Transport of vitamins, nucleosides, and related molecules (Homo sapiens)

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10, 23, 24, 30, 44...5012120, 2822, 46, 47454512145, 484214145, 4849312, 295, 11, 13, 25, 34...7, 8, 26, 2732496, 156, 154, 53123, 9, 33, 36, 37, 415, 12, 1316, 1819, 2417, 39, 43354240lysosomal lumencytosolGolgi lumenendoplasmic reticulum lumenSLCO1B1PGE2 LCN12 Thy SLCO1A2SLC35A2SLC27A4 SLCO2B1 substratesUDP-Gal GDP-ManUDP-GlcNAcligands of SLC29A1Ade-Rib SLC28A3UDP-GlcNAcCMP-Neu5AcGua-Rib Ino LCN1 SLCO1C1 Ade-Rib SLC29A2 Ade-Rib Hyp SLCO2B1 substratesPanK LCN15 Ade-Rib SLC27A1 Thy-dRib SLC29A2-likeproteinsguanosine5'-monophosphatePGD2 Thy-dRib Gua-Rib UDP-GalNAc Thy-dRib SLC27A6 SLC29A1 PAPSUDP-Glc Thy-dRib CDCA SLC35D1 hexamerAPOD Ura-Rib LCNs:lipidsGDP-ManPGE1 SLC29A3lipidsAde GCCA, TCCASLC27A1,4,6PGF2a ALB:(GCCA, TCCA)Ino Ino AA PGE1 LCFAsuridine5'-monophosphatePALM SLC35B3 UDP-GlcNAc Ino GCCA AA Ade AVP(20-28) SLC35B4SLCO4C1PGD2 UDP-GlcNAcBtn SLCO1B3Hyp E1S APOD Cyt-Rib Gua-Rib Ura Cyt-Rib Ade UDP-GlcNAcThy-dRib DDCX T3,T4SLC28A1PGE2 Cyt-Rib MYSA ligands of SLC28A3SLC29A2 SLCO3A1 substratesnucleosidesPGE1 nucleosidesDHEA-SO4 dA Ura-Rib ADR Thy-dRib Ade-Rib Gua-Rib T3,T4TCCA SLC35D2SLCO2A1SLCO2B1UDP-GlcNAcPDZD11 LIPA 5HT PGT substratesThy-dRib Ino Gua-Rib UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAcvitamins transportedby SMVTligands of SLC28A1Gua-Rib UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAcUra-Rib AVP(20-28) LCNsPGE1 CDCA Na+UDP-GlcNAc SLCO1B1 Thy TCCA DDCX T4 LCN9 STEA SLC35B2,3Ino SLC35B4Gua-Rib CMP-Neu5Acligands of SLC28A3Gua-Rib LCFAsUDP-GlcABSP TCDCA OLEA Ade-Rib SLC35C1dA CCA SLC35B2 Na+STEA uridine5'-monophosphateGCCA TCCA SLC16A2 Na+LCN15 Ura-Rib SLCO4A1 Ade-Rib uridine5'-monophosphateAc-CoAalbumin:bile saltand acid (OATP-A)complexGDP-FucADR LGCA UDP-XylSLC29A1 MYSA Ade-Rib OLEA Gua SLCOs, SLC16A2 dimerAde-Rib LCN12 Ade-Rib T4 Gua-Rib Ura-Rib Ade-Rib bile salts and acids(OATP-A)SLC5A6 Ino Cyt-Rib Thy-dRib Na+Ura-Rib SLCO3A1-1T4 GDP-FucIno LCN9 SLC5A6:PDZD11LIPA Ade-Rib Na+Thy-dRib BSP 5HT TCCA Ura-Rib ALB Ino SLC35A3T3 NAd Cyt-Rib Ura guanosine5'-monophosphateligands of SLC29A2Ade-Rib Cyt-Rib PGE2 T3 Cyt-Rib Cyt DECA ALB LGCA PAPSligands of SLC28A2Ac-CoAUDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcCyt-Rib Cyt-Rib Thy-dRib ligands of SLC29A2ALBUra-Rib PGE2 ligands of SLC29A4lipids LINA TCDCA Ade-Rib Gua PGT substratesPALM ALBDIGXCMPPanK GCCA Btn SLCO3A1 substratesNa+T4 UDP-Gal ligands of SLC29A1PGF2a SLC33A1DA GCCA UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcSLC29A4cytidine5'-monophosphateUDP-GlcAGua-Rib NAd Ino Ura-Rib ligands of SLC29A4UDP-XylUDP-Glc DHEA-SO4 Ura-Rib Ade LCN1 UDP-GalNAc DIGXSLC35D1 DECA LINA Ura-Rib uridine5'-monophosphateE1S Cyt Ura-Rib ligands of SLC28A2Cyt-Rib uridine5'-monophosphateSLC28A2ligands of SLC28A1SLC35A1uridine5'-monophosphateSLC29A1-likeproteinsCCA vitamins transportedby SMVTDA 141118424235


Description

This section groups the processes mediated by SLC transporters, by which vitamins and cofactors, as well as nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleobases, and related molecules cross lipid bilayer membranes (He et al. 2009).
The human SLC5A6 encodes the Na+-dependent multivitamin transporter SMVT (Prasad et al. 1999). SMVT co-transports biotin (vitamin B7), D-Pantothoate (vitamin B5) and lipoic acid into cells with Na+ ions electrogenically.
Four SLC gene families encode transporters that mediate the movement of nucleosides and free purine and pyrimidine bases across the plasma membrane. These transporters play key roles in nucleoside and nucleobase uptake for salvage pathways of nucleotide synthesis, and in the cellular uptake of nucleoside analogues used in the treatment of cancers and viral diseases (He et al. 2009).
The human gene SLC33A1 encodes acetyl-CoA transporter AT1 (Kanamori et al. 1997). Acetyl-CoA is transported to the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, where it serves as the substrate of acetyltransferases that O-acetylates sialyl residues of gangliosides and glycoproteins.
Nucleotide sugars are used as sugar donors by glycosyltransferases to create the sugar chains for glycoconjugates such as glycoproteins, polysaccharides and glycolipids. Glycosyltransferases reside mainly in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whereas nucleotide sugars are synthesized in the cytosol. The human solute carrier family SLC35 encode nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs), localised on Golgi and ER membranes, which can mediate the antiport of nucleotide sugars in exchange for the corresponding nucleoside monophosphates (eg. UMP for UDP-sugars) (Handford et al. 2006).
Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) can be used for energy sources and steroid hormone synthesis and regulate many cellular processes such as inflammation, blood pressure, the clotting process, blood lipid levels and the immune response. The SLC27A family encode fatty acid transporter proteins (FATPs) (Stahl 2004).
The SLC gene family members SLCO1 SLCO2 and SLCO3 encode organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). OATPs are membrane transport proteins that mediate the sodium-independent transport of a wide range of amphipathic organic compounds including bile salts, steroid conjugates, thyroid hormones, anionic oligopeptides and numerous drugs (Hagenbuch & Meier 2004). View original pathway at:Reactome.

Comments

Reactome-Converter 
Pathway is converted from Reactome ID: 425397
Reactome-version 
Reactome version: 66
Reactome Author 
Reactome Author: Jassal, Bijay

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Bibliography

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History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
101449view11:32, 1 November 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 66
100987view21:10, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 65
100523view19:44, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 64
100070view16:28, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 63
99621view15:00, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62 (2nd attempt)
99228view12:44, 31 October 2018ReactomeTeamreactome version 62
94041view13:53, 16 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
93665view11:30, 9 August 2017ReactomeTeamreactome version 61
86787view09:26, 11 July 2016ReactomeTeamreactome version 56
83207view10:22, 18 November 2015ReactomeTeamVersion54
81588view13:07, 21 August 2015ReactomeTeamVersion53
77048view08:34, 17 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
76753view12:11, 16 July 2014ReactomeTeamFixed remaining interactions
76078view10:14, 11 June 2014ReactomeTeamRe-fixing comment source
75788view11:31, 10 June 2014ReactomeTeamReactome 48 Update
75138view14:08, 8 May 2014AnweshaFixing comment source for displaying WikiPathways description
74785view08:52, 30 April 2014ReactomeTeamReactome46
45060view19:59, 6 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'transport pathway' added !
42152view22:00, 4 March 2011MaintBotAutomatic update
39963view05:58, 21 January 2011MaintBotNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
5HT MetaboliteCHEBI:28790 (ChEBI)
AA MetaboliteCHEBI:28822 (ChEBI)
ADR MetaboliteCHEBI:28918 (ChEBI)
ALB ProteinP02768 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
ALB:(GCCA, TCCA)ComplexR-HSA-194104 (Reactome)
ALBProteinP02768 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
APOD ProteinP05090 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
AVP(20-28) ProteinP01185 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Ac-CoAMetaboliteCHEBI:15351 (ChEBI)
Ade MetaboliteCHEBI:16708 (ChEBI)
Ade-Rib MetaboliteCHEBI:16335 (ChEBI)
BSP MetaboliteCHEBI:63836 (ChEBI)
Btn MetaboliteCHEBI:15956 (ChEBI)
CCA MetaboliteCHEBI:16359 (ChEBI)
CDCA MetaboliteCHEBI:16755 (ChEBI)
CMP-Neu5AcMetaboliteCHEBI:16556 (ChEBI)
CMPMetaboliteCHEBI:17361 (ChEBI)
Cyt MetaboliteCHEBI:16040 (ChEBI)
Cyt-Rib MetaboliteCHEBI:17562 (ChEBI)
DA MetaboliteCHEBI:18243 (ChEBI)
DDCX MetaboliteCHEBI:30805 (ChEBI)
DECA MetaboliteCHEBI:30813 (ChEBI)
DHEA-SO4 MetaboliteCHEBI:16814 (ChEBI)
DIGXMetaboliteCHEBI:4551 (ChEBI)
E1S MetaboliteCHEBI:17474 (ChEBI)
GCCA MetaboliteCHEBI:17687 (ChEBI)
GCCA, TCCAComplexR-ALL-194097 (Reactome)
GDP-FucMetaboliteCHEBI:17009 (ChEBI)
GDP-ManMetaboliteCHEBI:15820 (ChEBI)
Gua MetaboliteCHEBI:16235 (ChEBI)
Gua-Rib MetaboliteCHEBI:16750 (ChEBI)
Hyp MetaboliteCHEBI:17368 (ChEBI)
Ino MetaboliteCHEBI:17596 (ChEBI)
LCFAsComplexR-ALL-879544 (Reactome)
LCFAsComplexR-ALL-879559 (Reactome)
LCN1 ProteinP31025 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LCN12 ProteinQ6JVE5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LCN15 ProteinQ6UWW0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LCN9 ProteinQ8WX39 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LCNs:lipidsComplexR-HSA-5229291 (Reactome)
LCNsComplexR-HSA-5229240 (Reactome)
LGCA MetaboliteCHEBI:28866 (ChEBI)
LINA MetaboliteCHEBI:17351 (ChEBI)
LIPA MetaboliteCHEBI:16494 (ChEBI)
MYSA MetaboliteCHEBI:28875 (ChEBI)
NAd MetaboliteCHEBI:18357 (ChEBI)
Na+MetaboliteCHEBI:29101 (ChEBI)
OLEA MetaboliteCHEBI:16196 (ChEBI)
PALM MetaboliteCHEBI:15756 (ChEBI)
PAPSMetaboliteCHEBI:17980 (ChEBI)
PDZD11 ProteinQ5EBL8 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PGD2 MetaboliteCHEBI:15555 (ChEBI)
PGE1 MetaboliteCHEBI:15544 (ChEBI)
PGE2 MetaboliteCHEBI:15551 (ChEBI)
PGF2a MetaboliteCHEBI:15553 (ChEBI)
PGT substratesComplexR-ALL-879566 (Reactome)
PGT substratesComplexR-ALL-879614 (Reactome)
PanK MetaboliteCHEBI:7916 (ChEBI)
SLC16A2 ProteinP36021 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC27A1 ProteinQ6PCB7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC27A1,4,6ComplexR-HSA-879582 (Reactome)
SLC27A4 ProteinQ6P1M0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC27A6 ProteinQ9Y2P4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC28A1ProteinO00337 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC28A2ProteinO43868 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC28A3ProteinQ9HAS3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC29A1 ProteinQ99808 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC29A1-like proteinsComplexR-HSA-4127407 (Reactome) This CandidateSet contains sequences identified by William Pearson's analysis of Reactome catalyst entities. Catalyst entity sequences were used to identify analagous sequences that shared overall homology and active site homology. Sequences in this Candidate set were identified in an April 24, 2012 analysis.
SLC29A2 ProteinQ14542 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC29A2-like proteinsComplexR-HSA-3907272 (Reactome) This CandidateSet contains sequences identified by William Pearson's analysis of Reactome catalyst entities. Catalyst entity sequences were used to identify analagous sequences that shared overall homology and active site homology. Sequences in this Candidate set were identified in an April 24, 2012 analysis.
SLC29A3ProteinQ9BZD2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC29A4ProteinQ7RTT9 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC33A1ProteinO00400 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35A1ProteinP78382 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35A2ProteinP78381 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35A3ProteinQ9Y2D2 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35B2 ProteinQ8TB61 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35B2,3ComplexR-HSA-3465611 (Reactome)
SLC35B3 ProteinQ9H1N7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35B4ProteinQ969S0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35C1ProteinQ96A29 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35D1 ProteinQ9NTN3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC35D1 hexamerComplexR-HSA-174388 (Reactome)
SLC35D2ProteinQ76EJ3 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC5A6 ProteinQ9Y289 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLC5A6:PDZD11ComplexR-HSA-5359005 (Reactome)
SLCO1A2ProteinP46721 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO1B1 ProteinQ9Y6L6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO1B1ProteinQ9Y6L6 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO1B3ProteinQ9NPD5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO1C1 ProteinQ9NYB5 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO2A1ProteinQ92959 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO2B1 substratesComplexR-ALL-879553 (Reactome)
SLCO2B1 substratesComplexR-ALL-879654 (Reactome)
SLCO2B1ProteinO94956 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO3A1 substratesComplexR-HSA-879529 (Reactome)
SLCO3A1 substratesComplexR-HSA-879563 (Reactome)
SLCO3A1-1ProteinQ9UIG8-1 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO4A1 ProteinQ96BD0 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCO4C1ProteinQ6ZQN7 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
SLCOs, SLC16A2 dimerComplexR-HSA-879625 (Reactome)
STEA MetaboliteCHEBI:9254 (ChEBI)
T3 MetaboliteCHEBI:28774 (ChEBI)
T3,T4ComplexR-ALL-879603 (Reactome)
T3,T4ComplexR-ALL-879628 (Reactome)
T4 MetaboliteCHEBI:18332 (ChEBI)
TCCA MetaboliteCHEBI:28865 (ChEBI)
TCDCA MetaboliteCHEBI:16525 (ChEBI)
TCDCA MetaboliteCHEBI:9407 (ChEBI)
Thy MetaboliteCHEBI:17821 (ChEBI)
Thy-dRib MetaboliteCHEBI:17748 (ChEBI)
UDP-Gal MetaboliteCHEBI:18307 (ChEBI)
UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAcComplexR-ALL-735691 (Reactome)
UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAcComplexR-ALL-735692 (Reactome)
UDP-GalNAc MetaboliteCHEBI:16650 (ChEBI)
UDP-Glc MetaboliteCHEBI:18066 (ChEBI)
UDP-GlcAMetaboliteCHEBI:17200 (ChEBI)
UDP-GlcNAc MetaboliteCHEBI:16264 (ChEBI)
UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcComplexR-ALL-744229 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcComplexR-ALL-744234 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcNAcMetaboliteCHEBI:16264 (ChEBI)
UDP-XylMetaboliteCHEBI:16082 (ChEBI)
Ura MetaboliteCHEBI:17568 (ChEBI)
Ura-Rib MetaboliteCHEBI:16704 (ChEBI)
albumin:bile salt

and acid (OATP-A)

complex
ComplexR-HSA-194110 (Reactome)
bile salts and acids (OATP-A)ComplexR-ALL-194131 (Reactome)
cytidine 5'-monophosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:17361 (ChEBI)
dA MetaboliteCHEBI:17256 (ChEBI)
guanosine 5'-monophosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:17345 (ChEBI)
ligands of SLC28A1ComplexR-ALL-179738 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A1ComplexR-ALL-179739 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A2ComplexR-ALL-179740 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A2ComplexR-ALL-179741 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A3ComplexR-ALL-179737 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A3ComplexR-ALL-179743 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A1ComplexR-ALL-179745 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A1ComplexR-ALL-179746 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A2ComplexR-ALL-179742 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A2ComplexR-ALL-179747 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A4ComplexR-ALL-727737 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A4ComplexR-ALL-727774 (Reactome)
lipids MetaboliteCHEBI:18059 (ChEBI)
lipidsMetaboliteCHEBI:18059 (ChEBI)
nucleosidesComplexR-ALL-727746 (Reactome)
nucleosidesComplexR-ALL-727782 (Reactome)
uridine 5'-monophosphateMetaboliteCHEBI:16695 (ChEBI)
vitamins transported by SMVTComplexR-ALL-429605 (Reactome)
vitamins transported by SMVTComplexR-ALL-429627 (Reactome)

Annotated Interactions

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SourceTargetTypeDatabase referenceComment
ALB:(GCCA, TCCA)R-HSA-194079 (Reactome)
ALB:(GCCA, TCCA)R-HSA-194083 (Reactome)
ALBArrowR-HSA-194079 (Reactome)
ALBArrowR-HSA-194083 (Reactome)
ALBArrowR-HSA-194130 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAArrowR-HSA-727759 (Reactome)
Ac-CoAR-HSA-727759 (Reactome)
CMP-Neu5AcArrowR-HSA-727807 (Reactome)
CMP-Neu5AcR-HSA-727807 (Reactome)
CMPR-HSA-727807 (Reactome)
DIGXArrowR-HSA-879594 (Reactome)
DIGXR-HSA-879594 (Reactome)
GCCA, TCCAArrowR-HSA-194079 (Reactome)
GCCA, TCCAArrowR-HSA-194083 (Reactome)
GDP-FucArrowR-HSA-742345 (Reactome)
GDP-FucR-HSA-742345 (Reactome)
GDP-ManArrowR-HSA-744230 (Reactome)
GDP-ManR-HSA-744230 (Reactome)
LCFAsArrowR-HSA-879585 (Reactome)
LCFAsR-HSA-879585 (Reactome)
LCNs:lipidsArrowR-HSA-5229283 (Reactome)
LCNsR-HSA-5229283 (Reactome)
Na+ArrowR-HSA-109530 (Reactome)
Na+ArrowR-HSA-109538 (Reactome)
Na+ArrowR-HSA-109539 (Reactome)
Na+ArrowR-HSA-429581 (Reactome)
Na+R-HSA-109530 (Reactome)
Na+R-HSA-109538 (Reactome)
Na+R-HSA-109539 (Reactome)
Na+R-HSA-429581 (Reactome)
PAPSArrowR-HSA-741449 (Reactome)
PAPSR-HSA-741449 (Reactome)
PGT substratesArrowR-HSA-879528 (Reactome)
PGT substratesR-HSA-879528 (Reactome)
R-HSA-109527 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC29A2 mediates the reversible transport of one molecule of adenine, adenosine, cytidine, cytosine, guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, inosine, thymidine, thymine, uracil, or uridine from the extracellular space to the cytosol.
R-HSA-109529 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC29A2 mediates the reversible transport of one molecule of adenine, adenosine, cytidine, cytosine, guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, inosine, thymidine, thymine, uracil, or uridine from the cytosol to the extracellular space.
R-HSA-109530 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC28A1 mediates the transport of one molecule of 2'-deoxyadenosine, adenosine, cytidine, thymidine, or uridine, and one sodium ion, from the extracellular space to the cytosol.
R-HSA-109534 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC29A1 mediates the reversible transport of one molecule of adenosine, cytosine, guanosine, inosine, thymidine, or uridine from the extracellular space to the cytosol.
R-HSA-109536 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC29A1 mediates the reversible transport of one molecule of adenosine, guanosine, inosine, or uridine from the cytosol to the extracellular space.
R-HSA-109538 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC28A3 mediates the transport of one molecule of adenosine, cytidine, guanosine, inosine, thymidine, or uridine, and two sodium ions, from the extracellular space to the cytosol.
R-HSA-109539 (Reactome) The plasma membrane-associated protein SLC28A2 mediates the transport of one molecule of adenosine, guanosine, inosine, or uridine, and one sodium ion, from the extracellular space to the cytosol.
R-HSA-174368 (Reactome) The UDP-glucuronic acid/UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine transporter (SLC35D1) in hexameric form transports both UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) from the cytosol into the ER lumen across the ER membrane (Muraoka et al. 2001). These substrates participate in glucuronidation and/or chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis.
R-HSA-194079 (Reactome) A molecule of extracellular glycocholate or taurocholate is transported into the cytosol, mediated by OATP-8 (SLCO1B3) in the plasma membrane. Glycocholate and taurocholate exist in the blood as complexes with serum albumin, and their uptake by OATP-8 must involve disruption of these complexes, but the molecular mechanism coupling disruption and uptake is unknown. In the body, OATP-8 is expressed on the basolateral surfaces of hepatocytes and may play a role in the uptake of glycocholate and taurocholate by the liver under physiological conditions (Kullak-Ublick et al. 2004; Trauner and Boyer 2002).
R-HSA-194083 (Reactome) A molecule of extracellular glycocholate (GCCA) or taurocholate (TCCA) is transported into the cytosol, mediated by OATP-C (SLCO1B1) in the plasma membrane. GCCA and TCCA exist in the blood as complexes with serum albumin (ALB), and its uptake by OATP-C must involve disruption of this complex, but the molecular mechanism coupling disruption and uptake is unknown. In the body, OATP-C is expressed on the basolateral surfaces of hepatocytes and may play a role in the uptake of GCCA and TCCA by the liver under physiological conditions (Kullak-Ublick et al. 2004, Trauner & Boyer 2002).
R-HSA-194130 (Reactome) A molecule of extracellular bile salt (glyco- or taurocholate or taurochenodeoxycholate) or bile acid (cholate or chenodeoxycholate) is transported into the cytosol, mediated by OATP-A (SLCO1A2) in the plasma membrane. Bile salts and acids exist in the blood as complexes with serum albumin, and their uptake by OATP-A must involve disruption of this complex, but the molecular mechanism coupling release of a bile salt or acid from albumin to its uptake by OATP-A is unknown. In the body, OATP-A is expressed only at low levels on the basolateral surfaces of hepatocytes and may play only a minor role in the uptake of bile salts and acids by the liver (Kullak-Ublick et al. 2004; Trauner and Boyer 2002).
R-HSA-429581 (Reactome) Biotin (vitamin H or B7) is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. Biotin is a cofactor in the metabolism of fatty acids and leucine, and it plays a role in gluconeogenesis. D-Pantothoate (vitamin B5), is a water-soluble vitamin needed to form coenzyme-A (CoA), and is critical in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Lipoic acid is an organosulfur compound, the R-enantiomer of which is an essential cofactor for many enzyme complexes.

The human SLC5A6 encodes the Na+-dependent multivitamin transporter SMVT (Prasad PD et al, 1999; Wang H et al, 1999). SMVT co-transports these vitamins/cofactors into cells with Na+ ions electrogenically. PDZ domain-containing protein 11 (PDZD11 aka AIPP1) is a cytosolic protein with a single PDZ domain which can bind to the C-terminal class 1 PDZ binding motif of SMVT, resulting in a significant induction of vitamin uptake over that with SMVT alone (Nabokina et al. 2011).
R-HSA-5229283 (Reactome) Lipocalins (LCNs) are a family of extracellular proteins that are implicated in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules such as lipids, retinoids, steroids and bilins (Grzyb et al. 2006). The family members differ in amino acid sequence but they share a highly conserved beta-barrel structure comprised of an eight-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet. This structure forms a ligand-binding pocket that is responsible for binding and transporting lipids and other small hydrophobic molecules (Flower et al. 1993). LCNs have been associated with many biological processes such as immune response, prostaglandin synthesis, retinoid binding and cancer cell interactions. Lipocalins 1, 9, 12, and 15 (LCN1, 9, 12 and 15) are all able to transport different types of hydrophobic molecules.

Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a 29-kDa glycoprotein that is primarily associated with high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in human plasma (Drayna et al. 1986, Yang et al. 1994). It is an atypical apolipoprotein and, based on its primary structure, it is predicted to be a member of the lipocalin family. Lipocalins adopt a tertiary beta-barrel structure and transport small hydrophobic ligands. Although APOD can bind cholesterol, progesterone, pregnenolone, bilirubin and arachidonic acid, it is unclear if any, or all of these, represent its physiological ligands (Perdomo et al. 2010). APOD's role in lipid metabolism could have implication in atherosclerosis and ageing (Perdomo & Dong 2009).
R-HSA-727740 (Reactome) The human gene SLC29A4 encodes the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4 (ENT4). It is ubiquitously expressed and mediates the reversible transport of the nucleoside adenosine at acidic pH (this transport is absent at pH 7.4) (Barnes K et al, 2006). ENT4 has also been shown to mediate the transport of biogenic amines such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. For this reason, ENT4 is also known as the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) (Engel K et al, 2004).
R-HSA-727749 (Reactome) The human gene SLC29A3 encodes the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3). It is abundant in many tissues, especially the placenta and is localized intracellularly on the lysosomal membrane. SLC29A3 mediates the reversible transport of nucleosides and the nucleobase adenine (Baldwin et al. 2005). Defects in SLC29A3 can cause histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome (HLAS; MIM:602782), an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by combined features from 2 or more of four histiocytic disorders (Molho-Pessach et al. 2008).
R-HSA-727759 (Reactome) The human gene SLC33A1 encodes acetyl-CoA transporter AT1 (Kanamori et al. 1997). Acetyl-CoA is transported to the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, where it serves as the substrate of acetyltransferases that O-acetylates sialyl residues of gangliosides and glycoproteins. Defects in SLC33A1 are the cause of spastic paraplegia autosomal dominant type 42 (SPG42) which is a neurodegenerative disorder (Lin et al. 2008).
R-HSA-727767 (Reactome) The human gene SLC29A3 encodes the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3). It is abundant in many tissues, especially the placenta and is localized intracellularly on the lysosomal membrane. SLC29A3 mediates the reversible transport of nucleosides and the nucleobase adenine (Baldwin et al. 2005). Defects in SLC29A3 can cause histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome (HLAS; MIM:602782), an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by combined features from 2 or more of four histiocytic disorders (Molho-Pessach et al. 2008).
R-HSA-727768 (Reactome) The human gene SLC29A4 encodes the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4 (ENT4). It is ubiquitously expressed and mediates the reversible transport of the nucleoside adenosine at acidic pH (this transport is absent at pH 7.4) (Barnes K et al, 2006). ENT4 has also been shown to mediate the transport of biogenic amines such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. For this reason, ENT4 is also known as the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) (Engel K et al, 2004).
R-HSA-727807 (Reactome) The human gene SLC35A1 encodes the CMP-sialic acid transporter which mediates the antiport of CMP-sialic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac) into the Golgi lumen in exchange for CMP (Ishida et al. 1996). Defects in SLC35A1 are the cause of congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2F (CDG2F; MIM:603585). CDGs are a family of severe inherited diseases caused by a defect in protein N-glycosylation (Martinez-Duncker et al. 2005).
R-HSA-735702 (Reactome) The human gene SLC35A2 encodes the UDP-galactose transporter (Miura et al. 1996). It is located on the Golgi membrane and mediates the antiport of UDP-Gal into the Golgi lumen in exchange for UMP. This transporter is also known to transport UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) by the same antiport mechanism (Segawa et al. 2002).
R-HSA-741449 (Reactome) The human gene SLC35B2 encodes the adenosine 3'-phospho 5'-phosphosulfate transporter 1 (PAPST1) (Ozeran et al. 1996, Kamiyama et al. 2003). In human tissues, PAPST1 is highly expressed in the placenta and pancreas and present at lower levels in the colon and heart. The human gene SLC35B3 encodes a human PAPS transporter gene that is closely related to PAPST1. Called PAPST2, it is predominantly expressed in the colon (Kamiyama et al. 2006). Both proteins can transport PAPS from the cytosol to the Golgi lumen.
R-HSA-741450 (Reactome) The human gene SLC35A3 encodes a UDP-GlcNAc transporter (Ishida et al. 1999). It is ubiquitously expressed and resides on the Golgi membrane where it transports UDP- N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) into the Golgi lumen in exchange for UMP.
R-HSA-742345 (Reactome) The human gene SLC35C1 encodes the GDP-fucose transporter FUCT1. It resides on the Golgi membrane and mediates the transport of GDP-fucose (GDP-Fuc) formed from a de novo pathway and/or a salvage pathway into the Golgi lumen. Defects in SLC35C1 causes the congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2C, also known as leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II (LAD2) (Lubke et al. 2001).
R-HSA-742354 (Reactome) The human gene SLC35B4 encodes the bifunctional UDP-xylose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter YEA4. YEA4 resides on the Golgi membrane and mediates the influx of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into the lumen (Ashikov A et al, 2005).
R-HSA-742373 (Reactome) The human gene SLC35B4 encodes the bifunctional UDP-xylose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter YEA4. YEA4 resides on the Golgi membrane and mediates the influx of UDP-xylose into the lumen (Ashikov A et al, 2005).
R-HSA-744230 (Reactome) The human gene SLC35D2 encodes the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine/UDP-glucose/GDP-mannose transporter (UGTREL8; homolog of Fringe connection protein 1, HFRC1). It resides on the Golgi membrane where it mediates the antiport of GDP-mannose into the Golgi lumen in exchange for GMP (Suda T et al, 2004; Ishida N et al, 2005).
R-HSA-744231 (Reactome) The human gene SLC35D2 encodes the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine/UDP-glucose/GDP-mannose transporter (UGTREL8; homolog of Fringe connection protein 1, HFRC1). It resides on the Golgi membrane where it mediates the transport of nucleotide sugars such as UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-glucose into the Golgi lumen in exchange for UMP (Suda et al. 2004, Ishida et al. 2005).
R-HSA-879528 (Reactome) The human gene SLCO2A1 encodes prostaglandin transporter PGT. It is ubiquitously expressed and can transport the protaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2 and PGF2A (Lu et al. 1996).
R-HSA-879562 (Reactome) SLCO2B1 (formerly OATP-B) is abundantly expressed in human liver, where it is localized at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. It has a narrow substrate range, able to transport bromosulphophthalein (BSP), estrone-3-sulphate and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) (Kullak-Ublick GA et al, 2001).
R-HSA-879575 (Reactome) Three organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs; now called solute carrier organic anion transporters, SLCOs) are able to mediate the transport of thyroid hormones, predominantly thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) (Fujiwara et al. 2001). SLCO1B1 (formerly OATP-C), which can also transport bile salts, is mainly expressed in the liver (Abe et al. 1999; Hsiang et al. 1999). SLCO4A1 (formerly OATP-E) is mainly expressed in peripheral tissue and has a broad substrate specificty (Tamai et al. 2000). SLCO1C1 (formerly OATP-F) is highly expressed in brain and is also a high affinity thyroid hormone transporter (Pizzagalli et al. 2002).

The monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8, SLC16A2 is also a very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter in its dimeric form (Visser et al. 2009). Defects in SLC16A2 can cause severe X-linked psychomotor retardation. SLC16A2 mutations that inhibited SLC16A2 dimerisation resulted in defective transport function of SLC16A2 (Fischer et al. 2015).
R-HSA-879584 (Reactome) The human gene SLCO3A1 encodes the organic anion transporting polypeptide D. Several variants are expressed but isoform 1 is ubiquitous and can transport a range of substrates including the prostaglandins E1 and E2, thyroxine and vasopressin (AVP) (Huber RD et al, 2007).
R-HSA-879585 (Reactome) The SLC27 gene family code for fatty acid transporter proteins (FATPs). Of the six FATPs characterized, only three have been shown to mediate the influx of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) into cells; FATP1, 4 and 6. They have been shown to transport the prototypical LCFA oleic acid (OLEA) but are believed to be able to transport LCFAs with chain lengths longer than 10 carbons. FATP1 is highly expressed in adipose tissue and muscle (Hatch GM et al, 2002). FATP4 is the major intestinal LCFA transporter (Fitscher BA et al, 1998; Stahl A et al, 1999). FATP6 is localized to cardiac myocytes (Gimeno RE et al, 2003).
R-HSA-879594 (Reactome) Digoxin is a commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of heart failure. It is mainly eliminated from the body by the kidneys. Human SLCO4C1 (formerly OATP-H) is the first member of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family expressed in human kidney. It is found on the baolateral membrane of the nephron and is thought to be the first step of the transport of digoxin into urine (Mikkaichi T et al, 2004).
SLC27A1,4,6mim-catalysisR-HSA-879585 (Reactome)
SLC28A1mim-catalysisR-HSA-109530 (Reactome)
SLC28A2mim-catalysisR-HSA-109539 (Reactome)
SLC28A3mim-catalysisR-HSA-109538 (Reactome)
SLC29A1-like proteinsmim-catalysisR-HSA-109534 (Reactome)
SLC29A1-like proteinsmim-catalysisR-HSA-109536 (Reactome)
SLC29A2-like proteinsmim-catalysisR-HSA-109527 (Reactome)
SLC29A2-like proteinsmim-catalysisR-HSA-109529 (Reactome)
SLC29A3mim-catalysisR-HSA-727749 (Reactome)
SLC29A3mim-catalysisR-HSA-727767 (Reactome)
SLC29A4mim-catalysisR-HSA-727740 (Reactome)
SLC29A4mim-catalysisR-HSA-727768 (Reactome)
SLC33A1mim-catalysisR-HSA-727759 (Reactome)
SLC35A1mim-catalysisR-HSA-727807 (Reactome)
SLC35A2mim-catalysisR-HSA-735702 (Reactome)
SLC35A3mim-catalysisR-HSA-741450 (Reactome)
SLC35B2,3mim-catalysisR-HSA-741449 (Reactome)
SLC35B4mim-catalysisR-HSA-742354 (Reactome)
SLC35B4mim-catalysisR-HSA-742373 (Reactome)
SLC35C1mim-catalysisR-HSA-742345 (Reactome)
SLC35D1 hexamermim-catalysisR-HSA-174368 (Reactome)
SLC35D2mim-catalysisR-HSA-744230 (Reactome)
SLC35D2mim-catalysisR-HSA-744231 (Reactome)
SLC5A6:PDZD11mim-catalysisR-HSA-429581 (Reactome)
SLCO1A2mim-catalysisR-HSA-194130 (Reactome)
SLCO1B1mim-catalysisR-HSA-194083 (Reactome)
SLCO1B3mim-catalysisR-HSA-194079 (Reactome)
SLCO2A1mim-catalysisR-HSA-879528 (Reactome)
SLCO2B1 substratesArrowR-HSA-879562 (Reactome)
SLCO2B1 substratesR-HSA-879562 (Reactome)
SLCO2B1mim-catalysisR-HSA-879562 (Reactome)
SLCO3A1 substratesArrowR-HSA-879584 (Reactome)
SLCO3A1 substratesR-HSA-879584 (Reactome)
SLCO3A1-1mim-catalysisR-HSA-879584 (Reactome)
SLCO4C1mim-catalysisR-HSA-879594 (Reactome)
SLCOs, SLC16A2 dimermim-catalysisR-HSA-879575 (Reactome)
T3,T4ArrowR-HSA-879575 (Reactome)
T3,T4R-HSA-879575 (Reactome)
UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAcArrowR-HSA-735702 (Reactome)
UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAcR-HSA-735702 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcAArrowR-HSA-174368 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcAR-HSA-174368 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcArrowR-HSA-744231 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcR-HSA-744231 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcNAcArrowR-HSA-174368 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcNAcArrowR-HSA-741450 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcNAcArrowR-HSA-742354 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcNAcR-HSA-174368 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcNAcR-HSA-741450 (Reactome)
UDP-GlcNAcR-HSA-742354 (Reactome)
UDP-XylArrowR-HSA-742373 (Reactome)
UDP-XylR-HSA-742373 (Reactome)
albumin:bile salt

and acid (OATP-A)

complex
R-HSA-194130 (Reactome)
bile salts and acids (OATP-A)ArrowR-HSA-194130 (Reactome)
cytidine 5'-monophosphateArrowR-HSA-727807 (Reactome)
guanosine 5'-monophosphateArrowR-HSA-744230 (Reactome)
guanosine 5'-monophosphateR-HSA-744230 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A1ArrowR-HSA-109530 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A1R-HSA-109530 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A2ArrowR-HSA-109539 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A2R-HSA-109539 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A3ArrowR-HSA-109538 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC28A3R-HSA-109538 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A1ArrowR-HSA-109534 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A1ArrowR-HSA-109536 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A1R-HSA-109534 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A1R-HSA-109536 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A2ArrowR-HSA-109527 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A2ArrowR-HSA-109529 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A2R-HSA-109527 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A2R-HSA-109529 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A4ArrowR-HSA-727740 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A4ArrowR-HSA-727768 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A4R-HSA-727740 (Reactome)
ligands of SLC29A4R-HSA-727768 (Reactome)
lipidsR-HSA-5229283 (Reactome)
nucleosidesArrowR-HSA-727749 (Reactome)
nucleosidesArrowR-HSA-727767 (Reactome)
nucleosidesR-HSA-727749 (Reactome)
nucleosidesR-HSA-727767 (Reactome)
uridine 5'-monophosphateArrowR-HSA-735702 (Reactome)
uridine 5'-monophosphateArrowR-HSA-741450 (Reactome)
uridine 5'-monophosphateArrowR-HSA-744231 (Reactome)
uridine 5'-monophosphateR-HSA-735702 (Reactome)
uridine 5'-monophosphateR-HSA-741450 (Reactome)
uridine 5'-monophosphateR-HSA-744231 (Reactome)
vitamins transported by SMVTArrowR-HSA-429581 (Reactome)
vitamins transported by SMVTR-HSA-429581 (Reactome)
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