Vitamin B7 (biotin) biosynthesis pathway (Zea mays)

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Disjunct reactions / unknown compartmentsPeroxisome Mitochondria1-3L-alaninefatty acid catabolismApo-proteins2.6.1.627-keto-8-aminopelargonic acidGRMZM2G110932NADPATPDAPA transporterS-adenosylmethionine7,8-diaminopelargonic acidPlastid6.3.3.3dethiobiotin2.8.1.6biotin6.3.4.15biotinylated-protein(s)S-adenosylmethio-2-oxobutanoateCO2PO4ADPMethionine5-deoxyadenosine2.8.1.7adrenodoxin reductaseadrenodoxin, mitochondrial ferredoxinNADPHbiotin6.3.4.15biotinylated-protein(s)Apo-proteins7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid2.6.1.627,8-diaminopelargonic acidS-adenosylmethionineS-adenosylmethio-2-oxobutanoateKAPA transporterbiotin transporterbiotin6.3.4.15biotinylated-protein(s)Apo-proteinsbiotin transporter7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acidKAPA transporter2.3.1.47pimeloyl-CoACO2CoAbiotinseed biotin-binding protein biotin ligaseseed biotin-binding proteinunknown methyl acceptorSAM-dependent methyl transferase (BioC-like)methylated acceptorS-adenosylmethionineS-adenosylhomocysteinebiotinseed biotin-binding proteinbiotinidase for seed biotin-binding proteinbiotinbiotin transporterGRMZM2G102156GRMZM2G095400GRMZM2G452523GRMZM2G032280GRMZM2G307561GRMZM2G322314LOC100285690GRMZM2G087692GRMZM2G704475GRMZM2G013607GRMZM5G856338S-adenosylmethionineGRMZM2G102156


Biotin-dependent enzymes catalyze carboxylation, decarboxylation, or transcarboxylation reactions in the synthesis of fatty acids, isoleucine, and valine, and in gluconeogenesis. In plants, five biotin-containing proteins have been characterized so far, only four of them catalysts: two structurally distinct acetyl-CoA carboxylases, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase and geranoyl-CoA carboxylase. The fifth is a noncatalytic biotin protein that accumulates in seeds and is thought to play a role in storing biotin (Nikolau et al., 2003). Biotin is synthesized from pimeloyl-CoA in four steps, of which the first is peroxisomal; the other three steps are almost surely mitochondrial. The source of pimeloyl-CoA is not known in plants, but appears to differ from those in bacteria (Lin and Cronan, 2011). One of the possibilities - it might come from fatty acid degradation via the concerted action of β-, α-, and ω-oxidation enzymes in peroxisomes (Magliano et al., 2011) The ligase that attaches biotin to carboxylases is present in cytosol, plastids, and mitochondria. Seed biotin-binding proteins are probably biotinylated by a special enzyme, not by the ligases that act on biotin-dependent enzymes (Job et al., 2001). Seed biotin-binding proteins may act as biotin reserves; if so, a biotinidase is required to cleave the biotin-lysine bond (Alban et al., 2000)

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Ontology Terms



  1. Nikolau BJ, Ohlrogge JB, Wurtele ES; ''Plant biotin-containing carboxylases.''; Arch Biochem Biophys, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Picciocchi A, Douce R, Alban C; ''The plant biotin synthase reaction. Identification and characterization of essential mitochondrial accessory protein components.''; J Biol Chem, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Gerdes S, Lerma-Ortiz C, Frelin O, Seaver SM, Henry CS, de Crécy-Lagard V, Hanson AD; ''Plant B Vitamin Pathways and their Compartmentation: a Guide for the Perplexed.''; J Exp Bot, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC


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53178view19:19, 30 October 2012PjaiswalOntology Term : 'vitamin and vitamin metabolites signaling pathway' added !
53177view19:18, 30 October 2012PjaiswalOntology Term : 'plant cell' added !
53176view19:17, 30 October 2012PjaiswalNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature)
5-deoxyadenosineMetabolite (Enzyme Nomenclature) (Enzyme Nomenclature)
7,8-diaminopelargonic acidMetabolite
7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acidMetabolite
DAPA transporterGeneProduct
GRMZM2G013607GeneProductGRMZM2G013607 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G032280GeneProductGRMZM2G032280 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G087692GeneProductGRMZM2G087692 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G095400GeneProductGRMZM2G095400 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G102156GeneProductGRMZM2G102156 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G110932GeneProductGRMZM2G110932 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G307561GeneProductGRMZM2G307561 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G322314GeneProductGRMZM2G322314 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G452523GeneProductGRMZM2G452523 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM2G704475GeneProductGRMZM2G704475 (Gramene Maize)
GRMZM5G856338GeneProductGRMZM5G856338 (Gramene Maize) putative pseudogene
KAPA transporterGeneProduct
LOC100285690GeneProductLOC100285690 (Gramene Maize)
SAM-dependent methyl transferase (BioC-like)Protein
adrenodoxin reductaseProteinAdx1
adrenodoxin, mitochondrial ferredoxinProteinAdxR
biotin transporterGeneProduct
biotinidase for seed biotin-binding proteinProtein
fatty acid catabolismPathway
methylated acceptorMetabolite
seed biotin-binding proteinProtein
seed biotin-binding protein biotin ligaseProtein
unknown methyl acceptorMetabolite

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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