Glucocorticoid action and resistance (Rattus norvegicus)

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214, 91, 2, 6, 1975, 10, 111814, 1617, 203, 8, 1512, 13GenesGREProteins (AP1)NucleusKinaseshGRαAgonisthGRßhGRαAgonisthGRαAgonistPAntagonisthGRαAgonisthGRαAgonisthGRαhGRαAgonistAgonisthGRαhGRαhGRαhGRαnGREGenes (osteocalcin, prolactin, GR)hGRαhGRαcomposite GREGenes (proliferin)hGRαhGRαhGRαhGRߟ


The actions of glucocorticoid hormones are mediated by an intracellular receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The mechanism of action of this ligand-inducible transcription factor is discussed, focusing on mechanisms of glucocorticoid resistance.

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  1. Yang-Yen HF, Chambard JC, Sun YL, Smeal T, Schmidt TJ, Drouin J, Karin M; ''Transcriptional interference between c-Jun and the glucocorticoid receptor: mutual inhibition of DNA binding due to direct protein-protein interaction.''; Cell, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Jonat C, Rahmsdorf HJ, Park KK, Cato AC, Gebel S, Ponta H, Herrlich P; ''Antitumor promotion and antiinflammation: down-modulation of AP-1 (Fos/Jun) activity by glucocorticoid hormone.''; Cell, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
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  4. Burnstein KL, Bellingham DL, Jewell CM, Powell-Oliver FE, Cidlowski JA; ''Autoregulation of glucocorticoid receptor gene expression.''; Steroids, 1991 PubMed Europe PMC
  5. Pearce D, Yamamoto KR; ''Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor activities distinguished by nonreceptor factors at a composite response element.''; Science, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC
  6. Schüle R, Rangarajan P, Kliewer S, Ransone LJ, Bolado J, Yang N, Verma IM, Evans RM; ''Functional antagonism between oncoprotein c-Jun and the glucocorticoid receptor.''; Cell, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Cadepond F, Gasc JM, Delahaye F, Jibard N, Schweizer-Groyer G, Segard-Maurel I, Evans R, Baulieu EE; ''Hormonal regulation of the nuclear localization signals of the human glucocorticosteroid receptor.''; Exp Cell Res, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Sakai DD, Helms S, Carlstedt-Duke J, Gustafsson JA, Rottman FM, Yamamoto KR; ''Hormone-mediated repression: a negative glucocorticoid response element from the bovine prolactin gene.''; Genes Dev, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC
  9. Burnstein KL, Jewell CM, Cidlowski JA; ''Human glucocorticoid receptor cDNA contains sequences sufficient for receptor down-regulation.''; J Biol Chem, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  10. Diamond MI, Miner JN, Yoshinaga SK, Yamamoto KR; ''Transcription factor interactions: selectors of positive or negative regulation from a single DNA element.''; Science, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  11. Harrison RJ, McNeil GP, Dobner PR; ''Synergistic activation of neurotensin/neuromedin N gene expression by c-Jun and glucocorticoids: novel effects of Fos family proteins.''; Mol Endocrinol, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC
  12. Dahlman-Wright K, Siltala-Roos H, Carlstedt-Duke J, Gustafsson JA; ''Protein-protein interactions facilitate DNA binding by the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding domain.''; J Biol Chem, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC
  13. Dahlman-Wright K, Wright A, Gustafsson JA, Carlstedt-Duke J; ''Interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding domain with DNA as a dimer is mediated by a short segment of five amino acids.''; J Biol Chem, 1991 PubMed Europe PMC
  14. Oakley RH, Webster JC, Jewell CM, Sar M, Cidlowski JA; ''Immunocytochemical analysis of the glucocorticoid receptor alpha isoform (GRalpha) using GRalpha-specific antibody.''; Steroids, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  15. Cairns C, Cairns W, Okret S; ''Inhibition of gene expression by steroid hormone receptors via a negative glucocorticoid response element: evidence for the involvement of DNA-binding and agonistic effects of the antiglucocorticoid/antiprogestin RU486.''; DNA Cell Biol, 1993 PubMed Europe PMC
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  21. Schaaf MJ, Cidlowski JA; ''Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid action and resistance.''; J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC


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88440view11:37, 8 August 2016Mkutmonfixed special characters
78476view10:28, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
67284view10:31, 26 June 2013Christine ChichesterOntology Term : 'glucocorticoid signaling pathway' added !
58942view18:04, 21 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl data source
44970view14:04, 6 October 2011Mkutmonconnected some lines
42198view20:55, 7 March 2011KhanspersModified categories
41686view02:36, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
40391view14:36, 23 February 2011RaymonModified description
40390view14:34, 23 February 2011Raymon
40385view14:14, 23 February 2011RaymonPeriodical save, work in progress
40381view14:04, 23 February 2011RaymonPeriodical save, work in progress
40375view13:44, 23 February 2011RaymonPeriodical save, work in progress
40366view13:33, 23 February 2011RaymonPeriodical save, work in progress
40361view13:23, 23 February 2011RaymonPeriodical save, work in progress
40344view12:45, 23 February 2011RaymonPeriodical save, work in progress
40334view12:14, 23 February 2011RaymonNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
hGRαGeneProductENSRNOP00000019409 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

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