Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) (Homo sapiens)

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21, 24, 27, 51, 54...26, 34, 60421746, 49, 627, 22, 4314, 15, 5626, 28, 3419, 255, 33, 45, 50, 578, 687, 22, 432530, 40, 47, 5931, 47, 5919, 2528, 3414, 15, 568, 12, 36, 61, 66...44, 52, 55, 7014, 25, 3810, 1625, 26, 28, 3414, 15, 25, 561033, 50, 578, 6818, 23, 443, 639, 30, 475, 33, 45, 50, 5713, 4319, 25, 6446, 49, 62cytosolnucleoplasmendoplasmic reticulum lumenGolgi lumenCREB3L2(1-379)BiP:Unfolded ProteinATF6(1-419)ATF6(380-419)XBP1(S) activateschaperone genesHSPA5 HSPA5 ATF6:BiPMBTPS1ATF4Xbp1 mRNA (spliced)CREB3(1-256) EIF2AK3 ATF6 CREBRF CREB3L4CREB3:CREBRFp-S724-IRE1 dimerDCSTAMP:CREB3ATF6 (ATF6-alpha)activates chaperonegenesCREB3L1(427-519)IRE1:BiPCREB3(257-291)ERN1XBP1-2CREB3L2(380-430)ADPp-S724-ERN1 CREB3L3(324-364)p-S724-ERN1 EIF2AK3CREB3L1CREBRFCREB3L4(1-297)ATF6(1-380)ERN1 ATPCREB3L2CREB3L3(1-323)IRE1 dimerATF6CREB3(292-395)unfolded protein HSPA5 CREB3(1-291)CREB3L1ADPCREB3L4(1-338)EIF2AK3 CREB3L4DCSTAMP CREB3(1-256)CREB3 ATF4 mRNAHSPA5 CREB3EIF2S1CREB3L4(1-297)CREB3L1(1-375)ATF4 activates genesCREB3L2(431-520)ATF6(1-380)p-S52-EIF2S1CREB3L3p-S724-IRE1dimer:ADPCREB3L1(1-375)ATPCREB3L1(376-426)CREB3L3CREB3L2CREB3L4(298-338)CREB3L1(1-426)ATF6ERN1 CREB3L4(339-395)CREB3L2(1-430)CREB3L3(365-461)CREB3L3(1-323)ADP CREB3L3(1-364)CREB3L2(1-379)Xbp1 mRNA(unspliced)unfolded proteinMBTPS2PERK dimerATF6(420-670)PERK:BiPCREB3(1-256)31, 47, 5931, 47, 5913, 29, 32, 37, 41...5656566, 18, 35, 39, 675631, 47, 5925222231, 47, 59225625421, 3, 4, 11, 20...56252214, 7125


Description

The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is a regulatory system that protects the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) from overload. The UPR is provoked by the accumulation of improperly folded protein in the ER during times of unusually high secretion activity. Analysis of mutants with altered UPR, however, shows that the UPR is also required for normal development and function of secretory cells.
One level at which the URP operates is transcriptional and translational regulation: mobilization of ATF6, ATF6B, CREB3 factors and IRE1 leads to increased transcription of genes encoding chaperones, while mobilization of PERK (pancreatic eIF2alpha kinase, EIF2AK3) leads to phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha and global down-regulation of protein synthesis.
ATF6, ATF6B, and CREB3 factors (CREB3 (LUMAN), CREB3L1 (OASIS), CREB3L2 (BBF2H7, Tisp40), CREB3L3 (CREB-H), and CREB3L4 (CREB4)) are membrane-bound transcription activators that respond to ER stress by transiting from the ER membrane to the Golgi membrane where their transmembrane domains are cleaved, releasing their cytosolic domains to transit to the nucleus and activate transcription of target genes. IRE1, also a resident of the ER membrane, dimerizes and autophosphorylates in response to ER stress. The activated IRE1 then catalyzes unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA to yield an XBP1 isoform that is targeted to the nucleus and activates chaperone genes. View original pathway at:Reactome.

Comments

Reactome-Converter 
Pathway is converted from Reactome ID: 381119
Reactome-version 
Reactome version: 66
Reactome Author 
Reactome Author: May, Bruce

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Bibliography

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History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
101441view11:31, 1 November 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 66
100979view21:09, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 65
100515view19:43, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 64
100061view16:26, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 63
99613view15:00, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62 (2nd attempt)
99222view12:44, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62
93967view13:48, 16 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
93565view11:27, 9 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
86666view09:23, 11 July 2016ReactomeTeamreactome version 56
83168view10:15, 18 November 2015ReactomeTeamVersion54
81749view09:49, 26 August 2015ReactomeTeamVersion53
77024view08:32, 17 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
76729view12:09, 16 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
76054view10:11, 11 June 2014ReactomeTeamRe-fixing comment source
75764view11:27, 10 June 2014ReactomeTeamReactome 48 Update
75114view14:06, 8 May 2014AnweshaFixing comment source for displaying WikiPathways description
74761view08:50, 30 April 2014ReactomeTeamReactome46
45018view18:38, 6 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'ER stress - UPR pathway' added !
42154view22:01, 4 March 2011MaintBotAutomatic update
39965view05:58, 21 January 2011MaintBotNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ADP MetaboliteCHEBI:16761 (ChEBI)
ADPMetaboliteCHEBI:16761 (ChEBI)
ATF4 activates genesPathwayR-HSA-380994 (Reactome) ATF4 is a transcription factor and activates expression of IL-8, MCP1, IGFBP-1, CHOP, HERP1 and ATF3.
ATF4 mRNARnaENST00000404241 (Ensembl)
ATF4ProteinP18848 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ATF6 (ATF6-alpha)

activates chaperone

genes
PathwayR-HSA-381183 (Reactome) The N-terminal fragment of ATF6-alpha contains a bZIP domain and binds the sequence CCACG in ER Stress Response Elements (ERSEs). ATF6-alpha binds ERSEs together with the heterotrimeric transcription factor NF-Y, which binds the sequence CCAAT in the ERSEs, and together the two factors activate transcription of ER stress-responsive genes. Evidence from overexpression and knockdowns indicates that ATF6-alpha is a potent activator but its homolog ATF6-beta is not and ATF6-beta may actually reduce expression of ER stress proteins.
ATF6 ProteinP18850 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ATF6(1-380)ProteinP18850 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ATF6(1-419)ProteinP18850 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ATF6(380-419)ProteinP18850 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ATF6(420-670)ProteinP18850 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ATF6:BiPComplexR-HSA-381168 (Reactome) The luminal C-terminus of ATF6-alpha binds BiP, occluding two Golgi Localization Sequences and causing ATF6-alpha to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum.
ATF6ProteinP18850 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ATPMetaboliteCHEBI:15422 (ChEBI)
BiP:Unfolded ProteinComplexR-HSA-381062 (Reactome) BiP is a chaperone which binds unfolded proteins as well as the luminal domains of UPR signal transducers ATF6, IRE1, and PERK (EIF2AK3).
CREB3 ProteinO43889 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3(1-256) ProteinO43889 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3(1-256)ProteinO43889 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3(1-291)ProteinO43889 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3(257-291)ProteinO43889 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3(292-395)ProteinO43889 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3:CREBRFComplexR-HSA-8874847 (Reactome)
CREB3L1(1-375)ProteinQ96BA8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L1(1-426)ProteinQ96BA8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L1(376-426)ProteinQ96BA8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L1(427-519)ProteinQ96BA8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L1ProteinQ96BA8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L2(1-379)ProteinQ70SY1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L2(1-430)ProteinQ70SY1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L2(380-430)ProteinQ70SY1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L2(431-520)ProteinQ70SY1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L2ProteinQ70SY1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L3(1-323)ProteinQ68CJ9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L3(1-364)ProteinQ68CJ9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L3(324-364)ProteinQ68CJ9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L3(365-461)ProteinQ68CJ9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L3ProteinQ68CJ9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L4(1-297)ProteinQ8TEY5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L4(1-338)ProteinQ8TEY5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L4(298-338)ProteinQ8TEY5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L4(339-395)ProteinQ8TEY5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3L4ProteinQ8TEY5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREB3ProteinO43889 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREBRF ProteinQ8IUR6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CREBRFProteinQ8IUR6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
DCSTAMP ProteinQ9H295 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
DCSTAMP:CREB3ComplexR-HSA-8874383 (Reactome)
EIF2AK3 ProteinQ9NZJ5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
EIF2AK3ProteinQ9NZJ5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
EIF2S1ProteinP05198 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ERN1 ProteinO75460 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ERN1ProteinO75460 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
HSPA5 ProteinP11021 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
IRE1 dimerComplexR-HSA-381200 (Reactome) Crystallographic evidence indicates that the IRE1 homodimer forms by an initial interaction between the luminal N-terminal domains of IRE1 monomers.
IRE1:BiPComplexR-HSA-381202 (Reactome) The luminal N-teminal domain of IRE1 binds the ATPase domain of BiP, rendering IRE1 inactive.
MBTPS1ProteinQ14703 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
MBTPS2ProteinO43462 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PERK dimerComplexR-HSA-381126 (Reactome) PERK (EIF2AK3) monomers form dimers, resulting in activation of the kinase activity of the cytosolic C-terminal region.
PERK:BiPComplexR-HSA-381216 (Reactome) The N-terminal luminal domain of PERK (EIF2AK3) binds BiP, rendering PERK inactive.
XBP1(S) activates chaperone genesPathwayR-HSA-381038 (Reactome) Xbp-1 (S) binds the sequence CCACG in ER Stress Responsive Elements (ERSE, consensus sequence CCAAT (N)9 CCACG) located upstream from many genes. The ubiquitous transcription factor NF-Y, a heterotrimer, binds the CCAAT portion of the ERSE and together the IRE1-alpha: NF-Y complex activates transcription of a set of chaperone genes including DNAJB9, EDEM, RAMP4, p58IPK, and others. This results in an increase in protein folding activity in the ER.
XBP1-2ProteinP17861-2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Xbp1 mRNA (unspliced)RnaENST00000216037 (Ensembl)
Xbp1 mRNA (spliced)RnaENST00000344347 (Ensembl)
p-S52-EIF2S1ProteinP05198 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
p-S724-ERN1 ProteinO75460 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) IRE1 is trans-autophosphorylated after dissociation from BiP and autodimerization. By homology with the yeast IRE1, human IRE1 is believed to be phosphorylated at Ser724 (Ser841 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
p-S724-IRE1 dimer:ADPComplexR-HSA-381078 (Reactome) Phosphorylated IRE1 homodimers preferentially bind ADP (as opposed to ATP) and this binding promotes association of the cytoplasmic C-termini. Crystallographic evidence indicates that unphosphorylated A-loops of IRE1 interfere with nucleotide binding thus trans-autophosphorylation is a prerequisite to nucleotide binding.
p-S724-IRE1 dimerComplexR-HSA-381154 (Reactome) After juxtaposition of the luminal N-termini of IRE1 to form the IRE1 homodimer, the cytoplasmic C-terminal kinase domains of the IRE1 molecules associate and transphosphorylate each other's A-loop domains. This causes a change in conformation that allows binding of ADP.
unfolded protein R-HSA-381130 (Reactome)
unfolded proteinR-HSA-381130 (Reactome)

Annotated Interactions

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SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
ADPArrowR-HSA-381091 (Reactome)
ADPArrowR-HSA-381111 (Reactome)
ADPR-HSA-381116 (Reactome)
ATF4 mRNAR-HSA-381128 (Reactome)
ATF4ArrowR-HSA-381128 (Reactome)
ATF6(1-380)ArrowR-HSA-381026 (Reactome)
ATF6(1-380)ArrowR-HSA-420818 (Reactome)
ATF6(1-380)R-HSA-381026 (Reactome)
ATF6(1-419)ArrowR-HSA-381135 (Reactome)
ATF6(1-419)R-HSA-420818 (Reactome)
ATF6(380-419)ArrowR-HSA-420818 (Reactome)
ATF6(420-670)ArrowR-HSA-381135 (Reactome)
ATF6:BiPR-HSA-381158 (Reactome)
ATF6ArrowR-HSA-381158 (Reactome)
ATF6ArrowR-HSA-381186 (Reactome)
ATF6R-HSA-381135 (Reactome)
ATF6R-HSA-381186 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-381091 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-381111 (Reactome)
BiP:Unfolded ProteinArrowR-HSA-381086 (Reactome)
BiP:Unfolded ProteinArrowR-HSA-381158 (Reactome)
BiP:Unfolded ProteinArrowR-HSA-381217 (Reactome)
CREB3(1-256)ArrowR-HSA-8874192 (Reactome)
CREB3(1-256)ArrowR-HSA-8874197 (Reactome)
CREB3(1-256)R-HSA-8874197 (Reactome)
CREB3(1-256)R-HSA-8874849 (Reactome)
CREB3(1-291)ArrowR-HSA-8874204 (Reactome)
CREB3(1-291)R-HSA-8874192 (Reactome)
CREB3(257-291)ArrowR-HSA-8874192 (Reactome)
CREB3(292-395)ArrowR-HSA-8874204 (Reactome)
CREB3:CREBRFArrowR-HSA-8874849 (Reactome)
CREB3ArrowR-HSA-8874200 (Reactome)
CREB3L1(1-375)ArrowR-HSA-8874193 (Reactome)
CREB3L1(1-375)ArrowR-HSA-8874194 (Reactome)
CREB3L1(1-375)R-HSA-8874193 (Reactome)
CREB3L1(1-426)ArrowR-HSA-8874212 (Reactome)
CREB3L1(1-426)R-HSA-8874194 (Reactome)
CREB3L1(376-426)ArrowR-HSA-8874194 (Reactome)
CREB3L1(427-519)ArrowR-HSA-8874212 (Reactome)
CREB3L1ArrowR-HSA-8874184 (Reactome)
CREB3L1R-HSA-8874184 (Reactome)
CREB3L1R-HSA-8874212 (Reactome)
CREB3L2(1-379)ArrowR-HSA-8874187 (Reactome)
CREB3L2(1-379)ArrowR-HSA-8874191 (Reactome)
CREB3L2(1-379)R-HSA-8874191 (Reactome)
CREB3L2(1-430)ArrowR-HSA-8874205 (Reactome)
CREB3L2(1-430)R-HSA-8874187 (Reactome)
CREB3L2(380-430)ArrowR-HSA-8874187 (Reactome)
CREB3L2(431-520)ArrowR-HSA-8874205 (Reactome)
CREB3L2ArrowR-HSA-8874198 (Reactome)
CREB3L2R-HSA-8874198 (Reactome)
CREB3L2R-HSA-8874205 (Reactome)
CREB3L3(1-323)ArrowR-HSA-8874201 (Reactome)
CREB3L3(1-323)ArrowR-HSA-8874202 (Reactome)
CREB3L3(1-323)R-HSA-8874202 (Reactome)
CREB3L3(1-364)ArrowR-HSA-8874206 (Reactome)
CREB3L3(1-364)R-HSA-8874201 (Reactome)
CREB3L3(324-364)ArrowR-HSA-8874201 (Reactome)
CREB3L3(365-461)ArrowR-HSA-8874206 (Reactome)
CREB3L3ArrowR-HSA-8874208 (Reactome)
CREB3L3R-HSA-8874206 (Reactome)
CREB3L3R-HSA-8874208 (Reactome)
CREB3L4(1-297)ArrowR-HSA-8874195 (Reactome)
CREB3L4(1-297)ArrowR-HSA-8874218 (Reactome)
CREB3L4(1-297)R-HSA-8874218 (Reactome)
CREB3L4(1-338)ArrowR-HSA-8874186 (Reactome)
CREB3L4(1-338)R-HSA-8874195 (Reactome)
CREB3L4(298-338)ArrowR-HSA-8874195 (Reactome)
CREB3L4(339-395)ArrowR-HSA-8874186 (Reactome)
CREB3L4ArrowR-HSA-8874209 (Reactome)
CREB3L4R-HSA-8874186 (Reactome)
CREB3L4R-HSA-8874209 (Reactome)
CREB3R-HSA-8874204 (Reactome)
CREBRFR-HSA-8874849 (Reactome)
DCSTAMP:CREB3R-HSA-8874200 (Reactome)
EIF2AK3ArrowR-HSA-381086 (Reactome)
EIF2AK3R-HSA-381087 (Reactome)
EIF2S1R-HSA-381111 (Reactome)
ERN1ArrowR-HSA-381217 (Reactome)
ERN1R-HSA-381109 (Reactome)
IRE1 dimerArrowR-HSA-381109 (Reactome)
IRE1 dimerR-HSA-381091 (Reactome)
IRE1 dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-381091 (Reactome)
IRE1:BiPR-HSA-381217 (Reactome)
MBTPS1mim-catalysisR-HSA-381135 (Reactome)
MBTPS1mim-catalysisR-HSA-8874186 (Reactome)
MBTPS1mim-catalysisR-HSA-8874204 (Reactome)
MBTPS1mim-catalysisR-HSA-8874205 (Reactome)
MBTPS1mim-catalysisR-HSA-8874206 (Reactome)
MBTPS1mim-catalysisR-HSA-8874212 (Reactome)
MBTPS2mim-catalysisR-HSA-420818 (Reactome)
MBTPS2mim-catalysisR-HSA-8874187 (Reactome)
MBTPS2mim-catalysisR-HSA-8874192 (Reactome)
MBTPS2mim-catalysisR-HSA-8874194 (Reactome)
MBTPS2mim-catalysisR-HSA-8874195 (Reactome)
MBTPS2mim-catalysisR-HSA-8874201 (Reactome)
PERK dimerArrowR-HSA-381087 (Reactome)
PERK dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-381111 (Reactome)
PERK:BiPR-HSA-381086 (Reactome)
R-HSA-381026 (Reactome) The cytosolic N-terminal cleavage product of ATF6-alpha transits to the nucleus.
R-HSA-381086 (Reactome) PERK (EIF2AK3) is a single-pass transmembrane protein located in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) membrane. PERK has an N-terminal luminal domain and a C-terminal cytosolic domain. It is maintained in an inactive state by association of its luminal domain with BiP, a chaperone in the ER. Because BiP also binds unfolded proteins, BiP dissociates from PERK when unfolded proteins exceed chaperone activity in the ER.
R-HSA-381087 (Reactome) Once dissociated from BiP, PERK (EIF2AK3) monomers form homodimers, the active form of the protein.
R-HSA-381091 (Reactome) Dimerization of the N-terminal luminal regions of IRE1-alpha brings the cytosolic C-terminal regions in proximity. The C-terminal region possesses kinase activity and the homodimer trans-autophosphorylates. From homology with Saccharomyces IRE1-alpha the phosphorylation of human IRE1-alpha is believed to be at Ser724.
R-HSA-381109 (Reactome) The dissociation of the IRE1-alpha:BiP heterodimer liberates IRE1-alpha, which forms homodimers. Dimer formation is initiated by interaction between the N-terminal, luminal domains.
R-HSA-381111 (Reactome) The C-terminal domain of PERK (EIF2AK3) has kinase activity when PERK homodimerizes. PERK kinase specifically phosphorylates Ser52 of eIF2-alpha, causing an arrest in translation. The result is that translation of ER-targeted proteins is halted on ribosomes in the vicinity of activated PERK. The general arrest of translation results in the loss of short-lived proteins such as Cyclin D1, causing an arrest of the cell cycle in G1.
R-HSA-381116 (Reactome) Phosphorylation of the C-terminal region causes a loop in the C-terminus to change position, enabling access to an ADP-binding pocket. Phosphorylated IRE1-alpha dimers bind ADP in preference to ATP.
R-HSA-381128 (Reactome) Phosphorylation of eIF2-alpha causes increased translation of ATF4 mRNA. In mouse the mRNA of ATF4 contains 2 upstream ORFs (uORFs) (Vattem and Wek 2004). The second uORF overlaps the ORF encoding ATF4 and thus prevents translation of ATF4. When eIF2-alpha is phosphorylated, translation of the uORFs is suppressed and translation of the ORF encoding ATF4 is increased.
R-HSA-381135 (Reactome) Once in the Golgi, ATF6-alpha undergoes two sequential proteolytic cleavages. S1P catalyzes the first of these, probably cleaving the ATF6-alpha polypeptide between residues 418 and 419 based on homology with known S1P cleavage sites in other proteins.
R-HSA-381158 (Reactome) ATF6-alpha is a transmembrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane with N-terminal cytoplasmic and C-terminal luminal domains. BiP binds the luminal domain of ATF6-alpha via the substrate binding domain of BiP. Binding of BiP blocks 2 Golgi localization sequences on ATF6-alpha, maintaining ATF6-alpha in the ER.
BiP is also a general chaperone capable of binding unfolded proteins in the ER lumen. When chaperone activity in the ER is overwhelmed, BiP dissociates from ATF6-alpha and binds the excess unfolded proteins. It is unclear whether the dissociation is due to competition of unfolded proteins for BiP or to a more specific interaction between BiP and ATF6-alpha. The dissociation exposes the Golgi localization sequences of ATF6-alpha and allows ATF6-alpha to transit to the Golgi.
R-HSA-381186 (Reactome) The association between ATF6-alpha and BiP causes ATF6-alpha to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Once dissociated from BiP, the two Golgi Localization Sequences on ATF6-alpha are exposed and ATF6-alpha transits from the ER to the Golgi Apparatus.
R-HSA-381203 (Reactome) Phosphorylated IRE1-alpha homodimers with bound ADP have endoribonuclease activity in their C-terminal (cytosolic) regions. In particular, the homodimers cleave an internal 26 nucleotide segment out of the Xbp-1 mRNA. In yeast the resulting RNAs are ligated by a tRNA ligase but the corresponding human enzyme has not been identified. The cleavage and ligation leads to a frameshift which results in a longer ORF that encodes Xbp-1 (S), the active form of the Xbp-1 transcription factor.
The ribonuclease activity of IRE1-alpha also degrades subsets of mRNAs in the vicinity of the ER membrane, thereby reducing the amount of protein entering the ER.
Xbp-1 mRNA that has been cleaved by IRE1-alpha encodes a 40 kd protein designated Xbp-1 (S). Xbp-1 (S) is a potent bZIP transcription factor that transits from the cytosol to the nucleus and binds the sequence CCACG in the ER Stress Responsive Element (ERSE).
R-HSA-381217 (Reactome) IRE1-alpha is a single-pass transmembrane protein with a luminal N-terminus and a cytoplasmic C-terminus. IRE1-alpha is maintained in an inactive state in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) membrane by interaction between the luminal domain of IRE1-alpha and the ATPase domain of BiP within the ER.
BiP is a general chaperone that also binds unfolded proteins within the ER. Thus BiP dissociates from IRE1-alpha when chaperone activity is overwhelmed by unfolded proteins in the ER.
R-HSA-420818 (Reactome) Once in the Golgi, ATF6-alpha undergoes two sequential proteolytic cleavages. S2P catalyzes the second of these, cleaving the ATF6-alpha S1P cleavage product within its transmembrane domain. This cleavage liberates a 50 kD N-terminal fragment with bZIP transcription factor activity into the cytosol.
R-HSA-425923 (Reactome) Phosphorylated IRE1-alpha homodimers with bound ADP have endoribonuclease activity in their C-terminal (cytosolic) regions. The IRE1-alpha homodimers cleave an internal 26 nucleotide segment out of the Xbp-1 mRNA. In yeast the resulting RNAs are ligated by a tRNA ligase but the corresponding human ligase has not been identified. The cleavage and ligation leads to a frameshift in the Xbp-1 mRNA which results in a longer ORF that encodes Xbp-1 (S), the active form of the Xbp-1 transcription factor
R-HSA-8874184 (Reactome) CREB3L1 (OASIS) is normally a short-lived protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (Kondo et al. 2012) of osteoblasts, astrocytes, intestine, salivary gland, and prostate. It is targeted for proteolytic degradation by HRD1 (inferred from mouse homologs). During ER stress CREB3L1 becomes stabilized and traffics by an uncharacterized mechanism to the Golgi membrane where it is cleaved by Golgi-resident proteases MBTPS1 (S1P) and MBTPS2 (S2P) (inferred from mouse homologs).
R-HSA-8874186 (Reactome) MBTPS1 (S1P) cleaves the lumenal domain of CREB3L4 (Stirling and O'Hare 2006, Ben-Aicha et al. 2007). Based on homology with SREBFs (SREBPs), other CREB3 proteins, and the mouse homolog Creb3l4 (Tisp40) the cleavage site is inferred to be at a RNIL motif at amino acid 338. The C-terminal domain of CREB3L4 interferes with cleavage and therefore may regulate the process (Stirling and O'Hare 2006). Dithiothreitol (DTT) causes trafficking but not cleavage of CREB3L4.
R-HSA-8874187 (Reactome) MBTPS2 (S2P) cleaves CREB3L2 near the cytoplasmic face of the transmembrane domain, releasing the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain into the cytosol (inferred from human ATF6-alpha and mouse homologs).
R-HSA-8874191 (Reactome) After cleavage by MBTPS2 the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of CREB3L2 is released into the cytosol and traffics to the nucleus where it binds CRE-like elements in promoters of genes such as Sec23a (inferred from mouse).
R-HSA-8874192 (Reactome) CREB3 is cleaved by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) (Raggo et al. 2002, Liang et al. 2006, Eleveld-Trancikova et al. 2010). As inferred from other RIP susbsrates, MBTPS2 (S2P) is believed to cleave CREB3 after MBTPS1 (S1P) cleaves (Raggo et al. 2002). Based on homology with cleavage sites in SREBP (SREBF) homologues, the cleavage site in CREB3 is estimated to be at about amino acid 254 at the cytoplasmic face of the transmembrane domain (Raggo et al. 2002).
R-HSA-8874193 (Reactome) Cleavage by MBTPS2 releases the N-terminal domain of CREB3L1 into the cytosol and it then traffics to the nucleus (Denard et al. 2011, Rose et al. 2014, Ward et al. 2016, and inferred from mouse homologs).
R-HSA-8874194 (Reactome) After cleavage by MBTPS1 (S1P), CREB3L1 (OASIS) is cleaved by MBTPS2, yielding a 60 kDal cytosolic product (S2P) (Denard et al. 2011, Denard et al. 2012, Mellor et al. 2013, Rose et al. 2014, Ward et al. 2016, inferred from mouse homologs). By inference from SREBFs (SREBPs) the cleavage is believed to occur near the cytoplasmic face of the transmembrane domain about amino acid residue 375. The cleavage releases the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain into the cytosol.
R-HSA-8874195 (Reactome) CREB3L4 (CREB4) is cleaved near the cytoplasmic face of the transmembrane domain (Stirling and O'Hare 2006, Ben-Aicha et al. 2007). Based on homology with the mouse homolog and other CREB3 proteins, MBTPS2 (S2P) cleaves CREB3L4 and the cleavage is inferred to occur at approximately amino acid 297. The cleavage releases the N-terminal domain to the cytosol.
R-HSA-8874197 (Reactome) Based on homology with other substrates of regulated intramembrane cleavage, cleavage by regulate intramembrane proteolysis is believed to release the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of CREB3 into the cytosol (Raggo et al. 2002, Eleveld-Trancikova et al. 2010). The fragment is then translocated into the nucleus (Raggo et al. 2002, Eleveld-Trancikova et al. 2010) where, in combination with HCF-1, it activates target genes that contain UPRE and ERSE-II elements in their promoters (Liang et al. 2006).
R-HSA-8874198 (Reactome) CREB3L2 (BBF2H7) localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (Panagopoulos et al. 2007, Kondo et al. 2012) of cells in cartilage, lungs, spleen, gonads, and nervous system where it is normally targeted for proteolytic degradation by HRD1 (inferred from mouse homologs). During ER stress, CREB3L2 becomes stabilized and traffics by an uncharacterized mechanism to the Golgi membrane where it is activated by cleavage (inferred from mouse homologs).
R-HSA-8874200 (Reactome) CREB3 is expressed ubiquitously (Lu et al. 1997) and associates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (Stirling and O'Hare 2006) with DCSTAMP (Eleveld-Trancikova et al. 2010). Through an unclear mechanism, that may involve association of OS9 with unfolded proteins, CREB3 and DCSTAMP, which may remain in a complex, transit from the ER membrane to the Golgi membrane where CREB3 is activated by cleavage (Eleveld-Trancikova et al. 2010). CREB3 becomes activated during maturation of dendritic cells induced by lipopolysaccharide and cytokines (Eleveld-Trancikova et al. 2010).
R-HSA-8874201 (Reactome) After cleavage by MBTPS1, CREB3L3 in the Golgi membrane is cleaved by MBTPS2 (S2P) near the cytoplasmic face of the transmembrane domain (Bailey et al. 2007, inferred from mouse homologs in Zhang et al. 2006). By inference from cleavage of SREBFs (SREBPs), CREB3L3 is believed to be cleaved at approximately amino acid residue 323. The cleavage releases the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain into the cytosol.
R-HSA-8874202 (Reactome) The N-terminal, cleavage product of CREB3L3 traffics to the nucleus (Omori et al. 2001, Bailey et al. 2007, Llarena et al. 2010) where it can interact with ATF6 and where it is observed to bind the CRE, box B, and ATF6-bindng element, ERSE-I, and ERSE-II in promoters of target genes such as PEPCK.
R-HSA-8874204 (Reactome) In the Golgi membrane, CREB3 (LUMAN) is cleaved by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (Raggo et al. 2002, Liang et al. 2006, Stirling and O'Hare 2006, Eleveld-Trancikova et al. 2010). As inferred from other cleaved proteins, the reaction is probably catalyzedby MBTPS1 (S1P) at an RQLR motif (Stirling and O'Hare 2006).
R-HSA-8874205 (Reactome) MBTPS1 (S1P) cleaves CREB3L2 in the luminal domain. By inference from SREBFs (SREBPs) the cleavage is believed to occur at a RNLL motif at amino acid residue 430. The N-terminal product remains attached to the Golgi membrane by its transmembrane domain. The C-terminal luminal domain is eventually secreted and promotes Hedgehog signaling (Iwamoto et al. 2015).
R-HSA-8874206 (Reactome) CREB3L3 at the Golgi membrane is cleaved in the luminal domain (LLarena et al. 2010) by MBTPS1 (S1P) (Bailey et al. 2007, inferred from mouse homologs in Zhang et al. 2006). By inference from cleavage of SREBFs (SREBPs), CREB3L3 is believed to be cleaved at a RTLH motif at amino acid residue 364.
R-HSA-8874208 (Reactome) Unlike ATF6, CREB3L3 (and probably other CREB3 family members) does not interact with HSPA5 (BiP) (Llarena 2010). Instead, retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by a membrane-proximal cytoplasmic motif (Bailey et al. 2007). When the motif is deleted CREB3L3 is constitutively trafficked to the Golgi where it is cleaved (Bailey et al. 2007). In cells not experiencing ER stress, CREB3L3 is located in the ER membrane (Stirling and O'Hare 2006, Bailey et al. 2007, Llarena et al. 2010) and is rapidly turned over by the endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) pathway (Bailey et al. 2007). During ER stress CREB3L3 is translocated by an uncharacterized mechanism to the Golgi (Bailey et al. 2007, Llarena et al. 2010, also inferred from the mouse homolog in Zhang et al. 2006). CREB3L3 is expressed strongly in the liver and more weakly in the stomach and small intestine.
R-HSA-8874209 (Reactome) CREB3L4 (CREB4) is observed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi (Stirling and O'Hare 2006). Based on homologous transcription factors possessing transmembrane domains, CREB3L4 is inferred to traffic from the ER to the Golgi where it is activated by cleavage. Stress caused by dithiothreitol causes trafficking of CREB3L4 to the Golgi but cleavage by MBTPS1 (S1P) is not observed (Stirling and O'Hare 2006).
R-HSA-8874212 (Reactome) In the Golgi membrane, CREB3L1 (OASIS) is cleaved in its lumenal domain (Denard et al. 2011, Denard et al. 2012, Mellor et al. 2013, Rose et al. 2014, Ward et al. 2016) by MBTPS1 (S1P) (Denard et al. 2012, inferred from mouse homologs). By inference from SREBFs (SREBPs) and other CREB3 family proteins, CREB3L1 is cleaved at an RSLL motif around amino acid residue 426.
R-HSA-8874218 (Reactome) The N-terminal domain of CREB3L4 (CREB4, AIbZIP) containing the bZIP and transcription activation domains trafficks from the cytosol to the nucleus (Stirling and O'Hare 2006, inferred from mouse Creb3l4 (Tisp40)) where it activates transcription of target genes such as HSPA5 (BiP), BAG3, DNAJC12, and KDELR3 (Qi et al. 2002, Ben Aicha et al. 2007). Expression of CREB3L4 is itself induced by androgens in prostate tissue (Qi et al. 2002).
R-HSA-8874849 (Reactome) CREBRF (Luman recruitment factor, LRF) binds CREB3 in the nucleus and recruits CREB3 into nuclear foci (Audas et al. 2008). CREBRF destabilizes CREB3 and reduces the transcription activation activity of CREB3 during endoplasmic reticulum stress.
XBP1-2ArrowR-HSA-381203 (Reactome)
Xbp1 mRNA (unspliced)R-HSA-425923 (Reactome)
Xbp1 mRNA (spliced)ArrowR-HSA-425923 (Reactome)
Xbp1 mRNA (spliced)R-HSA-381203 (Reactome)
p-S52-EIF2S1ArrowR-HSA-381111 (Reactome)
p-S52-EIF2S1ArrowR-HSA-381128 (Reactome)
p-S724-IRE1 dimer:ADPArrowR-HSA-381116 (Reactome)
p-S724-IRE1 dimer:ADPmim-catalysisR-HSA-425923 (Reactome)
p-S724-IRE1 dimerArrowR-HSA-381091 (Reactome)
p-S724-IRE1 dimerR-HSA-381116 (Reactome)
unfolded proteinR-HSA-381086 (Reactome)
unfolded proteinR-HSA-381158 (Reactome)
unfolded proteinR-HSA-381217 (Reactome)
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