IL-1 signaling pathway (Homo sapiens)

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1CYIL-1 signaling pathwayCYNUNUCYNUNFKBIBMAPKAPK2IL1RAPIKBKBIKBKGTRAF6CHUKCa 2+MAPK1TAB1NFKB1MAP2K4MAP3K3MAPK14MAPK3MAP3K1IL1RAPTOLLIPIL1BIL1R1PRKCZPELI1PIK3R1PIK3R2UBE2NTRAF6AKT1RELATRAF6MAP2K1MAP3K2TAB3HSPB2ECSITMAP2K7MAP3K14PTPN11MAPK9IL1R1IKBKGMYD88MAP2K3TRAF6IL1APLCG1SQSTM1MAP2K6TOLLIPMAPK8PELI2CCL2NFKBIAUBE2V1RELANFKB1TAB2MAP2K2MYD88RELTRAF6RELPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPUbPPIRAK4IRAK1UbIRAK3IRAK2MAP3K7PMAPK14JUNPPATF2PMAPK9PMAPK8PCYNUNUCYProteinProtein - protein dissociationInhibitionAuto catalysisTransportPositive regulation of gene expressionLeads to through unknown mechanismNegative regulation of gene expressionTranslocation UbiquitinationDeubiquitinationSumoylationInduced catalysisProtein-protein interactionAcetylationDephosphorylationLEGENDPhosphorylationDeacetylationGolgi apparatusEndosomeNucleusMitochondrionDesumoylationMethylationDemethylationPalmitoylationCytoplasmECPlasma membraneMTEndoplasmic reticulumCYPMGONUExtracellularERENProteolytic cleavageReceptorProteinmRNALigandEnzyme complex


The IL-1 family of cytokines currently consists of 11 members which are encoded by distinct genes and includes IL-1α, IL-1β, and the IL-1 Receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). The major role of IL-1 type cytokines is to control pro-inflammatory reactions in response to tissue injury - either due to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or Danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Interleukin-1 (IL-1), which includes IL-1α and IL-1β, plays a crucial role in many auto inflammatory diseases. IL- 1α and IL-1β are produced predominantly by macrophages and monocytes, and to a lesser extent by other cell types such as epithelial cells endothelial cells and fibroblasts. IL-1 alpha, is a membrane anchored protein which signals through autocrine or juxtracrine mechanisms where as the soluble IL-1β acts in a paracrine or systemic manner. Significant progress has been achieved in the study of the signaling events mediated by IL-1 and the processes they control. Involvement of IL-1α or IL-1β in host responses to infections caused by intracellular microorganisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as in autoinflammatory diseases makes its signaling components important candidates for drug targetting for these diseases. The two forms of IL-1 (IL-1α and IL-1β) bind to the same cellular receptor, the Type I IL- 1 receptor (IL-1RI) to induce signaling. Upon receptor engagement, IL-1R1 forms a heterodimer with IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), which functions as a co receptor. IL-1RAcP cannot bind directly to IL-1 but is essential for IL-1-mediated signaling. Binding of IL-1 to this receptor complex leads to the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB through different signaling mechanisms. Two IL-1 receptor-associated kinases, IRAK-1 and IRAK-2 have been implicated in the activation of NF-κB. IRAK 1 and 2 functions as adapter proteins and protein kinases to transmit downstream signals. It recruits TRAF6 to the IL-1 receptor complex via an interaction with IL-1RAcP. Oligomerization of TRAF6 and subsequent formation of TAK1 and MEKK3 signaling complexes relays the signal via NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) to two I-kappaB kinases (IKK-1 and -2), leading to NF-kappaB activation. Activation of other mitogen activated protein kinases, including JNKs and p38 MAPK through various MAP2Ks also play important roles in mediating IL-1 responses by activating transcription through the AP-1 transcription factor. The above mentioned signaling events co-operatively induce the expression of IL-1 target genes such as CCL2, IL-8 and IL-6. The interactions and intersections between canonical and non-canonical Interleukin-1 signaling systems are depicted in the pathway map. Regulation of IL-1 signaling can be brought about by various mechanisms. The IL-1 family member IL-1RA can bind to the IL1-R1 receptor with similar affinity as IL-1α and β, but is incapable of activating the signaling response. The type II IL-1 receptor can bind to IL-1 alpha and beta but lacks signaling capacity. The naturally occurring 'shed' domains of the extracellular IL-1 receptor chains (IL-1RI, IL-1RII and IL- 1RAcP) also act as inhibitors of IL-1 signaling. In the cell, IL-1R binds to toll- interacting protein (TOLLIP), which results in the inhibition of IRAK1 and by promoting efficient degradation of IL-1R by targeting the internalized receptor to endosomes. Other mechanisms such as p38MAPK mediated phosphorylation of TAB1 which results in the inactivation of TAK1, and expression of genes including MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) and Inhibitor of kappa B alpha (NFKBIA) that inhibit IL-1 signaling components also serve as negative regulators of IL-1 signaling.

Please access this pathway at NetSlim database.

If you use this pathway, please cite following paper:

Kandasamy, K., Mohan, S. S., Raju, R., Keerthikumar, S., Kumar, G. S. S., Venugopal, A. K., Telikicherla, D., Navarro, J. D., Mathivanan, S., Pecquet, C., Gollapudi, S. K., Tattikota, S. G., Mohan, S., Padhukasahasram, H., Subbannayya, Y., Goel, R., Jacob, H. K. C., Zhong, J., Sekhar, R., Nanjappa, V., Balakrishnan, L., Subbaiah, R., Ramachandra, Y. L., Rahiman, B. A., Prasad, T. S. K., Lin, J., Houtman, J. C. D., Desiderio, S., Renauld, J., Constantinescu, S. N., Ohara, O., Hirano, T., Kubo, M., Singh, S., Khatri, P., Draghici, S., Bader, G. D., Sander, C., Leonard, W. J. and Pandey, A. (2010). NetPath: A public resource of curated signal transduction pathways. Genome Biology. 11:R3.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Kandasamy K, Mohan SS, Raju R, Keerthikumar S, Kumar GS, Venugopal AK, Telikicherla D, Navarro JD, Mathivanan S, Pecquet C, Gollapudi SK, Tattikota SG, Mohan S, Padhukasahasram H, Subbannayya Y, Goel R, Jacob HK, Zhong J, Sekhar R, Nanjappa V, Balakrishnan L, Subbaiah R, Ramachandra YL, Rahiman BA, Prasad TS, Lin JX, Houtman JC, Desiderio S, Renauld JC, Constantinescu SN, Ohara O, Hirano T, Kubo M, Singh S, Khatri P, Draghici S, Bader GD, Sander C, Leonard WJ, Pandey A; ''NetPath: a public resource of curated signal transduction pathways.''; Genome Biol, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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120702view13:18, 23 December 2021EweitzStandardize font, weight, case
115902view08:50, 20 March 2021EgonwCopied the NetPath paper into the literature list
115900view08:35, 20 March 2021EgonwModified description
108323view20:59, 6 December 2019L DupuisConverted interactions to graphical lines in legend
106163view12:06, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
89932view13:44, 6 October 2016MkutmonModified description
86870view07:37, 14 July 2016MkutmonOntology Term : 'oxidative phosphorylation pathway' added !
86869view07:37, 14 July 2016MkutmonOntology Term : 'PW:0000034' removed !
79965view14:44, 28 April 2015Zariannotated MAP3K14
78528view10:30, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
74010view16:10, 19 March 2014Joppe014added connections
74008view15:15, 19 March 2014Joppe014connected lines; added metabolite identifier
74007view15:11, 19 March 2014Joppe014Periodical save, work in progress
67363view10:42, 26 June 2013Christine ChichesterOntology Term : 'interleukin-1 signaling pathway' added !
63208view20:57, 8 May 2013MaintBotUpdating gpml version
61675view21:15, 16 April 2013MaintBotAdded Data Source for Xrefs where missing
47933view14:46, 19 April 2012NetPathModified description
47930view14:44, 19 April 2012NetPathModified description
46616view08:17, 24 February 2012NetPathModified description
46615view08:16, 24 February 2012NetPathModified description
46614view08:11, 24 February 2012NetPathModified description
44844view09:45, 6 October 2011MartijnVanIerselOntology Term : 'Interleukin mediated signaling pathway' added !
44842view09:43, 6 October 2011MartijnVanIerselOntology Term : 'signaling pathway in the adaptive immune response' added !
44621view17:52, 22 September 2011KhanspersUpdating content to NetSlim
44105view20:28, 24 August 2011KhanspersReverted to version '23:45, 1 March 2011' by Khanspers
44031view23:09, 22 August 2011KhanspersModified description
44030view23:07, 22 August 2011KhanspersUpdating pathway from NetSlim
41218view23:45, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
36193view15:41, 5 March 2010MartijnVanIerselConnected some lines in the right and center
36192view15:39, 5 March 2010MartijnVanIerselConnected a few lines in the left and center part
35640view21:26, 12 February 2010KhanspersModified description
21089view11:30, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:IL-1 NetPath 13]] moved to [[Pathway:WP195]]: Moved to stable identifier
17417view15:50, 22 July 2008Thripsitraf6 literature
11539view12:10, 9 April 2008ThripsiPeriodical save, work in progress
8158view13:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Human:IL-1 NetPath 13]] moved to [[Pathway:Homo sapiens:IL-1 NetPath 13]]: Renaming species
7699view16:10, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
7238view12:41, 4 November 2007MaintBotAdded categories to GPML
6334view22:17, 22 May 2007A.Pandeygpml file for [[Human:IL-1_NetPath_13]]

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AKT1Protein207 (Entrez Gene)
ATF2Protein1386 (Entrez Gene)
CCL2Rna6347 (Entrez Gene)
CHUKProtein1147 (Entrez Gene)
Ca 2+MetaboliteHMDB0000464 (HMDB)
ECSITProtein51295 (Entrez Gene)
HSPB2Protein3316 (Entrez Gene)
IKBKBProtein3551 (Entrez Gene)
IKBKGProtein8517 (Entrez Gene)
IL1AProtein3552 (Entrez Gene)
IL1BProtein3553 (Entrez Gene)
IL1R1Protein3554 (Entrez Gene)
IL1RAPProtein3556 (Entrez Gene)
IRAK1Protein3654 (Entrez Gene)
IRAK2Protein3656 (Entrez Gene)
IRAK3Protein11213 (Entrez Gene)
IRAK4Protein51135 (Entrez Gene)
JUNProtein3725 (Entrez Gene)
MAP2K1Protein5604 (Entrez Gene)
MAP2K2Protein5605 (Entrez Gene)
MAP2K3Protein5606 (Entrez Gene)
MAP2K4Protein6416 (Entrez Gene)
MAP2K6Protein5608 (Entrez Gene)
MAP2K7Protein5609 (Entrez Gene)
MAP3K1Protein4214 (Entrez Gene)
MAP3K14ProteinENSG00000006062 (Ensembl)
MAP3K2Protein10746 (Entrez Gene)
MAP3K3Protein4215 (Entrez Gene)
MAP3K7Protein6885 (Entrez Gene)
MAPK14Protein1432 (Entrez Gene)
MAPK1Protein5594 (Entrez Gene)
MAPK3Protein5595 (Entrez Gene)
MAPK8Protein5599 (Entrez Gene)
MAPK9Protein5601 (Entrez Gene)
MAPKAPK2Protein9261 (Entrez Gene)
MYD88Protein4615 (Entrez Gene)
NFKB1Protein4790 (Entrez Gene)
NFKBIAProtein4792 (Entrez Gene)
NFKBIBProtein4793 (Entrez Gene)
PELI1Protein57162 (Entrez Gene)
PELI2Protein57161 (Entrez Gene)
PIK3R1Protein5295 (Entrez Gene)
PIK3R2Protein5296 (Entrez Gene)
PLCG1Protein5335 (Entrez Gene)
PRKCZProtein5590 (Entrez Gene)
PTPN11Protein5781 (Entrez Gene)
RELProtein5966 (Entrez Gene)
RELAProtein5970 (Entrez Gene)
SQSTM1Protein8878 (Entrez Gene)
TAB1Protein10454 (Entrez Gene)
TAB2Protein23118 (Entrez Gene)
TAB3Protein257397 (Entrez Gene)
TOLLIPProtein54472 (Entrez Gene)
TRAF6Protein7189 (Entrez Gene)
UBE2NProtein7334 (Entrez Gene)
UBE2V1Protein7335 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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