Transport of vitamins, nucleosides, and related molecules (Homo sapiens)

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4, 5, 11, 33, 40...618, 3117, 326, 2220, 21, 3742-4425502811, 1318, 19, 41, 582646232920, 21, 492, 1634, 573953, 644934, 577, 47, 51, 636, 34, 571382420, 21, 30, 35, 37...25382840, 56, 62227, 554910, 3610, 3617, 323, 9, 12, 14, 15, 59lysosomal lumencytosolmitochondrial intermembrane spaceendoplasmic reticulum lumenGolgi lumenmitochondrial matrixPGE1 SLCO2B1 substratesGua albumin:bile saltand acid (OATP-A)complexLGCA Gua UDP-GlcAPAPSCyt-Rib vitamins transportedby SMVTSLC16A2 Thy-dRib LCN9 PGE2 SLCO1B3ligands of SLC28A3 &29A1SLC28A1SLC28A2ADPLCN15 SLC27A1,4,6Ino MYSA Na+APOD T3 Cyt Ade Ino SLC35D2UDP-GlcNAcPGF2a uridine5'-monophosphateGua-Rib SLC29A2 Ura-Rib GTP Hyp ARL2BPIno vitamins transportedby SMVTThy GCCA, TCCAADPSLCO2B1 substratesDDCX LCNsGua-Rib SLC35A1ALB SLC25A4 ATPPALM SLC35C1UMPUDP-GlcNAc ligands of SLC28A1SLC29A2 LINA UMPLINA TCCA guanosine5'-monophosphateIno T3 LCN12 SLC29A1-likeproteinsSLCO1B1Ade-Rib Hyp Cyt-Rib GDP-FucUra-Rib Ino LCN12 AVP(20-28) DIGXnucleosidesIno GMPPAPSGTP SLCO3A1 substratesUDP-Xyluridine5'-monophosphateSLC35D1 Ura-Rib Thy-dRib bile salts and acids(OATP-A)PanK BSP LCN9 ligands of SLC28A3 &29A1Gua-Rib ARL2:GTP:ARL2BP:SLC25A4SLC35A3Na+Thy-dRib UMPTCDCA DECA UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcDA SLCO1C1 CDCA NAd TCCA Cyt-Rib AA Thy BSP PGF2a Ade-Rib GDP-ManAde-Rib SLC35D1 hexamerSLCO3A1 substratesPGE1 Cyt-Rib UDP-Gal ARL2BP UDP-Gal PGD2 GTP Na+ligands of SLC29A2Ac-CoASLC35B3 PALM ALBTCCA UDP-GlcANAd Ade-Rib Thy-dRib UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcE1S SLC29A4GCCA Ade-Rib LCN1 UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAcSLCO2B1ARL2 ADPSLC29A2-likeproteinsGua-Rib SLCOs, SLC16A2 dimerSLC35B4Na+UDP-Glc UDP-GlcNAc dA SLCO1B1 ligands of SLC29A4CMP-Neu5AcSLCO1A2Ade-Rib SLC27A4 SLCO4A1 Ade-Rib ARL2 ARL2 Gua-Rib SLC25A6 SLC25A4SLC35B2,3Cyt-Rib Thy-dRib TCCA SLCO3A1-1PanK Thy-dRib SLC35B4SLC29A1 LCFAslipidsligands of SLC28A2APOD E1S OLEA PDZD11 ATPAde-Rib UDP-GlcNAcPGD2 SLCO1B1CCA Ura SLC33A1Ade-Rib GDP-FucUDP-GlcNAcUra-Rib DIGXGTP ATPSLC5A6 DDCX DA Cyt-Rib ARL2:GTPCyt-Rib T4 UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAcT3,T4PGE2 Btn ALBADR ARL2:GTP:ARL2BPCCA Gua-Rib Ade Ura SLC35B2 Ura-Rib CMPThy-dRib 5HT SLC25A5 SLC25A5,6 dimersSLC35A2UDP-GalNAc STEA ligands of SLC29A4GCCA lipids Ura-Rib ARL2BP GDP-ManADR T4 LCN1 SLC27A1 PGE1 Ino ligands of SLC28A2Btn SLCO4C1uridine5'-monophosphateAA OLEA PGT substratesLCNs:lipidsMYSA SLC29A1 Ura-Rib LIPA GCCA Ino ligands of SLC28A1ARL2 T4 T4 ligands of SLC29A2TCDCA UDP-GalNAc PGE2 SLC27A6 PGE1 Gua-Rib T3,T4CMP-Neu5AcGua-Rib Ac-CoALCFAsCyt-Rib GCCA UDP-GlcNAcDECA ALB:(GCCA, TCCA)Ade-Rib LIPA Ura-Rib 5HT CMPDHEA-SO4 AVP(20-28) UDP-Glc CDCA Cyt Thy-dRib SLC5A6:PDZD11PGT substratesAde-Rib SLC29A3Na+UDP-GlcNAcNa+PGE2 Ura-Rib ARL2BP SLC28A3STEA SLCO2A1Ade-Rib LGCA nucleosidesUra-Rib Ade ALB ARL2:GTP:ARL2BPLCN15 Ade DHEA-SO4 UDP-XyldA 52263853255052, 54522552, 5438


Description

This section groups the processes mediated by SLC transporters, by which vitamins and cofactors, as well as nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleobases, and related molecules cross lipid bilayer membranes (He et al. 2009).
The human SLC5A6 encodes the Na+-dependent multivitamin transporter SMVT (Prasad et al. 1999). SMVT co-transports biotin (vitamin B7), D-Pantothoate (vitamin B5) and lipoic acid into cells with Na+ ions electrogenically.
Four SLC gene families encode transporters that mediate the movement of nucleosides and free purine and pyrimidine bases across the plasma membrane. These transporters play key roles in nucleoside and nucleobase uptake for salvage pathways of nucleotide synthesis, and in the cellular uptake of nucleoside analogues used in the treatment of cancers and viral diseases (He et al. 2009).
The human gene SLC33A1 encodes acetyl-CoA transporter AT1 (Kanamori et al. 1997). Acetyl-CoA is transported to the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, where it serves as the substrate of acetyltransferases that O-acetylates sialyl residues of gangliosides and glycoproteins.
Nucleotide sugars are used as sugar donors by glycosyltransferases to create the sugar chains for glycoconjugates such as glycoproteins, polysaccharides and glycolipids. Glycosyltransferases reside mainly in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whereas nucleotide sugars are synthesized in the cytosol. The human solute carrier family SLC35 encode nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs), localised on Golgi and ER membranes, which can mediate the antiport of nucleotide sugars in exchange for the corresponding nucleoside monophosphates (eg. UMP for UDP-sugars) (Handford et al. 2006).
Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) can be used for energy sources and steroid hormone synthesis and regulate many cellular processes such as inflammation, blood pressure, the clotting process, blood lipid levels and the immune response. The SLC27A family encode fatty acid transporter proteins (FATPs) (Stahl 2004).
The SLC gene family members SLCO1 SLCO2 and SLCO3 encode organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). OATPs are membrane transport proteins that mediate the sodium-independent transport of a wide range of amphipathic organic compounds including bile salts, steroid conjugates, thyroid hormones, anionic oligopeptides and numerous drugs (Hagenbuch & Meier 2004). View original pathway at Reactome.

Comments

Reactome-Converter 
Pathway is converted from Reactome ID: 425397
Reactome-version 
Reactome version: 75
Reactome Author 
Reactome Author: Jassal, Bijay

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Bibliography

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History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
114879view16:39, 25 January 2021ReactomeTeamReactome version 75
113325view11:39, 2 November 2020ReactomeTeamReactome version 74
112536view15:50, 9 October 2020ReactomeTeamReactome version 73
101449view11:32, 1 November 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 66
100987view21:10, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 65
100523view19:44, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 64
100070view16:28, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 63
99621view15:00, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62 (2nd attempt)
99228view12:44, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62
94041view13:53, 16 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
93665view11:30, 9 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
86787view09:26, 11 July 2016ReactomeTeamreactome version 56
83207view10:22, 18 November 2015ReactomeTeamVersion54
81588view13:07, 21 August 2015ReactomeTeamVersion53
77048view08:34, 17 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
76753view12:11, 16 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
76078view10:14, 11 June 2014ReactomeTeamRe-fixing comment source
75788view11:31, 10 June 2014ReactomeTeamReactome 48 Update
75138view14:08, 8 May 2014AnweshaFixing comment source for displaying WikiPathways description
74785view08:52, 30 April 2014ReactomeTeamReactome46
45060view19:59, 6 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'transport pathway' added !
42152view22:00, 4 March 2011MaintBotAutomatic update
39963view05:58, 21 January 2011MaintBotNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
5HT MetaboliteCHEBI:28790 (ChEBI)
AA MetaboliteCHEBI:28822 (ChEBI)
ADPMetaboliteCHEBI:456216 (ChEBI)
ADR MetaboliteCHEBI:28918 (ChEBI)
ALB ProteinP02768 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ALB:(GCCA, TCCA)ComplexR-HSA-194104 (Reactome)
ALBProteinP02768 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
APOD ProteinP05090 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ARL2 ProteinP36404 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ARL2:GTP:ARL2BP:SLC25A4ComplexR-HSA-5250205 (Reactome)
ARL2:GTP:ARL2BPComplexR-HSA-5250201 (Reactome)
ARL2:GTP:ARL2BPComplexR-HSA-5250221 (Reactome)
ARL2:GTPComplexR-HSA-5250197 (Reactome)
ARL2BP ProteinQ9Y2Y0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ARL2BPProteinQ9Y2Y0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ATPMetaboliteCHEBI:30616 (ChEBI)
AVP(20-28) ProteinP01185 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Ac-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15351 (ChEBI)
Ade MetaboliteCHEBI:16708 (ChEBI)
Ade-Rib MetaboliteCHEBI:16335 (ChEBI)
BSP MetaboliteCHEBI:63836 (ChEBI)
Btn MetaboliteCHEBI:15956 (ChEBI)
CCA MetaboliteCHEBI:16359 (ChEBI)
CDCA MetaboliteCHEBI:16755 (ChEBI)
CMP-Neu5AcMetaboliteCHEBI:16556 (ChEBI)
CMPMetaboliteCHEBI:17361 (ChEBI)
Cyt MetaboliteCHEBI:16040 (ChEBI)
Cyt-Rib MetaboliteCHEBI:17562 (ChEBI)
DA MetaboliteCHEBI:18243 (ChEBI)
DDCX MetaboliteCHEBI:30805 (ChEBI)
DECA MetaboliteCHEBI:30813 (ChEBI)
DHEA-SO4 MetaboliteCHEBI:16814 (ChEBI)
DIGXMetaboliteCHEBI:4551 (ChEBI)
E1S MetaboliteCHEBI:17474 (ChEBI)
GCCA MetaboliteCHEBI:17687 (ChEBI)
GCCA, TCCAComplexR-ALL-194097 (Reactome)
GDP-FucMetaboliteCHEBI:17009 (ChEBI)
GDP-ManMetaboliteCHEBI:15820 (ChEBI)
GMPMetaboliteCHEBI:17345 (ChEBI)
GTP MetaboliteCHEBI:15996 (ChEBI)
Gua MetaboliteCHEBI:16235 (ChEBI)
Gua-Rib MetaboliteCHEBI:16750 (ChEBI)
Hyp MetaboliteCHEBI:17368 (ChEBI)
Ino MetaboliteCHEBI:17596 (ChEBI)
LCFAsComplexR-ALL-879544 (Reactome)
LCFAsComplexR-ALL-879559 (Reactome)
LCN1 ProteinP31025 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LCN12 ProteinQ6JVE5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LCN15 ProteinQ6UWW0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LCN9 ProteinQ8WX39 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LCNs:lipidsComplexR-HSA-5229291 (Reactome)
LCNsComplexR-HSA-5229240 (Reactome)
LGCA MetaboliteCHEBI:28866 (ChEBI)
LINA MetaboliteCHEBI:17351 (ChEBI)
LIPA MetaboliteCHEBI:16494 (ChEBI)
MYSA MetaboliteCHEBI:28875 (ChEBI)
NAd MetaboliteCHEBI:18357 (ChEBI)
Na+MetaboliteCHEBI:29101 (ChEBI)
OLEA MetaboliteCHEBI:16196 (ChEBI)
PALM MetaboliteCHEBI:15756 (ChEBI)
PAPSMetaboliteCHEBI:17980 (ChEBI)
PDZD11 ProteinQ5EBL8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PGD2 MetaboliteCHEBI:15555 (ChEBI)
PGE1 MetaboliteCHEBI:15544 (ChEBI)
PGE2 MetaboliteCHEBI:15551 (ChEBI)
PGF2a MetaboliteCHEBI:15553 (ChEBI)
PGT substratesComplexR-ALL-879566 (Reactome)
PGT substratesComplexR-ALL-879614 (Reactome)
PanK MetaboliteCHEBI:7916 (ChEBI)
SLC16A2 ProteinP36021 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC25A4 ProteinP12235 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC25A4ProteinP12235 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC25A5 ProteinP05141 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC25A5,6 dimersComplexR-HSA-187453 (Reactome)
SLC25A6 ProteinP12236 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC27A1 ProteinQ6PCB7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC27A1,4,6ComplexR-HSA-879582 (Reactome)
SLC27A4 ProteinQ6P1M0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC27A6 ProteinQ9Y2P4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC28A1ProteinO00337 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC28A2ProteinO43868 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC28A3ProteinQ9HAS3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC29A1 ProteinQ99808 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC29A1-like proteinsComplexR-HSA-4127407 (Reactome) This CandidateSet contains sequences identified by William Pearson's analysis of Reactome catalyst entities. Catalyst entity sequences were used to identify analagous sequences that shared overall homology and active site homology. Sequences in this Candidate set were identified in an April 24, 2012 analysis.
SLC29A2 ProteinQ14542 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC29A2-like proteinsComplexR-HSA-3907272 (Reactome) This CandidateSet contains sequences identified by William Pearson's analysis of Reactome catalyst entities. Catalyst entity sequences were used to identify analagous sequences that shared overall homology and active site homology. Sequences in this Candidate set were identified in an April 24, 2012 analysis.
SLC29A3ProteinQ9BZD2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC29A4ProteinQ7RTT9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC33A1ProteinO00400 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35A1ProteinP78382 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35A2ProteinP78381 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35A3ProteinQ9Y2D2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35B2 ProteinQ8TB61 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35B2,3ComplexR-HSA-3465611 (Reactome)
SLC35B3 ProteinQ9H1N7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35B4ProteinQ969S0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35C1ProteinQ96A29 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35D1 ProteinQ9NTN3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35D1 hexamerComplexR-HSA-174388 (Reactome)
SLC35D2ProteinQ76EJ3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC5A6 ProteinQ9Y289 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC5A6:PDZD11ComplexR-HSA-5359005 (Reactome)
SLCO1A2ProteinP46721 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO1B1 ProteinQ9Y6L6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO1B1ProteinQ9Y6L6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO1B3ProteinQ9NPD5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO1C1 ProteinQ9NYB5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO2A1ProteinQ92959 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO2B1 substratesComplexR-ALL-879553 (Reactome)
SLCO2B1 substratesComplexR-ALL-879654 (Reactome)
SLCO2B1ProteinO94956 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO3A1 substratesComplexR-HSA-879529 (Reactome)
SLCO3A1 substratesComplexR-HSA-879563 (Reactome)
SLCO3A1-1ProteinQ9UIG8-1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO4A1 ProteinQ96BD0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO4C1ProteinQ6ZQN7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCOs, SLC16A2 dimerComplexR-HSA-879625 (Reactome)
STEA MetaboliteCHEBI:9254 (ChEBI)
T3 MetaboliteCHEBI:28774 (ChEBI)
T3,T4ComplexR-ALL-879603 (Reactome)
T3,T4ComplexR-ALL-879628 (Reactome)
T4 MetaboliteCHEBI:18332 (ChEBI)
TCCA MetaboliteCHEBI:28865 (ChEBI)
TCDCA MetaboliteCHEBI:16525 (ChEBI)
TCDCA MetaboliteCHEBI:9407 (ChEBI)
Thy MetaboliteCHEBI:17821 (ChEBI)
Thy-dRib MetaboliteCHEBI:17748 (ChEBI)
UDP-Gal MetaboliteCHEBI:18307 (ChEBI)
UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAcComplexR-ALL-735691 (Reactome)
UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAcComplexR-ALL-735692 (Reactome)
UDP-GalNAc MetaboliteCHEBI:16650 (ChEBI)
UDP-Glc MetaboliteCHEBI:18066 (ChEBI)
UDP-GlcAMetaboliteCHEBI:17200 (ChEBI)
UDP-GlcNAc MetaboliteCHEBI:16264 (ChEBI)
UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcComplexR-ALL-744229 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcComplexR-ALL-744234 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcNAcMetaboliteCHEBI:16264 (ChEBI)
UDP-XylMetaboliteCHEBI:16082 (ChEBI)
UMPMetaboliteCHEBI:16695 (ChEBI)
Ura MetaboliteCHEBI:17568 (ChEBI)
Ura-Rib MetaboliteCHEBI:16704 (ChEBI)
albumin:bile salt

and acid (OATP-A)

complex
ComplexR-HSA-194110 (Reactome)
bile salts and acids (OATP-A)ComplexR-ALL-194131 (Reactome)
dA MetaboliteCHEBI:17256 (ChEBI)
guanosine 5'-monophosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:17345 (ChEBI)
ligands of SLC28A1ComplexR-ALL-179738 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A1ComplexR-ALL-179739 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A2ComplexR-ALL-179740 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A2ComplexR-ALL-179741 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A3 & 29A1ComplexR-ALL-179737 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A3 & 29A1ComplexR-ALL-179743 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A2ComplexR-ALL-179742 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A2ComplexR-ALL-179747 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A4ComplexR-ALL-727737 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A4ComplexR-ALL-727774 (Reactome)
lipids MetaboliteCHEBI:18059 (ChEBI)
lipidsMetaboliteCHEBI:18059 (ChEBI)
nucleosidesComplexR-ALL-727746 (Reactome)
nucleosidesComplexR-ALL-727782 (Reactome)
uridine 5'-monophosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:16695 (ChEBI)
vitamins transported by SMVTComplexR-ALL-429605 (Reactome)
vitamins transported by SMVTComplexR-ALL-429627 (Reactome)

Annotated Interactions

View all...
SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
ADPArrowR-HSA-163215 (Reactome)
ADPArrowR-HSA-5672027 (Reactome)
ADPR-HSA-163215 (Reactome)
ADPR-HSA-5672027 (Reactome)
ALB:(GCCA, TCCA)R-HSA-194079 (Reactome)
ALB:(GCCA, TCCA)R-HSA-194083 (Reactome)
ALBArrowR-HSA-194079 (Reactome)
ALBArrowR-HSA-194083 (Reactome)
ALBArrowR-HSA-194130 (Reactome)
ARL2:GTP:ARL2BP:SLC25A4ArrowR-HSA-5250209 (Reactome)
ARL2:GTP:ARL2BP:SLC25A4mim-catalysisR-HSA-5672027 (Reactome)
ARL2:GTP:ARL2BPArrowR-HSA-5250210 (Reactome)
ARL2:GTP:ARL2BPArrowR-HSA-5250217 (Reactome)
ARL2:GTP:ARL2BPR-HSA-5250209 (Reactome)
ARL2:GTP:ARL2BPR-HSA-5250210 (Reactome)
ARL2:GTPR-HSA-5250217 (Reactome)
ARL2BPR-HSA-5250217 (Reactome)
ATPArrowR-HSA-163215 (Reactome)
ATPArrowR-HSA-5672027 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-163215 (Reactome)
ATPR-HSA-5672027 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAArrowR-HSA-727759 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAR-HSA-727759 (Reactome)
CMP-Neu5AcArrowR-HSA-727807 (Reactome)
CMP-Neu5AcR-HSA-727807 (Reactome)
CMPArrowR-HSA-727807 (Reactome)
CMPR-HSA-727807 (Reactome)
DIGXArrowR-HSA-879594 (Reactome)
DIGXR-HSA-879594 (Reactome)
GCCA, TCCAArrowR-HSA-194079 (Reactome)
GCCA, TCCAArrowR-HSA-194083 (Reactome)
GDP-FucArrowR-HSA-742345 (Reactome)
GDP-FucR-HSA-742345 (Reactome)
GDP-ManArrowR-HSA-744230 (Reactome)
GDP-ManR-HSA-744230 (Reactome)
GMPArrowR-HSA-744230 (Reactome)
LCFAsArrowR-HSA-879585 (Reactome)
LCFAsR-HSA-879585 (Reactome)
LCNs:lipidsArrowR-HSA-5229283 (Reactome)
LCNsR-HSA-5229283 (Reactome)
Na+ArrowR-HSA-109530 (Reactome)
Na+ArrowR-HSA-109538 (Reactome)
Na+ArrowR-HSA-109539 (Reactome)
Na+ArrowR-HSA-429581 (Reactome)
Na+R-HSA-109530 (Reactome)
Na+R-HSA-109538 (Reactome)
Na+R-HSA-109539 (Reactome)
Na+R-HSA-429581 (Reactome)
PAPSArrowR-HSA-741449 (Reactome)
PAPSR-HSA-741449 (Reactome)
PGT substratesArrowR-HSA-879528 (Reactome)
PGT substratesR-HSA-879528 (Reactome)
R-HSA-109527 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC29A2 mediates the reversible transport of one molecule of adenine, adenosine, cytidine, cytosine, guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, inosine, thymidine, thymine, uracil, or uridine from the extracellular space to the cytosol.
R-HSA-109529 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC29A2 mediates the reversible transport of one molecule of adenine, adenosine, cytidine, cytosine, guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, inosine, thymidine, thymine, uracil, or uridine from the cytosol to the extracellular space.
R-HSA-109530 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC28A1 mediates the transport of one molecule of 2'-deoxyadenosine, adenosine, cytidine, thymidine, or uridine, and one sodium ion, from the extracellular space to the cytosol.
R-HSA-109534 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC29A1 mediates the reversible transport of one molecule of adenosine, cytosine, guanosine, inosine, thymidine, or uridine from the extracellular space to the cytosol.
R-HSA-109536 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC29A1 mediates the reversible transport of one molecule of adenosine, guanosine, inosine, or uridine from the cytosol to the extracellular space.
R-HSA-109538 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC28A3 mediates the transport of one molecule of adenosine, cytidine, guanosine, inosine, thymidine, or uridine, and two sodium ions, from the extracellular space to the cytosol.
R-HSA-109539 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC28A2 mediates the transport of one molecule of adenosine, guanosine, inosine, or uridine, and one sodium ion, from the extracellular space to the cytosol.
R-HSA-163215 (Reactome) A family of antiport, ATP-ADP translocases (SLC25A4,5,6), preferentially export ATP from the matrix while importing ADP from the cytosol, thereby maintaining a high ADP:ATP ratio in the matrix. When there are increased energy demands on the body, such as under heavy exercise, cytosolic ADP rises and is exchanged with mitochondrial matrix ATP via the transmembrane ADP:ATP translocase. Increased ADP causes the proton-motive force to be discharged and protons enter via ATPase, thereby regenerating the ATP pool.
There are 3 isoforms of translocases in humans; isoform 1 (SLC25A4) is the heart/skeletal muscle form, isoform 2 (SLC25A5) is the fibroblast form and isoform 3 (SLC25A6) is the liver form. All isoforms exist as homodimers.
R-HSA-174368 (Reactome) The UDP-glucuronic acid/UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine transporter (SLC35D1) in hexameric form transports both UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) from the cytosol into the ER lumen across the ER membrane (Muraoka et al. 2001). These substrates participate in glucuronidation and/or chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis.
R-HSA-194079 (Reactome) A molecule of extracellular glycocholate or taurocholate is transported into the cytosol, mediated by OATP-8 (SLCO1B3) in the plasma membrane. Glycocholate and taurocholate exist in the blood as complexes with serum albumin, and their uptake by OATP-8 must involve disruption of these complexes, but the molecular mechanism coupling disruption and uptake is unknown. In the body, OATP-8 is expressed on the basolateral surfaces of hepatocytes and may play a role in the uptake of glycocholate and taurocholate by the liver under physiological conditions (Kullak-Ublick et al. 2004; Trauner and Boyer 2002).
R-HSA-194083 (Reactome) A molecule of extracellular glycocholate (GCCA) or taurocholate (TCCA) is transported into the cytosol, mediated by OATP-C (SLCO1B1) in the plasma membrane. GCCA and TCCA exist in the blood as complexes with serum albumin (ALB), and its uptake by OATP-C must involve disruption of this complex, but the molecular mechanism coupling disruption and uptake is unknown. In the body, OATP-C is expressed on the basolateral surfaces of hepatocytes and may play a role in the uptake of GCCA and TCCA by the liver under physiological conditions (Kullak-Ublick et al. 2004, Trauner & Boyer 2002).
R-HSA-194130 (Reactome) A molecule of extracellular bile salt (glyco- or taurocholate or taurochenodeoxycholate) or bile acid (cholate or chenodeoxycholate) is transported into the cytosol, mediated by OATP-A (SLCO1A2) in the plasma membrane. Bile salts and acids exist in the blood as complexes with serum albumin, and their uptake by OATP-A must involve disruption of this complex, but the molecular mechanism coupling release of a bile salt or acid from albumin to its uptake by OATP-A is unknown. In the body, OATP-A is expressed only at low levels on the basolateral surfaces of hepatocytes and may play only a minor role in the uptake of bile salts and acids by the liver (Kullak-Ublick et al. 2004; Trauner and Boyer 2002).
R-HSA-429581 (Reactome) Biotin (vitamin H or B7) is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. Biotin is a cofactor in the metabolism of fatty acids and leucine, and it plays a role in gluconeogenesis. D-Pantothoate (vitamin B5), is a water-soluble vitamin needed to form coenzyme-A (CoA), and is critical in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Lipoic acid is an organosulfur compound, the R-enantiomer of which is an essential cofactor for many enzyme complexes.

The human SLC5A6 encodes the Na+-dependent multivitamin transporter SMVT (Prasad PD et al, 1999; Wang H et al, 1999). SMVT co-transports these vitamins/cofactors into cells with Na+ ions electrogenically. PDZ domain-containing protein 11 (PDZD11 aka AIPP1) is a cytosolic protein with a single PDZ domain which can bind to the C-terminal class 1 PDZ binding motif of SMVT, resulting in a significant induction of vitamin uptake over that with SMVT alone (Nabokina et al. 2011).
R-HSA-5229283 (Reactome) Lipocalins (LCNs) are a family of extracellular proteins that are implicated in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules such as lipids, retinoids, steroids and bilins (Grzyb et al. 2006). The family members differ in amino acid sequence but they share a highly conserved beta-barrel structure comprised of an eight-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet. This structure forms a ligand-binding pocket that is responsible for binding and transporting lipids and other small hydrophobic molecules (Flower et al. 1993). LCNs have been associated with many biological processes such as immune response, prostaglandin synthesis, retinoid binding and cancer cell interactions. Lipocalins 1, 9, 12, and 15 (LCN1, 9, 12 and 15) are all able to transport different types of hydrophobic molecules.

Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a 29-kDa glycoprotein that is primarily associated with high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in human plasma (Drayna et al. 1986, Yang et al. 1994). It is an atypical apolipoprotein and, based on its primary structure, it is predicted to be a member of the lipocalin family. Lipocalins adopt a tertiary beta-barrel structure and transport small hydrophobic ligands. Although APOD can bind cholesterol, progesterone, pregnenolone, bilirubin and arachidonic acid, it is unclear if any, or all of these, represent its physiological ligands (Perdomo et al. 2010). APOD's role in lipid metabolism could have implication in atherosclerosis and ageing (Perdomo & Dong 2009).
R-HSA-5250209 (Reactome) The complex between ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 2-binding protein (ARL2BP aka BART) and GTP-bound ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 2 (ARL2:GTP) is able to bind the ADP/ATP translocase 1 protein (SLC25A4 aka ANT1) at the mitochondrial inner membrane (Zhang et al. 2009, Bailey et al. 2009). ARL2 is essential for a number of mitochondrial functions, including mitochondrial morphology, motility and maintenance of ATP levels.
R-HSA-5250210 (Reactome) When ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 2-binding protein (ARL2BP aka BART) binds GTP-bound ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 2 (ARL2:GTP), the resultant complex can enter the mitochondrion via an unknown mechanism (Zhang et al. 2009, Bailey et al. 2009). Although ARL2 is a member of the ARF family of G proteins, it lacks the myristoylation at glycine-2 characteristic of that family and thus can move across the mitochondrial membrane into the intermembrane space (Sharer et al. 2002).
R-HSA-5250217 (Reactome) ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 2 (ARL2) is a small (21kDa) GTPase protein that is able to bind GDP or GTP. It is implicated in a range of processes from trafficking processes to regulation of microtuble dynamics. ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 2-binding protein (ARL2BP aka BART) is an effector protein that binds ARL2 (Zhang et al. 2009, Bailey et al. 2009). This binding is dependent on ARL2 being in its GTP-bound form.
R-HSA-5672027 (Reactome) A family of antiport, dimeric ATP-ADP translocases (SLC25A4,5,6), preferentially export ATP from the matrix while importing ADP from the cytosol, thereby maintaining a high ADP:ATP ratio in the matrix. When there are increased energy demands on the body, such as under heavy exercise, cytosolic ADP rises and is exchanged with mitochondrial matrix ATP via the transmembrane ADP:ATP translocase. Increased ADP causes the proton-motive force to be discharged and protons enter via ATPase, thereby regenerating the ATP pool. There are 3 isoforms of translocases in humans with isoform 1 (SLC25A4, NAT1) being the heart/skeletal muscle form.
R-HSA-727740 (Reactome) The human gene SLC29A4 encodes the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4 (ENT4). It is ubiquitously expressed and mediates the reversible transport of the nucleoside adenosine at acidic pH (this transport is absent at pH 7.4) (Barnes K et al, 2006). ENT4 has also been shown to mediate the transport of biogenic amines such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. For this reason, ENT4 is also known as the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) (Engel K et al, 2004).
R-HSA-727749 (Reactome) The human gene SLC29A3 encodes the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3). It is abundant in many tissues, especially the placenta and is localized intracellularly on the lysosomal membrane. SLC29A3 mediates the reversible transport of nucleosides and the nucleobase adenine (Baldwin et al. 2005). Defects in SLC29A3 can cause histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome (HLAS; MIM:602782), an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by combined features from 2 or more of four histiocytic disorders (Molho-Pessach et al. 2008).
R-HSA-727759 (Reactome) The human gene SLC33A1 encodes acetyl-CoA transporter AT1 (Kanamori et al. 1997). Acetyl-CoA is transported to the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, where it serves as the substrate of acetyltransferases that O-acetylates sialyl residues of gangliosides and glycoproteins. Defects in SLC33A1 are the cause of spastic paraplegia autosomal dominant type 42 (SPG42) which is a neurodegenerative disorder (Lin et al. 2008).
R-HSA-727767 (Reactome) The human gene SLC29A3 encodes the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3). It is abundant in many tissues, especially the placenta and is localized intracellularly on the lysosomal membrane. SLC29A3 mediates the reversible transport of nucleosides and the nucleobase adenine (Baldwin et al. 2005). Defects in SLC29A3 can cause histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome (HLAS; MIM:602782), an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by combined features from 2 or more of four histiocytic disorders (Molho-Pessach et al. 2008).
R-HSA-727768 (Reactome) The human gene SLC29A4 encodes the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4 (ENT4). It is ubiquitously expressed and mediates the reversible transport of the nucleoside adenosine at acidic pH (this transport is absent at pH 7.4) (Barnes K et al, 2006). ENT4 has also been shown to mediate the transport of biogenic amines such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. For this reason, ENT4 is also known as the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) (Engel K et al, 2004).
R-HSA-727807 (Reactome) The human gene SLC35A1 encodes the CMP-sialic acid transporter which mediates the antiport of CMP-sialic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac) into the Golgi lumen in exchange for CMP (Ishida et al. 1996). Defects in SLC35A1 are the cause of congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2F (CDG2F; MIM:603585). CDGs are a family of severe i