Carotenoid Biosynthesis (Zea mays)

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High-light conditionsLow-light conditions1, 2all-trans-lycopeneγ-carotenelycopene biosynthesis1, 2EC: (LCYE)δ-caroteneEC: (LCYB)α-caroteneEC: (CHYB)zeinoxanthinEC: (CHYE)luteinβ-caroteneβ-cryptoxanthinzeazanthinEC: (ZEP)antheraxanthinviolaxanthinEC: (NSY)neoxanthinEC: (LCYB)EC: (LCYB)EC: (CHYB)EC: (CHYB)EC: (VDE)EC: (ZEP)EC: (VDE)


Carotenoids pigments in plants are a family of secondary metabolites that participate in light harvesting. They are essential for photoprotection against excess light. carotenoids are also the precursors for the biosynthesis of plant hormones such as abscisic acid and strigolactones. The biosynthesis occurs in the plastid organelle of higher plants.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Ruiz-Sola M�, Rodríguez-Concepción M; ''Carotenoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis: a colorful pathway.''; Arabidopsis Book, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Wurtzel ET, Cuttriss A, Vallabhaneni R; ''Maize provitamin a carotenoids, current resources, and future metabolic engineering challenges.''; Front Plant Sci, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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107277view14:37, 17 September 2019MaintBotChEBI identifier normalization
97544view14:40, 24 May 2018TeacupAdded uniprot database identifiers and removed the enzyme nomenclature database
93225view09:09, 7 August 2017Mkutmonfix publication xref
93217view13:38, 4 August 2017DeSlChanged 4 IDs to more stereospecific IDs.
72026view12:50, 24 October 2013Mkutmonfixed unconnected lines
70144view21:27, 12 July 2013MaintBotupdated to 2013 schema
68765view15:48, 7 July 2013EgonwAdded a missing data source.
68764view15:47, 7 July 2013EgonwAdded duplicate BioPax elements, causing some information to not show up on the website.
68763view15:43, 7 July 2013EgonwFixed data sources for a few Enzyme Nomenclature numbers and PubChem-compound identifiers.
57153view13:12, 23 January 2013EgonwUsed "PubChem-compound"
48993view23:01, 2 July 2012PjaiswalModified categories
48562view21:09, 4 June 2012AlexanderPicoupdating pubchem ref
48561view20:09, 4 June 2012PjaiswalOntology Term : 'carotenoid biosynthetic pathway' added !
48560view20:09, 4 June 2012PjaiswalModified description
48559view20:04, 4 June 2012Pjaiswaladded precursor pathway link to WP2204
48558view19:59, 4 June 2012PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
48557view19:53, 4 June 2012Pjaiswalchanged positions
48556view19:53, 4 June 2012Pjaiswaldimensions
48555view19:48, 4 June 2012PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
48554view19:38, 4 June 2012PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
48553view19:28, 4 June 2012PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
48552view19:08, 4 June 2012PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
48551view19:07, 4 June 2012Pjaiswaladded literature and reactions
48550view18:56, 4 June 2012PjaiswalNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
EC: (VDE)GeneProductQ39249 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) violaxanthin de-epoxidase
EC: (CHYB)GeneProductQ9SPK6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
EC: (ZEP)GeneProductP93236 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
EC: (CHYE)GeneProductQ6TBX7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
EC: (NSY)GeneProductK4C9E2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
EC: (LCYE)GeneProductD9IL24 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
EC: (LCYB)GeneProductB3FPQ7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
all-trans-lycopeneMetaboliteCHEBI:15948 (ChEBI)
antheraxanthinMetabolite5281223 (PubChem-compound)
luteinMetaboliteCHEBI:28838 (ChEBI)
lycopene biosynthesisPathwayWP2204 (WikiPathways)
neoxanthinMetabolite5282217 (PubChem-compound)
violaxanthinMetabolite448438 (PubChem-compound)
zeazanthinMetaboliteCHEBI:27547 (ChEBI)
zeinoxanthinMetabolite5281234 (PubChem-compound)
α-caroteneMetaboliteCHEBI:28425 (ChEBI)
β-caroteneMetaboliteCHEBI:17579 (ChEBI)
β-cryptoxanthinMetaboliteCHEBI:10362 (ChEBI)
γ-caroteneMetaboliteCHEBI:27740 (ChEBI)
δ-caroteneMetabolite5281230 (PubChem-compound)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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