Superpathway of Glutamate Biosynthesis (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

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1NADP2-oxoglutarateisocitrateCO2H2OH+NADNADPH+NH32-oxoglutarateNH3GLN12 L-glutamateL-glutamineIDP2GLT1IDP3NADPHATPNADPHGDH3L-glutamateIDP1NADHphosphateGDH1ADP


Yeast cells contain 3 pathways for the synthesis of glutamate. Two pathways are mediated by two isoforms of glutamate dehydrogenase, encoded by GDH1 and GDH3 (CITS: [2989290])(CITS: [9287019]). The third pathway is driven by the combined activities of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase, encoded by GLN1 and GLT1, respectively (CITS: [2570348])(CITS: [8923741]). Studies of GDH1 and GDH3 regulation indicate that the cell uses these isoforms under different growth conditions (CITS: [11562373]). Expression of GDH3 is induced by ethanol and repressed by glucose, whereas GDH1 expression is high in either carbon source. Gdh1p uses alpha-ketoglutarate at a higher rate than Gdh3p. Thus, under fermentative growth conditions, Gdh1p drives glutamate biosynthesis, whereas in nonfermentable or limiting carbon sources, Gdh3p is the key isoform involved in balancing distribution of alpha-ketoglutarate to glutamate biosynthesis and energy metabolism. SOURCE: SGD pathways,


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  1. Zhao WN, McAlister-Henn L; ''Expression and gene disruption analysis of the isocitrate dehydrogenase family in yeast.''; Biochemistry, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC


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89685view07:16, 25 September 2016EgonwReplace the CAS number of the salt with that of just the metabolite.
89519view11:01, 16 September 2016Mkutmonontology tag fix
89485view13:39, 15 September 2016Mkutmonremove space from ontology term id
69812view14:32, 11 July 2013EgonwMarked a few DataNodes with CAS registry numbers as metabolites.
69632view20:36, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
67669view11:47, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'glutamic acid/glutamate biosynthetic pathway' added !
41868view04:52, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
36632view22:35, 9 April 2010MaintBotDescription and bibliography added from SGD
21081view11:30, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Saccharomyces cerevisiae:Superpathway of Glutamate Biosynthesis]] moved to [[Pathway:WP191]]: Moved to stable identifier
12859view08:05, 17 May 2008MaintBotautomated metabolite conversion
8945view14:13, 7 January 2008MaintBotAdded to category $category
8943view14:12, 7 January 2008M.BraymerUploaded new pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
2 L-glutamateMetabolite56-86-0 (CAS)
ADPMetabolite58-64-0 (CAS)
ATPMetabolite1927-31-7 (CAS)
GDH1GeneProductS000005902 (SGD)
GDH3GeneProductS000000058 (SGD)
GLN1GeneProductS000006239 (SGD)
GLT1GeneProductS000002330 (SGD)
IDP1GeneProductS000002224 (SGD)
IDP2GeneProductS000004164 (SGD)
IDP3GeneProductS000004954 (SGD)
L-glutamateMetabolite56-86-0 (CAS)
L-glutamineMetabolite56-85-9 (CAS)
NADHMetabolite53-84-9 (CAS)
NADPHMetabolite53-57-6 (CAS)
phosphateMetabolite14265-44-2 (CAS)

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