Vitamin B9 (folate) biosynthesis pathway (Zea mays)

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Tetrahydrofolate (THF) acts as a carrier for one-carbon units and, less often, as an electron donor. THF contains pterin, p-aminobenzoate, and glutamate moieties. The pterin is made in the cytosol from GTP, p-aminobenzoate is made from chorismate in plastids, and the two are coupled together in mitochondria to give dihydropteroate. Glutamylation and reduction steps in mitochondria then yield THF (Hanson and Gregory, 2011; Ravanel et al., 2011). THF and its one-carbon derivatives (collectively termed folates) occur mainly as polyglutamates; these have a short polyglutamyl tail that can be added in mitochondria, plastids, or cytosol. Folate polyglutamates can be imported into vacuoles, where the polyglutamyl tail can be removed by γ-glutamylhydrolase. p-Aminobenzoate can be converted to its glucose ester in the cytosol, and imported into vacuoles.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Hanson AD, Gregory JF 3rd; ''Folate biosynthesis, turnover, and transport in plants.''; Annu Rev Plant Biol, 2011 PubMed
  2. Gerdes S, Lerma-Ortiz C, Frelin O, Seaver SM, Henry CS, de Crécy-Lagard V, Hanson AD; ''Plant B Vitamin Pathways and their Compartmentation: a Guide for the Perplexed.''; J Exp Bot, 2012 PubMed


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94733view14:58, 5 October 2017EgonwTagged interactions with mim-types.
94730view14:49, 5 October 2017EgonwFixed unconnected lines.
86886view07:50, 14 July 2016MkutmonOntology Term : 'folate metabolic pathway' added !
86885view07:50, 14 July 2016MkutmonOntology Term : 'PW:0000140' removed !
78451view10:27, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
73532view23:40, 29 January 2014KhanspersModified title
72433view22:17, 14 November 2013EgonwRemoved a few data sources where no identifier was given.
72373view13:00, 13 November 2013EgonwAdded a bunch of missing metabolite identifiers.
71901view17:43, 22 October 2013MaintBotremoved data source from nodes without identifier
70258view21:43, 15 July 2013MaintBotupdated to 2013 schema
65175view19:12, 5 June 2013MaintBotModified categories
55391view05:43, 14 December 2012SvetaGModified description
55390view05:34, 14 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
55389view05:23, 14 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
55388view05:05, 14 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
55385view04:55, 14 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
55384view04:39, 14 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
55383view04:27, 14 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
55382view04:17, 14 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
55381view04:07, 14 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
55380view03:56, 14 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
55379view03:46, 14 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
55378view03:36, 14 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
53370view00:30, 6 November 2012PjaiswalModified title
53363view00:24, 6 November 2012PjaiswalModified categories
53362view00:24, 6 November 2012PjaiswalOntology Term : 'vitamin B9 metabolic pathway' added !
53361view00:23, 6 November 2012PjaiswalOntology Term : 'plant cell' added !
53358view00:23, 6 November 2012PjaiswalModified title
53357view00:22, 6 November 2012PjaiswalNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature)
3.6.1.n4GeneProduct3.6.1.n4 (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature)
ATPMetabolite5957 (PubChem-compound)
GRMZM2G005990GeneProductGRMZM2G005990 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G015588GeneProductGRMZM2G015588 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G027603GeneProductGRMZM2G027603 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G062420GeneProductGRMZM2G062420 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G069596GeneProductGRMZM2G069596 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G072608GeneProductGRMZM2G072608 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G073429GeneProductGRMZM2G073429 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G084181GeneProductGRMZM2G084181 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G087103GeneProductGRMZM2G087103 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G095579GeneProductGRMZM2G095579 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G095806GeneProductGRMZM2G095806 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G095955GeneProductGRMZM2G095955 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G106376GeneProductGRMZM2G106376 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G139880GeneProductGRMZM2G139880 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G169481GeneProductGRMZM2G169481 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G304915GeneProductGRMZM2G304915 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G344993GeneProductGRMZM2G344993 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G363554GeneProductGRMZM2G363554 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G393334GeneProductGRMZM2G393334 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G416386GeneProductGRMZM2G416386 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G421493GeneProductGRMZM2G421493 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G469469GeneProductGRMZM2G469469 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM5G840435GeneProductGRMZM5G840435 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM5G869779GeneProductGRMZM5G869779 (Gramene Maize)
THF and one carbon derivativeMetabolite
UDP-glucose:p-aminobenzoate glucosyltransferaseGeneProduct
UDP-glucose:pterin glycosyltransferaseGeneProduct
Uridine 5'-diphosphate glucose (UDPG)Metabolite
dihydrofolateMetabolite165 (Chemspider)
dihydromethyldihydropterin pyrophosphateMetabolite
dihydroneopterin monophosphateMetabolite
dihydroneopterin monophosphate phosphataseGeneProduct
dihydroneopterin triphosphateMetabolite
dihydroneopterin, dihydromonapterinMetabolite
folate monoglutamate transporterMetabolite
folate polyglutamateMetabolite
folate polyglutamate transporterMetabolite
folate polyglutamateMetabolite5815 (Chemspider)
folate transporterProtein
glutamateMetaboliteCHEBI:29987 (ChEBI)
glycolaldehydeMetabolite756 (PubChem-compound)
hydromethyldihydropterin transporterMetabolite
hydroxymethyldihydropterin pyrophosphateMetabolite
p-aminobenzoate diffusionMetabolite
p-aminobenzoate glucose esterMetabolite
p-aminobenzoate glucose ester transporterProtein
pterin glycosidesMetabolite
pterin transporterProtein
tetrahydrofolateMetabolite82572 (Chemspider)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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