IL6GeneProductENSG00000136244 (Ensembl)
KLK8GeneProductENSG00000129455 (Ensembl)
LEPGeneProductENSG00000174697 (Ensembl)
LGALS3GeneProductENSG00000131981 (Ensembl)
LILRB3GeneProductENSG00000204577 (Ensembl)
LTB4Metabolite169 (PubChem-compound)
LTB4RGeneProductENSG00000213903 (Ensembl)
LTBGeneProductENSG00000227507 (Ensembl)
MAGGeneProductENSG00000105695 (Ensembl)
MAPK1GeneProductENSG00000100030 (Ensembl)
MAPK3GeneProductENSG00000102882 (Ensembl)
MBPGeneProductENSG00000197971 (Ensembl)
MIFGeneProductENSG00000240972 (Ensembl)
MIR23BRnaENSG00000207563 (Ensembl)
MMP12GeneProductENSG00000262406 (Ensembl)
MMP9GeneProductENSG00000100985 (Ensembl)
MYCGeneProductENSG00000136997 (Ensembl)
NCANGeneProductENSG00000130287 (Ensembl)
NGFRGeneProductENSG00000064300 (Ensembl)
NOMetabolite145068 (PubChem-compound)
NOS1GeneProductENSG00000089250 (Ensembl)
NOS2GeneProductENSG00000007171 (Ensembl)
NOX4GeneProductENSG00000086991 (Ensembl)
NR4A1GeneProductENSG00000123358 (Ensembl)
NTN1GeneProductENSG00000065320 (Ensembl)
OMGGeneProductENSG00000126861 (Ensembl)
OlomoucineMetaboliteHMDB0035233 (HMDB)
PD 168393Metabolite4708 (PubChem-compound)
PDYNGeneProductENSG00000101327 (Ensembl)
PGH2MetaboliteHMDB0001381 (HMDB)
PLA2G2AGeneProductENSG00000188257 (Ensembl)
PLA2G5GeneProductENSG00000127472 (Ensembl)
PLA2G6GeneProductENSG00000184381 (Ensembl)
PLXNA2GeneProductENSG00000076356 (Ensembl)
PPP3CAGeneProductENSG00000138814 (Ensembl)
PRB1GeneProductENSG00000251655 (Ensembl)
PRKCAGeneProductENSG00000154229 (Ensembl)
PTGS2GeneProduct5743 (Entrez Gene)
PTPRAGeneProductENSG00000132670 (Ensembl)
PTPRZ1GeneProductENSG00000106278 (Ensembl)
RAC1GeneProductENSG00000136238 (Ensembl)
RB1GeneProductENSG00000139687 (Ensembl)
RGMAGeneProductENSG00000182175 (Ensembl)
RHOAGeneProductENSG00000067560 (Ensembl)
RHOBGeneProductENSG00000143878 (Ensembl)
RHOCGeneProductENSG00000155366 (Ensembl)
ROCK2GeneProductENSG00000134318 (Ensembl)
ROSGeneProduct6098 (Entrez Gene)
RTN4GeneProductENSG00000115310 (Ensembl)
RTN4RGeneProductENSG00000040608 (Ensembl)
SELPGeneProductENSG00000174175 (Ensembl)
SEMA6AGeneProductENSG00000092421 (Ensembl)