Vitamin B3 (niacin), NAD and NADP biosynthesis pathway (Zea mays)

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Plastid1, 2Disjunct reactions / unknown compartmentsgenes/proteins marked with ?? are tentatively placed to one single location preferably cytosol, if their location is not known/predicted.iminoaspartic acidaspartate1.4.3.16O2GRMZM2G139689Multiple pyridine nucleotides transp. MitochondriaPeroxisome 2.5.1.72quinolinic acid2.4.2.19nicotinate mononucleotideNUDIX hydrolaseNADNMN2.7.1.23NADPNUDIX hydrolaseNADNMN2.7.1.23NADP3.5.1.19nicotinamideNAD-utilising enzymenicotinic acid6.3.1.52.7.7.18 / 2.7.7.1nicotinate mononucleotide2.4.2.11H2O21,3-dihydroxyacetone phosphatePO4phosphoribosylpyrophosphatePPiCO2AMPATPH2OADPAMPH2OATPADPPPi3.2.2.14ribose-5-phosphateADP-ribose and derivativesphosphoribosylpyrophosphatenicotinate adenine dinucleotideglutamaineglutamateNADNMN2.7.1.23NADP6.3.1.52.7.7.18 / 2.7.7.1nicotinate mononucleotideATPADPPPinicotinate adenine dinucleotideglutamineglutamateNAD2.7.1.23NADPATPADPnicotinic acid2.1.1.7trigonellineSAMSAHtrigonelline demethylasenicotinic acidUDP-glucose:nicotinamide N-glucosyl transferasenicotinate N-glucosideUDPGUDPNADPNADP phosphataseNADH2OPO4NAD(P)HNAD(P)H hydrate epimeraseR-NAD(P)H hydrateH2OATPS-NAD(P)H HydrateADPPO4NAD(P)H hydrate dehydrataseMultiple pyridine nucleotides transp.NAD transporterGRMZM2G142836GRMZM5G887647GRMZM2G034079GRMZM2G061732GRMZM2G402319GRMZM2G049588GRMZM5G862488GRMZM2G046583GRMZM2G177561GRMZM2G391511GRMZM2G404897GRMZM2G175816GRMZM2G101693GRMZM2G162605GRMZM2G138342GRMZM2G046498GRMZM2G006678GRMZM2G106119GRMZM2G059073GRMZM2G362413GRMZM2G138624GRMZM2G128880GRMZM5G840928GRMZM2G061988Nicotinate transporternicotinic acidGRMZM2G066801GRMZM2G081774 ??GRMZM2G381453 ??GRMZM2G136016 ??GRMZM2G102745 ??GRMZM2G136016 ??GRMZM2G102745 ??ATPAMPPPiGRMZM2G042319 ??GRMZM2G540403GRMZM2G013450


Description

The active forms of niacin (a term for nicotinate and nicotinamide) are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its 2'-phosphate ester (NADP), which are coenzymes in hundreds of redox reactions. NAD is also the substrate for sirtuins, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerases, and other enzymes that release the nicotinamide moiety. The de novo synthesis pathway begins in the plastid, where nicotinate mononucleotide (NaMN) is formed from aspartate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, and a ribose phosphate moiety. NaMN then exits to the cytosol, where successive adenylation and amidation give nicotinate adenine dinucleotide (NaAD) and then NAD (Noctor et al., 2011). The adenylation, and likely amidation, steps also occur in mitochondria (Di Martino and Pallotta, 2011). NAD is converted to NADP in cytosol, plastids, peroxisomes, and probably mitochondria (Di Martino and Pallotta, 2011; Noctor et al., 2011). The nicotinamide released by NAD-consuming enzymes is salvaged by hydrolysis to nicotinate, which is converted to NaMN that re-enters the de novo pathway. NAD is cleaved by various enzymes to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which can be reconverted directly to NAD or hydrolysed to nicotinamide and recycled as above. These salvage reactions are all cytosolic; the NMN -> NAD reaction is also likely mitochondrial (Di Martino and Pallotta, 2011; Noctor et al., 2011).

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Bibliography

  1. Di Martino C, Pallotta ML; ''Mitochondria-localized NAD biosynthesis by nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) heterotrophic tissues.''; Planta, 2011 PubMed
  2. Gerdes S, Lerma-Ortiz C, Frelin O, Seaver SM, Henry CS, de Crécy-Lagard V, Hanson AD; ''Plant B Vitamin Pathways and their Compartmentation: a Guide for the Perplexed.''; J Exp Bot, 2012 PubMed

History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
89898view13:13, 6 October 2016MkutmonModified description
86884view07:50, 14 July 2016MkutmonOntology Term : 'niacin metabolic pathway' added !
86883view07:50, 14 July 2016MkutmonOntology Term : 'PW:0001010' removed !
85640view16:49, 4 June 2016EgonwAdded actual identifiers where CHEBI was given as data source.
78446view10:27, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
73529view23:39, 29 January 2014KhanspersModified title
71954view23:17, 23 October 2013MaintBotremoved data source from nodes without identifier
70255view21:41, 15 July 2013MaintBotupdated to 2013 schema
65171view19:05, 5 June 2013MaintBotModified categories
55395view06:12, 14 December 2012SvetaGSpecify description
55394view06:09, 14 December 2012SvetaGreferences
55393view06:01, 14 December 2012SvetaGModified description
54726view18:04, 7 December 2012SvetaGModified title
54725view18:02, 7 December 2012SvetaGEdited enzymes and corresponding genes
54724view17:49, 7 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
54723view17:38, 7 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
54720view17:28, 7 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
54719view17:18, 7 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
54718view17:07, 7 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
54716view16:46, 7 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
54715view16:25, 7 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
54714view16:14, 7 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
54713view16:03, 7 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
54712view15:44, 7 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
54711view15:21, 7 December 2012SvetaGPeriodical save, work in progress
53365view00:27, 6 November 2012PjaiswalModified title
53266view20:41, 2 November 2012PjaiswalModified categories
53265view20:41, 2 November 2012PjaiswalOntology Term : 'vitamin B3 metabolic pathway' added !
53264view20:40, 2 November 2012PjaiswalOntology Term : 'plant cell' added !
53263view20:39, 2 November 2012PjaiswalNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
1,3-dihydroxyacetone phosphateMetabolite
1.4.3.16GeneProduct1.4.3.16 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
2.1.1.7GeneProduct2.1.1.7 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
2.4.2.11GeneProduct2.4.2.11 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
2.4.2.19GeneProduct2.4.2.19 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
2.5.1.72GeneProduct2.5.1.72 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
2.7.1.23GeneProduct2.7.1.23 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
2.7.7.18 / 2.7.7.1GeneProduct2.7.7.18 / 2.7.7.1 (Enzyme Nomenclature) also EC: 2.7.7.18
2.7.7.18 / 2.7.7.1GeneProduct2.7.7.18 (Enzyme Nomenclature) also EC: 2.7.7.18
3.2.2.14GeneProduct3.2.2.14 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
3.5.1.19GeneProduct3.5.1.19 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
6.3.1.5GeneProduct6.3.1.5 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
ADPMetabolite
ADP-ribose and derivativesMetabolite
AMPMetabolite
AMPMetaboliteCHEBI:16027 (ChEBI)
ATPMetabolite
CO2Metabolite
GRMZM2G006678GeneProductGRMZM2G006678 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G013450GeneProductGRMZM2G013450 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G034079GeneProductGRMZM2G034079 (Gramene Maize) putative pseudogene
GRMZM2G042319 ??GeneProductGRMZM2G402319 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G046498GeneProductGRMZM2G046498 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G046583GeneProductGRMZM2G046583 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G049588GeneProductGRMZM2G049588 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G059073GeneProductGRMZM2G059073 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G061732GeneProductGRMZM2G061732 (Gramene Maize) putative pseudogene
GRMZM2G061988GeneProductGRMZM2G061988 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G066801GeneProductGRMZM2G066801 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G081774 ??GeneProductGRMZM2G081774 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G101693GeneProductGRMZM2G101693 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G102745 ??GeneProductGRMZM2G102745 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G106119GeneProductGRMZM2G106119 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G128880GeneProductGRMZM2G128880 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G136016 ??GeneProductGRMZM2G136016 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G138342GeneProductGRMZM2G138342 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G138624GeneProductGRMZM2G138624 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G139689GeneProductGRMZM2G139689 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G142836GeneProductGRMZM2G142836 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G162605GeneProductGRMZM2G162605 (Gramene Maize) putative pseudogene
GRMZM2G175816GeneProductGRMZM2G175816 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G177561GeneProductGRMZM2G177561 (Gramene Maize) putative pseudogene
GRMZM2G362413GeneProductGRMZM2G362413 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G381453 ??GeneProductGRMZM2G381453 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G391511GeneProductGRMZM2G391511 (Gramene Maize) putative pseudogene
GRMZM2G402319GeneProductGRMZM2G402319 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G404897GeneProductGRMZM2G404897 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G540403GeneProductGRMZM2G540403 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM5G840928GeneProductGRMZM5G840928 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM5G862488GeneProductGRMZM5G862488 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM5G887647GeneProductGRMZM5G887647 (Gramene Maize)
H2OMetabolite
H2O2Metabolite
Multiple pyridine nucleotides transp.GeneProduct
NADMetabolite
NAD transporterGeneProduct
NAD(P)HMetabolite
NAD(P)H hydrate dehydrataseGeneProduct
NAD(P)H hydrate epimeraseGeneProduct
NAD-utilising enzymeGeneProduct
NADPMetabolite
NADP phosphataseGeneProduct
NMNMetabolite
NUDIX hydrolaseGeneProduct
Nicotinate transporterGeneProduct
O2Metabolite
PO4Metabolite
PPiMetabolite
PPiMetaboliteCHEBI:35782 (ChEBI)
R-NAD(P)H hydrateMetabolite
S-NAD(P)H HydrateMetabolite
SAHMetabolite
SAMMetabolite
UDPMetabolite
UDP-glucose:nicotinamide N-glucosyl transferaseGeneProduct
UDPGMetabolite
aspartateMetabolite
glutamaineMetabolite
glutamateMetabolite
glutamineMetabolite
iminoaspartic acidMetabolite
nicotinamideMetabolite
nicotinate N-glucosideMetabolite
nicotinate adenine dinucleotideMetabolite
nicotinate mononucleotideMetabolite
nicotinic acidMetabolite
phosphoribosylpyrophosphateMetabolite
quinolinic acidMetabolite
ribose-5-phosphateMetabolite
trigonellineMetabolite
trigonelline demethylaseGeneProduct

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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